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Consensus Study Report
Ending Unequal Treatment: Strategies to Achieve Equitable Health Care and Optimal Health for All


Racial and ethnic inequities in health and health care impact individual well-being, contribute to millions of premature deaths, and cost the United States hundreds of billions of dollars annually. Addressing these inequities is vital to improving the health of the nation’s most disadvantaged communities—and will also help to achieve optimal health for all. In 2003, the Institute of Medicine examined these inequities in Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care.

Because disparities persist, the National Academies convened an expert committee with support from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institutes of Health. The committee’s report reviews the major drivers of health care disparities, provides insight into successful and unsuccessful interventions, identifies gaps in the evidence base, and makes recommendations to advance health equity.

Suggested Citation

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2024. Ending Unequal Treatment: Strategies to Achieve Equitable Health Care and Optimal Health for All. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

374 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Prepublication:  978-0-309-72152-3
  • Paperback (forthcoming):  978-0-309-72155-4

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