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Microphysiological systems (MPS) are complex, multi-cellular in vitro systems that commonly include three-dimensional aspects, fluid flow, changing pressure or stretch, and multi-organ interactions. These systems are being developed to better mimic some aspects of specific organ systems or combinations of organ systems to improve upon standard two-dimensional cell systems, with the goal of eventually replacing animal models being used for hazard identification, risk assessment, and disease modeling, among other uses. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine convened a workshop to discuss current progress in developing MPS that realistically model in vivo animal and human physiology and to strategize about the potential to establish sustainable human and animal MPS banks. Speakers discussed how MPS fit within the portfolio of tools used in their fields of expertise, the limitations and areas of needed improvement for MPS, and how MPS may be used in the future as the technology develops. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

Suggested Citation

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Microphysiological Systems: Bridging Human and Animal Research: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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10 pages |  8.5 x 11 |  DOI:

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