The integrity of knowledge that emerges from research is based on individual and collective adherence to core values of objectivity, honesty, openness, fairness, accountability, and stewardship. Integrity in science means that the organizations in which research is conducted encourage those involved to exemplify these values in every step of the research process. Understanding the dynamics that support – or distort – practices that uphold the integrity of research by all participants ensures that the research enterprise advances knowledge.
The 1992 report Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process evaluated issues related to scientific responsibility and the conduct of research. It provided a valuable service in describing and analyzing a very complicated set of issues, and has served as a crucial basis for thinking about research integrity for more than two decades. However, as experience has accumulated with various forms of research misconduct, detrimental research practices, and other forms of misconduct, as subsequent empirical research has revealed more about the nature of scientific misconduct, and because technological and social changes have altered the environment in which science is conducted, it is clear that the framework established more than two decades ago needs to be updated.
Responsible Science served as a valuable benchmark to set the context for this most recent analysis and to help guide the committee's thought process. Fostering Integrity in Research identifies best practices in research and recommends practical options for discouraging and addressing research misconduct and detrimental research practices.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Fostering Integrity in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/21896.
|Part One: The Integrity of Research||11-12|
|2 Foundations of Integrity in Research: Core Values and Guiding Norms||27-38|
|3 Important Trends and Challenges in the Research Environment||39-54|
|Part Two: Research Misconduct and Detrimental Research Practices||55-56|
|4 Context and Definitions||57-76|
|5 Incidence and Consequences||77-90|
|6 Understanding the Causes||91-104|
|7 Addressing Research Misconduct and Detrimental Research Practices: Current Knowledge and Issues||105-146|
|8 Exploring New Approaches||147-160|
|Part Three: Fostering Integrity in Research||161-162|
|9 Identifying and Promoting Best Practices for Research Integrity||163-194|
|10 Education for the Responsible Conduct of Research||195-204|
|11 Findings and Recommendations||205-224|
|Appendix A: Biographical Information on the Committee and Staff||227-238|
|Appendix B: Agendas of Committee Meeting Public Sessions||239-244|
|Appendix C: Assessing the Effectiveness of Responsible Conduct of Research Training: Key Findings and Viable Procedures||245-264|
|Appendix D: Detailed Case Histories||265-286|
|Appendix E: Bibliography||287-310|
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