Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for the human body. Establishing the levels of these nutrients that are needed by the North American population is based on the understanding of the health outcomes that calcium and vitamin D affect. It is also important to establish how much of each nutrient may be "too much."
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D provides reference intake values for these two nutrients. The report updates the DRI values defined in Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, the 1997 study from the Institute of Medicine. This 2011 book provides background information on the biological functions of each nutrient, reviews health outcomes that are associated with the intake of calcium and vitamin D, and specifies Estimated Average Requirements and Recommended Dietary Allowances for both. It also identifies Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, which are levels above wish the risk for harm may increase. The book includes an overview of current dietary intake in the U.S. and Canada, and discusses implications of the study. A final chapter provides research recommendations.
The DRIs established in this book incorporate current scientific evidence about the roles of vitamin D and calcium in human health and will serve as a valuable guide for a range of stakeholders including dietitians and other health professionals, those who set national nutrition policy, researchers, the food industry, and private and public health organizations and partnerships.
Note: In response to claims of methodological errors in this report after its release, the National Academies undertook a two-phased review process to identify whether errors had been made and if so what effect those errors had on the findings. Here are the reports of the two review panels: Phase I and Phase II.
Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13050.
|2 Overview of Calcium||35-74|
|3 Overview of Vitamin D||75-124|
|4 Review of Potential Indicators of Adequacy and Selection of Indicators: Calcium and Vitamin D||125-344|
|5 Dietary Reference Intakes for Adequacy: Calcium and Vitamin D||345-402|
|6 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels: Calcium and Vitamin D||403-456|
|7 Dietary Intake Assessment||457-478|
|8 Implications and Special Concerns||479-512|
|9 Information Gaps and Research Needs||513-522|
|Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary||523-536|
|Appendix B: Issues and Interests Identified by Study Sponsors||537-538|
|Appendix C: Methods and Results from the AHRQ-Ottawa Evidence-Based Report on Effectiveness and Safety of Vitamin D in Relation to Bone Health||539-724|
|Appendix D: Methods and Results from the AHRQ-Tufts Evidence-Based Report on Vitamin D and Calcium||725-1012|
|Appendix E: Literature Search Strategy||1013-1018|
|Appendix F: Evidence Maps||1019-1024|
|Appendix G: Cases Studies of Vitamin D Toxicity||1025-1034|
|Appendix H: Estimated Intakes of Calcium and Vitamin D from National Surveys||1035-1044|
|Appendix I: Proportion of the Population Above and Below 40 nmol/L Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Cumulative Distribution of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations: United States and Canada||1045-1058|
|Appendix J: Workshop Agenda and Open Session Agendas||1059-1064|
|Appendix K: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members||1065-1074|
|Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes||1103-1116|
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