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On January 8 and 9, 2009, the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council, in response to a request from the Office of Naval Research, hosted the "Oceanography in 2025" workshop. The goal of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, and technologists to explore future directions in oceanography, with an emphasis on physical processes. The focus centered on research and technology needs, trends, and barriers that may impact the field of oceanography over the next 16 years, and highlighted specific areas of interest: submesoscale processes, air-sea interactions, basic and applied research, instrumentation and vehicles, ocean infrastructure, and education.

To guide the white papers and drive discussions, four questions were posed to participants:

What research questions could be answered?

What will remain unanswered?

What new technologies could be developed?

How will research be conducted?

Suggested Citation

National Research Council. 2009. Oceanography in 2025: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

198 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Paperback:  978-0-309-13745-4
  • Ebook:  978-0-309-17739-9
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xii
Introduction and Goals--Linwood Vincent 1-2
Integrated Oceanography in 2025--John J. Cullen 3-5
Oceanography in 2028--Mark Abbott 6-10
The Changing Relationship Between Humans and the Ocean--J. G. Bellingham 11-13
Societal Implications for Ocean Research in 2025--Matthew Alford 14-16
Oceanography in 2025: Responding to Growing Populations on a Rapidly Changing Planet--Scott Glenn 17-21
Some Thoughts on Physical Oceanography in 2025--Ken Melville 22-25
The Next-Generation Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean-Ice-Land Models for Ocean Research and Prediction--Shuyi S. Chen 26-27
Science in Action, Episode 1: Exploring Boundaries--Meghan F. Cronin 28-30
Real Time Decision Support Everywhere--Nathaniel G. Plant 31-35
Trends in Oceanography: More Data, More People, More Relevance--J. Thomson 36-38
Future Developments to Observational Physical Oceanography--Tom Sanford 39-42
Prospects for Oceanography in 2025--Michael Gregg 43-45
Oceanography in 2025--John Orcutt 46-48
Thoughts on Oceanography in 2025--Daniel Rudnick 49-51
The Role of Observations in the Future of Oceanography--Raffaele Ferrari 52-54
The Future . . . One More Time--Rob Pinkel 55-57
The Role of Acoustics in Ocean Observing Systems--Peter Worcester and Walter Munk 58-62
Oceanography in 2025--Walter Munk 63-64
Physical Oceanography in 2025--Chris Garrett 65-67
A Vision of Future Physical Oceanography Research--James J. O'Brien 68-69
Some Thoughts on Logistics, Mixing, and Power--J. N. Moum 70-72
Ageostrophic Circulation in the Ocean--Peter Niiler 73-76
The Future of Ocean Modeling--Sonya Legg, Alistair Adcroft, Whit Anderson, V. Balaji, John Dunne, Stephen Griffies, Robert Hallberg, Matthew Harrison, Isaac Held, Tony Rosati, Robbie Toggweiler, Geoff Vallis, and Laurent White 77-80
Towards Nonhydrostatic Ocean Modeling with Large-eddy Simulation--Oliver B. Fringer 81-83
Simulations of Marine Turbulence and Surface Waves: Potential Impacts of Petascale Technology--Peter P. Sullivan 84-88
Computational Simulation and Submesoscale Variability--James C. McWilliams 89-91
Ocean Measurements from Space in 2025--A. Freeman 92-97
Future of Nearshore Processes Research--Rob Holman 98-100
Future Directions in Nearshore Oceanography--H. Tuba Özkan-Haller 101-103
Science Strategies for the Arctic Ocean--Mary-Louise Timmermans 104-106
Submesoscale Variability of the Upper Ocean: Patchy and Episodic Fluxes Into and Through Biologically Active Layers--Daniel Rudnick, Mary Jane Perry, John J. Cullen, Bess Ward, and Kenneth S. Johnson 107-110
Who's Blooming? Toward an Understanding of Why Certain Species Dominate Phytoplankton Blooms--Mary Jane Perry, Michael Sieracki, Bess Ward, and Alan Weidemann 111-114
Understanding Phytoplankton Bloom Development--Bess Ward and Mary Jane Perry 115-117
From Short Food Chains to Complex Interaction Webs: Biological Oceanography in 2025--Kelly J. Benoit-Bird 118-120
The Interface Between Biological and Physical Processes--Mark Abbott 121-123
Research on Higher Trophic Levels--Daniel P. Costa, Yann Tremblay, and Sean Hayes 124-129
Marine Biogeochemistry in 2025--Kenneth S. Johnson 130-134
Next-Generation Oceanographic Sensors for Short-Term Prediction/Verification of In-water Optical Conditions--Mark L. Wells 135-137
Evolution of Autonomous Platform for Sustained Ocean Observations--Russ E. Davis 138-140
Toward an Interdisciplinary Ocean Observing System in 2025--Eric D'Asaro 141-143
Small Scale Ocean Dynamics in 2025--Jonathan Nash 144-145
Oceanography in 2025--Dana R. Yoerger 146-149
The Research Vessel Problem--J. N. Moum, Eric D'Asaro, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Peter Niiler 150-152
"Ocean Mapping" in 2025--Larry Mayer 153-156
Seismic Oceanography: Imaging Oceanic Finestructure with Reflection Seismology--W. Steven Holbrook 157-162
The Ocean Planet 2.0: A Vision for 2025--Justin Manley 163-165
Force Projection Through the Littoral Zone: Optical Considerations--Kendall Carder 166-170
Large Scale Phase-resolved Simulations of Ocean Surface Waves--Yuming Liu and Dick K.P. Yue 171-176
Appendixes 177-178
Appendix A: Workshop Agenda 179-180
Appendix B: Workshop Participants 181-186

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