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"I find the idea quite intolerable that an electron exposed to radiation should choose of its own free will, not only its moment to jump off, but also its direction. In that case, I would rather be a cobbler, or even an employee in a gaming house, than a physicist." -Albert Einstein
A scandal hovers over the history of 20th century physics. Albert Einstein -- the century's greatest physicist -- was never able to come to terms with quantum mechanics, the century's greatest theoretical achievement. For physicists who routinely use both quantum laws and Einstein's ideas, this contradiction can be almost too embarrassing to dwell on. Yet Einstein was one of the founders of quantum physics and he spent many years preaching the quantum's importance and its revolutionary nature.
The Danish genius Neils Bohr was another founder of quantum physics. He had managed to solve one of the few physics problems that Einstein ever shied away from, linking quantum mathematics with a new model of the atom. This leap immediately yielded results that explained electron behavior and the periodic table of the elements.
Despite their mutual appreciation of the quantum's importance, these two giants of modern physics never agreed on the fundamentals of their work. In fact, they clashed repeatedly throughout the 1920s, arguing first over Einstein's theory of "light quanta"(photons), then over Niels Bohr's short-lived theory that denied the conservation of energy at the quantum level, and climactically over the new quantum mechanics that Bohr enthusiastically embraced and Einstein stubbornly defied.
This contest of visions stripped the scientific imagination naked. Einstein was a staunch realist, demanding to know the physical reasons behind physical events. At odds with this approach was Bohr's more pragmatic perspective that favored theories that worked, even if he might not have a corresponding explanation of the underlying reality. Powerful and illuminating, Einstein Defiant is the first book to capture the soul and the science that inspired this dramatic duel, revealing the personalities and the passions -- and, in the end, what was at stake for the world.
Edmund Blair Bolles has been hailed as "startlingly eloquent" (The Atlantic Monthly) with "a genius for explanation" (The Spectator), which explains why he has survived for over thirty years as a freelance writer with a special interest in the meeting point between science and human imagination. Bolles grew up in Washington, D.C. and Toledo, Ohio with a three-year detour in Paris, France. He was educated in St. Louis and Philadelphia, and spent two years in Tanzania, East Africa, as a Peace Corps volunteer teaching science, math, and agriculture. Since then he has lived in Washington State, Los Angeles, and New York. His 15 books include Galileo's Commandment: An Anthology of Great Science Writing (editor) and The Ice Finders: How a Poet, a Professor, and a Politician Discovered the Ice Age.
Edmund Blair Bolles. 2004. Einstein Defiant: Genius Versus Genius in the Quantum Revolution. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10737.
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