Skip to main content
Consensus Study Report


The U.S. Department of State, through its Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL), provides foreign assistance and supports capacity building for criminal justice systems and police organizations in approximately 90 countries around the world. It has a mandate to strengthen fragile states, support democratic transitions, and stabilize conflict-affected societies by helping partner countries develop effective and accountable criminal justice sector institutions and systems.

While the science of policing outcomes has grown in recent years, it is limited in context, with much of the research conducted on policing taking place in the Global North countries (e.g., the United Kingdom and United States). It is also limited in purpose, with much research focused on examining crime reduction as opposed to examining the harms to the public as the result of crimes, violence, and any effects of policing activities.

At the request of INL, Policing to Promote the Rule of Law and Protect the Population explores the organizational policies, structures, or practices (e.g., HR and recruiting, legal authorities, reporting lines, etc.) that will enable a police service to promote the rule of law and protect the population. This report presents an overview of the state of research and highlights promising areas to guide policing reform and interventions.


Suggested Citation

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Policing to Promote the Rule of Law and Protect the Population: An Evidence-Based Approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Import this citation to:

Publication Info

120 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Paperback:  978-0-309-68535-1
  • Ebook:  978-0-309-68573-3

What is skim?

The Chapter Skim search tool presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter. You may select key terms to highlight them within pages of each chapter.


Copyright Information

The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Marketplace service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Marketplace, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Marketplace allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Marketplace you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the NAP through Marketplace:

  • Republish text, tables, figures, or images in print
  • Post on a secure Intranet/Extranet website
  • Use in a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Distribute via CD-ROM
  • Photocopy

Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Marketplace service, please contact:

Marketplace Support
International +1.978.646.2600
US Toll Free +1.855.239.3415

To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at

loading iconLoading stats for Policing to Promote the Rule of Law and Protect the Population: An Evidence-Based Approach...