On January 8 and 9, 2009, the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council, in response to a request from the Office of Naval Research, hosted the "Oceanography in 2025" workshop. The goal of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, and technologists to explore future directions in oceanography, with an emphasis on physical processes. The focus centered on research and technology needs, trends, and barriers that may impact the field of oceanography over the next 16 years, and highlighted specific areas of interest: submesoscale processes, air-sea interactions, basic and applied research, instrumentation and vehicles, ocean infrastructure, and education.
To guide the white papers and drive discussions, four questions were posed to participants:
What research questions could be answered?
What will remain unanswered?
What new technologies could be developed?
How will research be conducted?
National Research Council. 2009. Oceanography in 2025: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/12627.
|Introduction and Goals--Linwood Vincent||1-2|
|Integrated Oceanography in 2025--John J. Cullen||3-5|
|Oceanography in 2028--Mark Abbott||6-10|
|The Changing Relationship Between Humans and the Ocean--J. G. Bellingham||11-13|
|Societal Implications for Ocean Research in 2025--Matthew Alford||14-16|
|Oceanography in 2025: Responding to Growing Populations on a Rapidly Changing Planet--Scott Glenn||17-21|
|Some Thoughts on Physical Oceanography in 2025--Ken Melville||22-25|
|The Next-Generation Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean-Ice-Land Models for Ocean Research and Prediction--Shuyi S. Chen||26-27|
|Science in Action, Episode 1: Exploring Boundaries--Meghan F. Cronin||28-30|
|Real Time Decision Support Everywhere--Nathaniel G. Plant||31-35|
|Trends in Oceanography: More Data, More People, More Relevance--J. Thomson||36-38|
|Future Developments to Observational Physical Oceanography--Tom Sanford||39-42|
|Prospects for Oceanography in 2025--Michael Gregg||43-45|
|Oceanography in 2025--John Orcutt||46-48|
|Thoughts on Oceanography in 2025--Daniel Rudnick||49-51|
|The Role of Observations in the Future of Oceanography--Raffaele Ferrari||52-54|
|The Future . . . One More Time--Rob Pinkel||55-57|
|The Role of Acoustics in Ocean Observing Systems--Peter Worcester and Walter Munk||58-62|
|Oceanography in 2025--Walter Munk||63-64|
|Physical Oceanography in 2025--Chris Garrett||65-67|
|A Vision of Future Physical Oceanography Research--James J. O'Brien||68-69|
|Some Thoughts on Logistics, Mixing, and Power--J. N. Moum||70-72|
|Ageostrophic Circulation in the Ocean--Peter Niiler||73-76|
|The Future of Ocean Modeling--Sonya Legg, Alistair Adcroft, Whit Anderson, V. Balaji, John Dunne, Stephen Griffies, Robert Hallberg, Matthew Harrison, Isaac Held, Tony Rosati, Robbie Toggweiler, Geoff Vallis, and Laurent White||77-80|
|Towards Nonhydrostatic Ocean Modeling with Large-eddy Simulation--Oliver B. Fringer||81-83|
|Simulations of Marine Turbulence and Surface Waves: Potential Impacts of Petascale Technology--Peter P. Sullivan||84-88|
|Computational Simulation and Submesoscale Variability--James C. McWilliams||89-91|
|Ocean Measurements from Space in 2025--A. Freeman||92-97|
|Future of Nearshore Processes Research--Rob Holman||98-100|
|Future Directions in Nearshore Oceanography--H. Tuba Özkan-Haller||101-103|
|Science Strategies for the Arctic Ocean--Mary-Louise Timmermans||104-106|
|Submesoscale Variability of the Upper Ocean: Patchy and Episodic Fluxes Into and Through Biologically Active Layers--Daniel Rudnick, Mary Jane Perry, John J. Cullen, Bess Ward, and Kenneth S. Johnson||107-110|
|Who's Blooming? Toward an Understanding of Why Certain Species Dominate Phytoplankton Blooms--Mary Jane Perry, Michael Sieracki, Bess Ward, and Alan Weidemann||111-114|
|Understanding Phytoplankton Bloom Development--Bess Ward and Mary Jane Perry||115-117|
|From Short Food Chains to Complex Interaction Webs: Biological Oceanography in 2025--Kelly J. Benoit-Bird||118-120|
|The Interface Between Biological and Physical Processes--Mark Abbott||121-123|
|Research on Higher Trophic Levels--Daniel P. Costa, Yann Tremblay, and Sean Hayes||124-129|
|Marine Biogeochemistry in 2025--Kenneth S. Johnson||130-134|
|Next-Generation Oceanographic Sensors for Short-Term Prediction/Verification of In-water Optical Conditions--Mark L. Wells||135-137|
|Evolution of Autonomous Platform for Sustained Ocean Observations--Russ E. Davis||138-140|
|Toward an Interdisciplinary Ocean Observing System in 2025--Eric D'Asaro||141-143|
|Small Scale Ocean Dynamics in 2025--Jonathan Nash||144-145|
|Oceanography in 2025--Dana R. Yoerger||146-149|
|The Research Vessel Problem--J. N. Moum, Eric D'Asaro, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Peter Niiler||150-152|
|"Ocean Mapping" in 2025--Larry Mayer||153-156|
|Seismic Oceanography: Imaging Oceanic Finestructure with Reflection Seismology--W. Steven Holbrook||157-162|
|The Ocean Planet 2.0: A Vision for 2025--Justin Manley||163-165|
|Force Projection Through the Littoral Zone: Optical Considerations--Kendall Carder||166-170|
|Large Scale Phase-resolved Simulations of Ocean Surface Waves--Yuming Liu and Dick K.P. Yue||171-176|
|Appendix A: Workshop Agenda||179-180|
|Appendix B: Workshop Participants||181-186|
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