Learning to Think Spatially examines how spatial thinking might be incorporated into existing standards-based instruction across the school curriculum. Spatial thinking must be recognized as a fundamental part of K–12 education and as an integrator and a facilitator for problem solving across the curriculum. With advances in computing technologies and the increasing availability of geospatial data, spatial thinking will play a significant role in the information-based economy of the twenty-first century. Using appropriately designed support systems tailored to the K–12 context, spatial thinking can be taught formally to all students. A geographic information system (GIS) offers one example of a high-technology support system that can enable students and teachers to practice and apply spatial thinking in many areas of the curriculum.
National Research Council. 2006. Learning to Think Spatially. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11019.
|PART I: THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF SPATIAL THINKING --2 The Nature of Spatial Thinking||23-48|
|3 Spatial Thinking in Everyday Life, at Work, and in Science||49-93|
|4 Teaching and Learning About Spatial Thinking||94-109|
|5 Responding to the Need for Spatial Thinking||110-134|
|6 Tools for Thought: The Concept of a Support System||135-152|
|PART II: SUPPORT FOR SPATIAL THINKING--7 High-Tech Support Systems for Spatial Thinking||153-165|
|8 An Assessment of GIS as a System for Supporting Spatial Thinking in the K-12 Context||166-216|
|9 GIS as a Support System for Spatial Thinking||217-226|
|PART III: SUPPORTING SPATIAL THINKING IN THE FUTURE--10 Conclusions and Recommendations||227-236|
|11 The Spatial Thinker||237-242|
|Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff||257-263|
|Appendix B Oral Presentations and Written Statements||264-265|
|Appendix C Individual Differences in Spatial Thinking: The Effects of Age, Development, and Sex||266-280|
|Appendix D The Role of Spatial Representations in Learning, Problem Solving, and Transfer||281-284|
|Appendix E Software Descriptions and Resources||285-286|
|Appendix F What Is GIScience?||287-288|
|Appendix G The Introduction of GIS into K–12 Education||289-292|
|Appendix H Seasonal Differences: A Customized Eighth-Grade GIS Module||293-297|
|Appendix I List of Acronyms||298-300|
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