Skip to main content
Consensus Study Report


Many people believe that environmental regulation has passed a point of diminishing returns: the quick fixes have been achieved and the main sources of pollution are shifting from large "point sources" to more diffuse sources that are more difficult and expensive to regulate. The political climate has also changed in the United States since the 1970s in ways that provide impetus to seek alternatives to regulation.

This book examines the potential of some of these "new tools" that emphasize education, information, and voluntary measures. Contributors summarize what we know about the effectiveness of these tools, both individually and in combination with regulatory and economic policy instruments. They also extract practical lessons from this knowledge and consider what is needed to make these tools more effective.

The book will be of interest to environmental policy practitioners and to researchers and students concerned with applying social and behavioral sciences knowledge to improve environmental quality.


Suggested Citation

National Research Council. 2002. New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Import this citation to:

Publication Info

368 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Paperback:  978-0-309-08422-2
  • Ebook:  978-0-309-16942-4
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xii
1 Exploring New Tools for Environmental Protection 3-16
2 Changes in Pollution and the Implications for Policy 17-48
3 Marketing Household Energy Conservation: The Message and the Reality 49-66
4 Knowledge, Information, and Household Recycling: Examining the Knowledge-Deficit Model of Behavior Change 67-82
5 Promoting "Green" Consumer Behavior with Eco-Labels 83-104
6 The Public Health Perspective for Communicating Environmental Issues 105-124
7 Understanding Individual and Social Characteristics in the Promotion of Household Disaster Preparedness 125-140
8 Lessons from Analogous Public Education Campaigns 141-146
9 Perspectives on Environmental Education in the United States 147-160
10 A Model of Community-Based Environmental Education 161-182
11 Community Environmental Policy Capacity and Effective Environmental Protection 183-200
12 Changing Behavior in Households and Communities: What Have We Learned? 201-218
13 Government-Sponsored Voluntary Programs for Firms: An Initial Survey 219-234
14 Industry Codes of Practice: Emergence and Evolution 235-252
15 Harnessing the "Power of Information": Environmental Right to Know as a Driver of Sound Environmental Policy 253-262
16 Challenges in Evaluating Voluntary Environmental Programs 263-282
17 Assessing the Credibility of Voluntary Codes: A Theoretical Framework 283-302
18 Factors in Firms and Industries Affecting the Outcomes of Voluntary Measures 303-310
19 The Policy Context for Flexible, Negotiated, and Voluntary Measures 311-318
20 Understanding Voluntary Measures 319-336
21 New Tools for Environmental Protection: What We Know and Need to Know 337-348

What is skim?

The Chapter Skim search tool presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter. You may select key terms to highlight them within pages of each chapter.

Copyright Information

The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Marketplace service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Marketplace, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Marketplace allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Marketplace you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the NAP through Marketplace:

  • Republish text, tables, figures, or images in print
  • Post on a secure Intranet/Extranet website
  • Use in a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Distribute via CD-ROM
  • Photocopy

Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Marketplace service, please contact:

Marketplace Support
International +1.978.646.2600
US Toll Free +1.855.239.3415

To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at

loading iconLoading stats for New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures...