Skip to main content


This book reviews the research pertaining to nutrient requirements for working in cold or in high-altitude environments and states recommendations regarding the application of this information to military operational rations. It addresses whether, aside from increased energy demands, cold or high-altitude environments elicit an increased demand or requirement for specific nutrients, and whether performance in cold or high-altitude environments can be enhanced by the provision of increased amounts of specific nutrients.

Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine. 1996. Nutritional Needs in Cold and High-Altitude Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Import this citation to:

Publication Info

584 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Paperback:  978-0-309-05484-3
  • Ebook:  978-0-309-17559-3
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xvi
I: Committee Summary and Recommendations 1-2
1 A Review of the Physiology and Nutrition in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments 3-58
2 Committee on Military Nutrition Research Recommendations and Conclusions 59-80
II: Background and Introduction to theTopic 81-82
3 Cold Weather and High-Altitude Nutrition: Overview of the Issues 83-94
4 Leadership Insights for Military Operations in Cold Weather and at High Altitudes 95-100
5 Cold-Weather Field Feeding: Military Rations 101-114
6 Feeding the US Army Sixth Infantry Division (Light) in the Cold 115-122
Part II Discussion 123-124
III: The Cold Environment 125-126
7 The Physiology of Cold Exposure 127-148
8 Military Schedules vs. Biological Clocks 149-160
9 Influence of Cold Stress on Human Fluid Balance 161-180
10 Muscle Metabolism and Shivering During Cold Stress 181-188
11 Macronutrient Requirements for Work in Cold Environments 189-202
12 Cold Exposure, Appetite, and Energy Balance 203-214
13 Effects of Cold and altitude on Vitamin and Mineral Requirements 215-244
14 Micronutrient Deficiency States and Thermoregulation in the Cold 245-256
15 Drug-Induced Delay of Hypothermia 257-270
Part III Discussion 271-292
IV: The High-Terrestrial Environment 293-294
16 The Physiology of High-Altitude Exposure 295-318
17 Physical Performance at High Altitudes 319-330
18 Fluid Metabolism at High Altitudes 331-356
19 Maintenance of Body Weight at High Altitudes: In Search of 500 kcal/day 357-378
20 Energy and Macronutrient Requirements for work at High Altitudes 379-392
21 Oxidative Stress at High Altitudes and Effects of Vitamin E 393-418
Part IV Discussion 419-432
V: Performance in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments 433-434
22 Effets of Altitue on Cognitive Performance and Mood States 435-452
23 Food Components and Other Treatments That May Enhance Mental Performance at High Altitudes and in the Cold 453-466
General Discussion 467-478
Appendixes 479-480
A: Environmental Stress Management at High Altitudes by Adaptogens, summary of unpublished manuscript 481-484
B: Biographical Sketches 485-500
C: Abbreviations 501-504
D: Factors Related to Nutritional Needs in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments- A Selected Bibliography 505-554
Index 555-568

What is skim?

The Chapter Skim search tool presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter. You may select key terms to highlight them within pages of each chapter.

Copyright Information

The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Marketplace service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Marketplace, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Marketplace allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Marketplace you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the NAP through Marketplace:

  • Republish text, tables, figures, or images in print
  • Post on a secure Intranet/Extranet website
  • Use in a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Distribute via CD-ROM
  • Photocopy

Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Marketplace service, please contact:

Marketplace Support
International +1.978.646.2600
US Toll Free +1.855.239.3415

To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at

loading iconLoading stats for Nutritional Needs in Cold and High-Altitude Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations...