On November 19, 2001 the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was created as a separate entity within the U.S. Department of Transportation through the Aviation and Transportation Security Act. The act also mandated that all checked baggage on U.S. flights be scanned by explosive detection systems (EDSs) for the presence of threats. These systems needed to be deployed quickly and universally, but could not be made available everywhere. As a result the TSA emphasized the procurement and installation of certified systems where EDSs were not yet available. Computer tomography (CT)-based systems became the certified method or place-holder for EDSs. CT systems cannot detect explosives but instead create images of potential threats that can be compared to criteria to determine if they are real threats. The TSA has placed a great emphasis on high level detections in order to slow false negatives or missed detections. As a result there is abundance in false positives or false alarms.
National Research Council. 2013. Engineering Aviation Security Environments—Reduction of False Alarms in Computed Tomography-Based Screening of Checked Baggage. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13171.
|Summary and Recommendations||1-11|
|2 Overview of Deployed Explosive Detection System Technologies||17-28|
|3 Alternative Approaches for the Reduction of False Alarms||29-33|
|4 Incentivizing Research and Development to Decrease False Alarms in an Airport Setting||34-44|
|5 Lessons from Medical Imaging for Explosive Detection Systems||45-51|
|6 Data Collection, Management, and Analysis||52-60|
|A--Biographies of Committee Members||61-63|
|B--Quantifying the Risk of False Alarms with Airport Screening of Checked Baggage||64-72|
|C--Chemistry-Based Alternatives to Computed Tomography-Based Explosives Detection||73-80|
|D--Statistical Approaches to Reducing the Probability of False Alarms While Improving the Probability of Detection||81-85|
|E--Statement of Task||86-86|
|F--Acronyms and Definitions of Selected Terms||87-90|
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