Skip to main content
Consensus Study Report


Diplomacy for the 21st Century recommends steps that the Department of State should embrace to take full advantage of the leading science and technology (S&T) capabilities of the United States. These capabilities provide the department with many opportunities to promote a variety of the interests of the United States and its allies in a rapidly changing world wherein S&T are important drivers of economic development at home and abroad and help ensure international security. This report assesses and makes recommendations concerning the changing environment for the conduct of diplomacy in the years ahead, with a focus on the role of S&T in the development and implementation of U.S. policies and programs. According to this report, prompt steps by the department's leadership are essential to ensure adequate comprehension of the importance of S&T-related developments throughout the world and to incorporate this understanding within the nation's foreign policy for the 21st century. This report also urges the adoption by the department of a broader whole-of-society approach in carrying out its responsibilities at home and abroad - extending beyond traditional interagency coordination and the narrow band of current external partners to include foundations, universities, research centers, and other groups who are extending their international reach.


Suggested Citation

National Research Council. 2015. Diplomacy for the 21st Century: Embedding a Culture of Science and Technology Throughout the Department of State. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Import this citation to:

Publication Info

190 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Paperback:  978-0-309-37313-5
  • Ebook:  978-0-309-37316-6
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xii
Summary 1-12
1 Introduction 13-20
2 A Rapidly Changing World 21-42
3 A Whole-of-Society Approach in Incorporating Science and Technology into 21st Century Diplomacy 43-56
4 Support of Science and Technology Policies, Programs, and Outreach by U.S. Embassies 57-72
5 Enhancing Organizational and Personnel Capabilities 73-94
6 Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations 95-106
Appendixes 107-108
Appendix A: Request for Study from the Department of State 109-110
Appendix B: Biographies Of Committee Members 111-118
Appendix C: Interim Recommendations of the Committee (April 2014) 119-122
Appendix D: The Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, 2011 123-126
Appendix E: Issues That Deserve Additional Analyses by Others 127-130
Appendix F: Committee Meeting Agendas 131-138
Appendix G: Organizations with Extensive International S&T Programs and Activities That Provided Data and Information on Relevant Programs to the Committee 139-142
Appendix H: Selected References 143-150
Appendix I: Global Investments in Science and Engineering - A Dynamic Landscape 151-156
Appendix J: Interagency Challenges Set Forth in the 1999 Report 157-158
Appendix K: International Engagement Activities of the National Science Foundation 159-164
Appendix L: Environment, Science, Technology, and Health Officers Posted Overseas 165-170
Appendix M: Results of Department State's Questionnaire to ESTH Officers 171-174
Appendix N: Science and Technology Agreements Currently In Force 175-176
Appendix O: Regional ESTH Hub Locations and Staffing 177-178

What is skim?

The Chapter Skim search tool presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter. You may select key terms to highlight them within pages of each chapter.

Copyright Information

The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Marketplace service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Marketplace, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Marketplace allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Marketplace you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the NAP through Marketplace:

  • Republish text, tables, figures, or images in print
  • Post on a secure Intranet/Extranet website
  • Use in a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Distribute via CD-ROM
  • Photocopy

Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Marketplace service, please contact:

Marketplace Support
International +1.978.646.2600
US Toll Free +1.855.239.3415

To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at

loading iconLoading stats for Diplomacy for the 21st Century: Embedding a Culture of Science and Technology Throughout the Department of State...