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Rapid Expert Consultation


As the COVID-19 pandemic enters its third year, the emergence of highly transmissible variants has elevated the urgency of increasing vaccine uptake. Accordingly, decision makers nationwide have been implementing various interventions, such as COVID-19 vaccine requirement and incentive programs for specific populations, to increase vaccine uptake. It is important to stress that such programs need to address equitable access to vaccines. Further, while incentives have not proven consistently to be effective in the United States as a means of promoting uptake of first doses of the COVID-19 vaccines, they may have potential for impact if used for booster doses.

This rapid expert consultation draws on the fields of behavioral economics, health behavior, risk communication, and psychology to identify actionable guidance for state and local decision makers engaged in designing COVID-19 vaccine requirement and incentive programs to increase uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.


Suggested Citation

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Increasing Uptake of COVID-19 Vaccination Through Requirement and Incentive Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

22 pages | 8.5 x 11 |  DOI:

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