The safety record of lightering (the transfer of petroleum cargo at sea from a large tanker to smaller ones) has been excellent in U.S. waters in recent years, as evidenced by the very low rate of spillage of oil both in absolute terms and compared with all other tanker-related accidental spills. The lightering safety record is likely to be maintained or even improved in the future as overall quality improvements in the shipping industry are implemented. Risks can be reduced even further through measures that enhance sound lightering standards and practices, support cooperative industry efforts to maintain safety, and increase the availability of essential information to shipping companies and mariners. Only continued vigilance and attention to safety initiatives can avert serious accidents involving tankers carrying large volumes of oil.
National Research Council. 1998. Oil Spill Risks From Tank Vessel Lightering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/6312.
|2 Lightering Primer||28-49|
|3 Lightering Vessels, Systems, and the External Environment||50-68|
|4 Procedures, Practices, and Human Factors||69-86|
|5 Conclusions and Recommendations||87-94|
|Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members||97-102|
|Appendix B: Committee Meetings, Subgroup Meetings, and Site Visits||103-105|
|Appendix C: U.S. Coast Guard Data on Lightering Incidents, 1984 to 1996||106-109|
|Appendix D: Data on East Coast Lightering Operations and Incidents||110-110|
|Appendix E: Data on West Coast Lightering Operations and Incidents||111-113|
|Appendix F: Letter Regarding Chevron Shipping Company's Offshore Lightering Plans||114-116|
|Appendix G: Lightering Zone Regulations||117-118|
|Appendix H: Safety Checklists||119-124|
|Appendix I: Statement of Task||125-125|
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