Skip to main content
Consensus Study Report


Since 1994 the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board has been involved in developing an expanded approach to developing dietary reference standards. This approach, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), provides a set of four nutrient-based reference values designed to replace the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in the United States and the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) in Canada. These reference values include Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). To date, several volumes in this series have been published.

This new book, Applications in Dietary Assessment, provides guidance to nutrition and health research professionals on the application of the new DRIs. It represents both a "how to" manual and a "why" manual. Specific examples of both appropriate and inappropriate uses of the DRIs in assessing nutrient adequacy of groups and of individuals are provided, along with detailed statistical approaches for the methods described. In addition, a clear distinction is made between assessing individuals and assessing groups as the approaches used are quite different. Applications in Dietary Assessment will be an essential companion to any-or all-of the DRI volumes.


Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Import this citation to:

Publication Info

305 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Paperback:  978-0-309-07183-3
  • Hardcover:  978-0-309-07311-0
  • Ebook:  978-0-309-17161-8
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xiv
Contents xv-xviii
Summary 1-18
I. Historical Perspective and Background 19-20
1 Introduction and Background 21-28
2 Current Uses of Dietary Reference Standards 29-42
II. Application of DRIs for Individual Diet Assessment 43-44
3 Using Dietary Reference Intakes for Nutrient Assessment of Individuals 45-70
III. Application of DRIs for Group Diet Assessment 71-72
4 Using the Estimated Average Requirement for Nutrient Assessment of Groups 73-105
5 Using the Adequate Intake for Nutrient Assessment of Groups 106-112
6 Using the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Nutrient Assessment of Groups 113-126
7 Specific Applications: Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups Using the Dietary Reference Intakes 127-144
IV. Fine-Tuning Dietary Assessment Using the DRIs 145-146
8 Minimizing Potential Errors in Assessing Group and Individual Intakes 147-161
9 Research Recommended to Improve the Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes 162-167
10 References 168-178
Appendix A: Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes 179-184
Appendix B: Nutrient Assessment of Individuals: Statistical Foundations 185-202
Appendix C: Assessing Prevalence of Inadequate Intakes for Groups: Statistical Foundations 203-210
Appendix D: Assessing the Performance of the EAR Cut-Point Method for Estimating Prevalence 211-231
Appendix E: Units of Observation: Assessing Nutrient Adequacy Using Household and Population Data 232-238
Appendix F: Rationale for Setting Adequate Intakes 239-253
Appendix G: Glossary and Abbreviations 254-261
Appendix H: Biographical Sketches of Subcommittee Members 262-266
Index 267-281
Summary Table: Estimated Average Requirements 282-283
Summary Table: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 284-286
Summary Table: Recommended Intakes for Individuals 287-289

What is skim?

The Chapter Skim search tool presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter. You may select key terms to highlight them within pages of each chapter.

Copyright Information

The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Marketplace service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Marketplace, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Marketplace allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Marketplace you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the NAP through Marketplace:

  • Republish text, tables, figures, or images in print
  • Post on a secure Intranet/Extranet website
  • Use in a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Distribute via CD-ROM
  • Photocopy

Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Marketplace service, please contact:

Marketplace Support
International +1.978.646.2600
US Toll Free +1.855.239.3415

To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at

loading iconLoading stats for Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment...