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Consensus Study Report


Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and other nutrient reference values. The new title for these values Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), is the inclusive name being given to this new approach. These are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. This new book is part of a series of books presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients. It establishes recommendations for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. This book presents new approaches and findings which include the following:

  • The establishment of Estimated Energy Requirements at four levels of energy expenditure
  • Recommendations for levels of physical activity to decrease risk of chronic disease
  • The establishment of RDAs for dietary carbohydrate and protein
  • The development of the definitions of Dietary Fiber, Functional Fiber, and Total Fiber
  • The establishment of Adequate Intakes (AI) for Total Fiber
  • The establishment of AIs for linolenic and a-linolenic acids
  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges as a percent of energy intake for fat, carbohydrate, linolenic and a-linolenic acids, and protein
  • Research recommendations for information needed to advance understanding of macronutrient requirements and the adverse effects associated with intake of higher amounts

Also detailed are recommendations for both physical activity and energy expenditure to maintain health and decrease the risk of disease.


Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

1358 pages |  6 x 9 |  Paperback
ISBN: 978-0-309-08525-0
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xxvi
Summary 1-20
1 Introduction to Dietary Reference Intakes 21-37
2 Methods and Approaches Used 38-52
3 Relationship of Macronutrients and Physical Activity to Chronic Disease 53-83
4 A Model for the Development of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 84-106
5 Energy 107-264
6 Dietary Carbohydrates: Sugars and Starches 265-338
7 Dietary, Functional, and Total Fiber 339-421
8 Dietary Fats: Total Fat and Fatty Acids 422-541
9 Cholesterol 542-588
10 Protein and Amino Acids 589-768
11 Macronutrients and Healthful Diets 769-879
12 Physical Activity 880-935
13 Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes for Macronutrients 936-967
14 A Research Agenda 968-972
A Glossary and Acronyms 973-977
B Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes 978-984
C Acknowledgments 985-987
D Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994 988-1027
E Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, 1998 1028-1065
F Canadian Dietary Intake Data, 1990–1997 1066-1075
G Special Analyses for Dietary Fats 1076-1077
H Body Composition Data Based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994 1078-1103
I Doubly Labeled Water Data Used to Predict Energy Expenditure 1104-1202
J Association of Added Sugars Intake and Intake of Other Nutrients 1203-1225
K Data Comparing Carbohydrate Intake to Intake of Other Nutrients from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, 1998 1226-1243
L Options for Dealing with Uncertainties 1244-1249
M Nitrogen Balance Studies Used to Estimate the Protein Requirements in Adults 1250-1258
Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members 1259-1274
Index 1275-1318
Summary Tables, Dietary Reference Intakes 1319-1332

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