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Suggested Citation

National Research Council. 1966. Language and Machines: Computers in Translation and Linguistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

138 pages |  6 x 9 |  DOI:
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xi
Contents xii-xiv
Human Translation 1-1
Types of Translator Employment 2-3
English as the Language of Science 4-4
Time Required for Scientists to Learn Russian 5-5
Translation in the United States Government 6-6
Number of Government Translators 7-8
Amount Spent for Translation 9-10
Is there a Shortage of Translators or Translation? 11-12
Regarding a Possible Excess of Translation 13-15
The Crucial Problems of Translation 16-18
The Present State of Machine Translation 19-24
Machine-Aided Translation at Mannheim and Luxembourg 25-28
Automatic Language Processing and Computational Linguistics 29-31
Avenues to Improvement of Translation 32-33
Recommendations 34-34
Appendix 1. Experiments in Sight Translation and Full Translation 35-36
Appendix 2. Defense Language Institute Course in Scientific Russian 37-38
Appendix 3. The Joint Publications Research Service 39-40
Appendix 4. Public Law 480 Translations 41-42
Appendix 5. Machine Translations at the Foreign Technology Division, U.S. Air Force Systems Command 43-44
Appendix 6. Journals Translated with Support by the National Science Foundation 45-49
Appendix 7. Civil Service Commission Data on Federal Translators 50-53
Appendix 8. Demand for and Availability of Translators 54-56
Appendix 9. Cost Estimates of Various Types of Translation 57-66
Appendix 10. An Experiment in Evaluating the Quality of Translations 67-75
Appendix 11. Types of Errors Common in Machine Translation 76-78
Appendix 12. Machine-Aided Translation at the Federal Armed Forces Translation Agency, Mannheim, Germany 79-86
Appendix 13. Machine-Aided Translation at the European Coal and Steel Community, Luxembourg 87-90
Appendix 14. Translation Versus Postediting of Machine Translation 91-101
Appendix 15. Evaluation by Science Editors and Joint Publications Research Service and Foreign Technology Division Translations 102-106
Appendix 16. Government Support of Machine-Translation Research 107-112
Appendix 17. Computerized Publishing 113-117
Appedix 18. Relation Between Programming Languages and Linguistics 118-120
Appendix 19. Machine Translation and Linguistics 121-123
Appendix 20. Persons Who Appeared Before the Committee 124-124

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