The American chestnut, whitebark pine, and several species of ash in the eastern United States are just a few of the North American tree species that have been functionally lost or are in jeopardy of being lost due to outbreaks of pathogens and insect pests. New pressures in this century are putting even more trees at risk. Expanded human mobility and global trade are providing pathways for the introduction of nonnative pests for which native tree species may lack resistance. At the same time, climate change is extending the geographic range of both native and nonnative pest species.
Biotechnology has the potential to help mitigate threats to North American forests from insects and pathogens through the introduction of pest-resistant traits to forest trees. However, challenges remain: the genetic mechanisms that underlie trees' resistance to pests are poorly understood; the complexity of tree genomes makes incorporating genetic changes a slow and difficult task; and there is a lack of information on the effects of releasing new genotypes into the environment.
Forest Health and Biotechnology examines the potential use of biotechnology for mitigating threats to forest tree health and identifies the ecological, economic, and social implications of deploying biotechnology in forests. This report also develops a research agenda to address knowledge gaps about the application of the technology.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25221.
|2 Forest Health||19-52|
|3 Mitigating Threats to Forest Health||53-92|
|4 Ecological, Economic, Social, and Ethical Considerations in the Use of Biotechnology in Forest Trees||93-128|
|5 An Integrated Impact Assessment Framework||129-154|
|6 Current Regulatory System for Biotech Trees and Other Methods Used to Address Forest Health||155-174|
|7 Moving Ahead||175-182|
|Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members||189-194|
|Appendix B: Open Session Meeting Agendas||195-200|
|Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018||201-218|
|Appendix D: Chronological Summary of Studies Empirically Examining Public and Other Stakeholder Responses to the Use of Biotechnology in Trees and Forests||219-226|
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