Skip to main content


Suggested Citation

National Academy of Sciences. 1990. Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Import this citation to:

Publication Info

428 pages | 6 x 9 | Paperback
ISBN: 978-0-309-04293-2
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xii
Overview 1-2
Assessment and Management of Ecological Risks 3-13
Executive Summary 14-28
Environmental Management Concepts 29-30
Evaluating Ecological Impacts: A Conceptual Framework 31-40
The Relationship Between Strategies of Social Development and Environmental Protection 41-59
Environmental Protection as an Element of International Economic Cooperation in Poland 60-76
The Role of Ecological Risk Assessment in Environmental Decision Making 77-88
Human Effects on the Terrestrial Environment 89-90
Characterizing Ecosystem Responses to Stress 91-115
Measuring Function and Disfunction in Ecosystems 116-140
Air Pollution Impacts on Forests in North America 141-154
Air Pollution and Forest Health in Central Europe: Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the German Democratic Republic 155-170
Impacts of Air Pollution on Agriculture in North America 171-195
Impacts of Air Pollution on Agriculture and Horticulture in Poland 196-214
Distribution and Movement of Selected Elements in Poland Using Pine Needle Analysis 215-231
Long-Term Ecological Monitoring in the National Parks of Poland 232-246
Agricultural Impacts 247-248
Ecological Guidelines for Management of Rural Areas in Poland 249-264
Ecological Problems Associated with Agricultural Development: Some Examples in the United States 265-280
Impacts of Aquatic Ecosystems 281-282
Assessment of Trophic Impact on the Lake Environment in Poland: A Proposal and Case Study 283-296
Aquatic Research and Water Quality Trends in the United States 297-314
River Water Quality Assessment and Management in Poland 315-330
Environmental Management Case Studies 331-332
Environmental Policy in Eastern Europe 333-341
Acid Deposition: A Case Study of Scientific Uncertainty and International Decision Making 342-354
Diagnosis of Environmental Protection Problems in Poland 355-373
Energy Use and Environmental Consequences in Poland 374-386
Recommendations 387-388
Recommendations for a Science-Based Program of Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Protection 389-396
Appendices 397-398
Appendix 1: List of Participants 399-403
Appendix 2: Summary Memoranda 404-407
Appendix 3: Cooperative Projects Suggested at 1987 Workshop 408-412
Appendix 4: Cooperative Projects Suggested at 1988 Workshop 413-416

What is skim?

The Chapter Skim search tool presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter. You may select key terms to highlight them within pages of each chapter.

Copyright Information

The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Rightslink service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Rightslink, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Rightslink allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Rightslink you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the National Academies Press (NAP) through Rightslink:

  • Republish text, tables, figures, or images in print
  • Post on a secure Intranet/Extranet website
  • Use in a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Distribute via CD-ROM
  • Photocopy

Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Rightslink service, please contact:

Rightslink Customer Care
Tel (toll free): 877/622-5543
Tel: 978/777-9929

To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at 800-624-6242 for pricing.

To request permission to translate a book published by the National Academies Press or its imprint, the Joseph Henry Press, pleaseclick here to view more information.

Loading stats for Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States...