This report is intended to provide a brief historical perspective of the evolution of the interacademy program during the past half-century, recognizing that many legacies of the Soviet era continue to influence government approaches in Moscow and Washington and to shape the attitudes of researchers toward bilateral cooperation in both countries (of special interest is the changing character of the program during the age of perestroika (restructuring) in the late 1980s in the Soviet Union); to describe in some detail the significant interacademy activities from late 1991, when the Soviet Union fragmented, to mid-2003; and to set forth lessons learned about the benefits and limitations of interacademy cooperation and to highlight approaches that have been successful in overcoming difficulties of implementation.
National Research Council. 2004. Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10888.
|1 U.S.Soviet Scientific Cooperation in the Age of Confrontation||1-14|
|2 Perestroika and Expansion of Scientific Cooperation||15-29|
|3 Emergence of the New Russia: High Expectations, Harsh Realities, and the Path Ahead||30-40|
|4 National Security Issues and a Wider Agenda for Cooperation||41-62|
|5 Supporting Innovation: From Basic Research to Payment for Sales||63-80|
|6 Lessons Learned and the Future of the Interacademy Program||81-95|
|Appendix A Highlights of Early U.S.-Soviet Scientific Relations (17251957)||101-103|
|Appendix B Agreement on the Exchange of Scientists between the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1959)||104-113|
|Appendix C Agreement on Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Health between the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences (2002)||114-116|
|Appendix D Agreement for Scientific Cooperation between the Institute of Medicine of the USA and the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (1988)||117-121|
|Appendix E Joint Statement by the Presidents of the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences, February 2, 2002||122-124|
|Appendix F Annex 2 to the Agreement on Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Medicine between the Russian Academy of Sciences and the U.S. National Academies (2002)||125-126|
|Appendix G Joint Statement by the Presidents of the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences, February 2, 2002||127-128|
|Appendix H Press Release of the National Academies Dec. 17, 2003 Cooperation Between U.S. and Russian Science Academies Encourages Russian Investments in Innovative Research||129-130|
|Appendix I Innovation in the Russian Federation (2001)||131-132|
|Appendix J Personnel Trends in the Russian Academy of Sciences||133-134|
|Appendix K Innovation Projects of National Significance to Be Financed by the Russian Ministry of Industry, Science, and Technology During 2003-2006 (title, performing organization, location, award for total period)||135-136|
|Appendix L The Threats to Russia (View of the Ministry for Emergency Situations)||137-138|
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