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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
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Appendix F

Other Relevant Documents

Beauheim, R., G. Ruskauff, 1998. Analysis of Hydraulic Tests of the Culebra and Magenta Dolomites and Dewey Lake Redbeds Conducted at the WIPP Site. SAND98-0049. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R. L, S. M. Howarth, P. Vaughn, S. W. Webb, and K. W. Larson, 1994. Integrated Modeling and Experimental Programs to Predict Brine and Gas Flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. GEOVAL ‘94 Validation Through Model Testing, OECD Documents—Safety Assessment of Radioactive Waste Repositories, Proceeding of an NEA/SKI Symposium, October 11-14. Paris, France. SAND 94-05996. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R. L., W. R. Wawersik, and R. M. Roberts, 1993. Coupled Permeability and Hydrofracture Tests to Assess the Waste-Containment Properties of Fractured Anhydrite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts. 30(7):1159-1163.

Bodenstein, S., R. Gonzales, D. Sweetin, D. Taggart, S. Betts, J. Vigil, E. Derr, D. Yeamans, B. Sinkule, P. Rogers, and J. Harper, 1996. Transuranic Waste Characterization and Experimental Support at LANL Waste Characterization, Reduction and Repackaging Facility. Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos National Laboratory. 483-484.

Bredehoeft, J., 1998. Drilling with Mud and Air into WIPP—Revisited (prepared for New Mexico Attorney General).

Bredehoeft, J., 1997. Rebuttal Technical Review of the Hartman Scenario: Implications for WIPP (Bredehoeft, 1997) by Swift, Stoelzel, Beauheim, Vaughn, and Larson. June 13, 1997, memorandum to EPA Compliance Certification Docket No. A-93-02.

Butcher, B., 1997. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Room Model, SAND97-0794. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Bynum, R., C. Stockman, H. Papenguth, Y. Wang, A. Peterson, J. Drumhansl, J. Nowak, J. Cotton, S. Patchet, M. Chu, 1998. Identification and Evaluation of Appropriate Backfills for the WIPP. SAND98-1026C. May. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Callahan, G. D., 1999. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model. SAND98-2680. February. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Channell, J. K., B. A. Walker, 2000. Evaluation of Risks and Waste Characterization Requirements for the Transuranic Waste Emplaced in WIPP During 1999. EEG-75. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Evaluation Group.

Chaturvedi, L., J. Channell, 1985. The Rustler Formation as a Transport Medium for Contaminated Groundwater. EEG-32. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Management Group.

Chaturvedi, L., T. Clemo, M. K. Silva, and W. W. L. Lee, 1997. Conceptual Models Difficulties in the WIPP Compliance Certification Application. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation, ICEM ‘97, October 12-16, 1997, Singapore. R. Baker, S. Slate, and G. Benda, eds. New York, NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 423-427.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
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Clemo T., L. Chaturvedi, W. Lee, 1997. Problems with Data Used in the WIPP Certification Application Performance Assessment. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation, ICEM ‘97, October 12-16,1997. Singapore. R. Baker, S. Slate, and G. Benda, eds. New York, NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1009-1012.

Connolly, M., S. Kosiewicz, 1997. TRU Waste Transportation: The Flammable Gas Generation Problem. Technology: Journal of the Franklin Institute. 334(A):351-356.

Economy, K. M., J. C. Helton, and P. Vaughn, 1999. Sandia Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir. SAND99-1043. October. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Chaturvedi, L. and J. K. Channell, 1985. The Rustler Formation as a Transport Medium for Contaminated Groundwater. EEG-32. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Evaluation Group.

Environmental Protection Agency, 1998. EPA's Analysis of Air Drilling at WIPP. Docket No: A-93-02 (IV-A-1) EPA. January 27, 1998. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.

Fanghänel, T., J. Kim, P. Paviet, R. Klenze, W. Hauser, 1994. Thermodynamics of Radioactive Trace Elements in Concentrated Electrolyte Solutions: Hydrolysis of Cm3+ in NaCl-Solutions. Radiochimica Acta. 66-67: 81-87. Germany.

Federal Register, 1990. Waste Analysis Plans and Treatment/Disposal Facility Testing Requirements. June 1, 1990. Federal Register. 55 (106):22669.

Federal Register, 1997. Joint NRC/EPA Guidance on Testing Requirements for Mixed Radioactive & Hazardous Waste. November 20, 1997. Federal Register.

Felmy, A., and D. Rai, 1992. An Aqueous Thermodynamic Model for a High Valence 4:2 Electrolyte Th4+ -SO2−4 in the System Na+ - K+ - Li+ - NH+4 - Th4+ - SO42− – HSO−4 – H20 to High Concentration. Journal of Solution Chemistry. 21(5): 407–423.

Francis, A. J., J. B. Gillow, and M. R. Giles, 1997. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected WIPP Repository Conditions. SAND96-2582. March. Upton, NY: Sandia National Laboratories.

Gray, D. H., J. W. Kenney, S. C. Ballard, 2000. Operational Radiation Surveillance of the WIPP Project by EEG During 1999. EEG-79. September. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Evaluation Group.

Greenfield, M. A. and T. J. Sargent, 2000. Probability of Failure of the Trudock Crane System at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. EEG-74. May. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Evaluation Group.

Helton, J.C., et. al., 1998. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, SAND98-0365. Albuquerque: NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Idaho National Engineering Enviromental Laboratory (INEEL), 1998. TRUPACT-II Matrix Depletion Program Final Report. INEEL/EXT-98-00987, Rev. 0. September. Idaho Falls: INEEL.

Kenney, et al., 1999. Preoperational Radiation Surveillance of the WIPP Project by EEG From 1996-1998. EEG-73. October. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Management Group.

Kersting, A. B., D. W. Efurd, D. L. Finnegan, D. J. Rokop, D. K. Smith, and J. L. Thompson, 1999. Migration of plutonium in ground water at the Nevada Test Site, Nature. January. 397(6714):56-59.

Knowles. M. K. and K. M. Economy, 2000. Evaluation of Brine Inflow at a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (abstract). Water Environment Research. 72(4):397-404.

Krumhansl, J. L., M. A. Molecke, H. W. Papenguth, and L. H. Brush, 1999. Historical Review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Backfill Development. SAND99-0404A. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Lechel, D. J. and C. D. Leigh, 1998. Plutonium-238 TRU Waste Decision Analysis. SAND98-2629. December 31, 1998. Carlsbad, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Lucero, D. A., G. O. Brown, and C. E. Heath, 1998. Laboratory Column Experiments for Radionuclide Adsorption Studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. SAND97-1763. April. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Madic, C., 2000. Toward the End of PuO2's Supremacy, Science Magazine. 287:243-244.

Mellegard, K. D., T. W. Pfeifle, and F. D. Hansen, 1999. Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permiability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt. SAND98-2046. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Mercer, J. W., D. L. Cole, and R. S. Holt, 1998. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad. SAND98-0071. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Molecke, M., 1979. Gas Generation from Transuranic Waste Degradation: Data Summary and Interpretation (SAND 79-1245). December 1979. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
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NEA/OCDE, 1999. Progress towards Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand? Radioactive Waste Management. NEA/OCDE.

Neill, R., L. Chaturvedi, D. Rucker, M. Silva, B. Walker, J. Channell, T. Clemo, 1998. Evaluation of the WIPP Project's compliance with the EPA Radiation Protection Standards for Disposal of TRU Waste; EEG-68, Albuquerque, NM.

Oversby, V. M., 2000. Plutonium Chemistry Under Conditions Relevant for WIPP Performance Assessment-Review of Experimental Results and Recommendations for Future Work. EEG-77. September. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Evaluation Group.

Perkins, G. W., and D. A. Lucero, 1998. Interpretation of Data Obtained from Non-Destructive and Destructive Post-Test Analyses of an Intact-Core Column of Culebra Dolomite. SAND98-0878. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Perkins, W.G., D.A. Lucero, and G.O. Brown, 1998. Column Experiments for Radionuclide Adsorption Studies of the Culebra Dolomite: Retardation Parameter Estimation for Non-Eluted Actinide Species. SAND98-1005. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Pfeifle, T. W. and F. D. Hansen, 1998. Database of Mechanical and Hydrological Properties of WIPP Anhydrite Derived from Laboratory-Scale Experiments. SAND98-1714. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Rechard, R. P., 1998. Milestones for Disposal of Radioactive Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in the United States. SAND98-0072. April Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Rocker D. F., 1998. Sensitivity Analysis of Performance Parameters Used in Modeling the WIPP – Summary. Dale F. Rucker, ed. EEG-69. May. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Evaluation Group.

Rucker, D. F., 2000. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Operational Accidents at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. EEG-78. September. Albuquerque, NM: Environmental Evaluation Group.

Silva, M., 1996. Fluid Injection for salt Water Disposal and Enhanced Oil Recovery as A potential Problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 Workshop and Analysis. EEG-62. Albuquerque, NM.

Sandia National Laboratories, 1979. Summary of Research and Development Activities in Support of Waste Acceptance Criteria for WIPP. SAND79-1305. November. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Sandia National Laboratories, 1997. Spalling Model Position Paper. Semi-Analytical Calculations Conducted in Support of Alternative Spallings Model. SECF-A:2.01.5.3.1. WPO# 43214. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Sandia National Laboratories, 1999. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations, SAND98-2202. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

Stoelzel D. M. and, P. Swift, 1997. Technical review comment resolution for sensitivity of the length of fracture approximations in BRAGFLO to the grid used in Supplementary Analyses of the Effect of Salt Water Disposal and Waterflooding on the WIPP. WPO #44158. June.

Telander, M. R., and R. E. Westerman, 1997. Hydrogen Generation by Metal Corrosion in Simulated WIPP Environments. SAND96-2538. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Laboratories.

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 1994. Report on the Emergency Response Training and Equipment Activities through Fiscal Year 1993 for the Transportation of Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision to DOE/WIPP 92-055 (November 1992). DOE/WIPP 93-061. April. Albuquerque, NM: DOE.

U.S. Department of Energy, 1995. Emergency Planning, Response, and Recovery Roles and Responsibilities for TRU-Waste Transportation Incidents. DOE/CAO-94-1039. January. Nevada: DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and Carlsbad Area Office.

U.S. Department of Energy, 1996. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan: Interim Change. CAO-94-1010. November 16. Carlsbad, NM: U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office.

U.S. Department of Energy, 1998. TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. CAO-94-1010 Revision 1.0. December 18. Carlsbad, NM: U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office.

U.S. Department of Energy, 2000. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal. USDOE/CAO-00-3124. February. Carlsbad, NM: U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office.

U.S. Department of Energy, 2000. CH-TRU Waste Transportation System. Rail Study. DOE/WIPP 00-2016. September. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office.

Westinghouse Electric Co., 1997. TRUPACT-II Payload Expansion Plan. December. Carlsbad, NM: Westinghouse Electric Co., Waste Isolation Division.

WIPP, 1996. Lower-tier Monitoring Plan: Groundwater Surveillance Program Plan, WP 02-1, Revision 3. Online. Available at www.wipp.carlsbad.nm.us/wipp.htm.

WIPP, 1997. Lower-tier Monitoring Plan: Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Plan, WP 02-PC.02, Revision 0. Online. Available at www.wipp.carlsbad.nm.us/wipp.htm.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
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WIPP, 1997. Lower-tier Monitoring Plan: WIPP Waste Information System Program, WP 05-WA.02, Revision 0. April 15. Online. Available at www.wipp.carlsbad.nm.us/wipp.htm.

WIPP, 1998. Lower-tier Monitoring Plan: WIPP Geotechnical Engineering Program Plan, WP 07-01, Revision 2. Online. Available at www.wipp.carlsbad.nm.us/wipp.htm.

WIPP, 1997. Lower-tier Monitoring Plan: WIPP Underground and Surface Surveying Program, WP09-ES.01, Revision 1. Online. Available at www.wipp.carlsbad.nm.us/wipp.htm.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
×
Page 139
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
×
Page 140
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
×
Page 141
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Other Relevant Documents." National Research Council. 2001. Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10143.
×
Page 142
Improving Operations and Long-Term Safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report Get This Book
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The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground mined facility for the disposal of transuranic waste resulting from the nation's defense program. Transuranic waste is defined as waste contaminated with transuranic radionuclides with half-life greater than 20 years and activity greater than 100 nanocuries per gram. The waste mainly consists of contaminated protective clothing, rags, old tools and equipment, pieces of dismantled buildings, chemical residues, and scrap materials. The total activity of the waste expected to be disposed at the WIPP is estimated to be approximately 7 million curies, including 12,900 kilograms of plutonium distributed throughout the waste in very dilute form. The WIPP is located near the community of Carlsbad, in southeastern New Mexico. The geological setting is a 600-meter thick, 250 million-year-old saltbed, the Salado Formation, lying 660 meters below the surface.

The National Research Council (NRC) has been providing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific and technical evaluations of the WIPP since 1978. The committee's task is twofold: (1) to identify technical issues that can be addressed to enhance confidence in the safe and long-term performance of the repository and (2) to identify opportunities for improving the National Transuranic (TRU) Program for waste management, especially with regard to the safety of workers and the public.

This is the first full NRC report issued following the certification of the facility by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 18, 1998. An interim report was issued by the committee in April 2000 and is reproduced in this report. The main findings and recommendations from the interim report have been incorporated into the body of this report. The overarching finding and recommendation of this report is that the activity that would best enhance confidence in the safe and long-term performance of the repository is to monitor critical performance parameters during the long pre-closure phase of repository operations (35 to possibly 100 years). Indeed, in the first 50 to 100 years the rates of important processes such as salt creep, brine inflow (if any), and microbial activity are predicted to be the highest and will be less significant later. The committee recommends that the results of the on-site monitoring program be used to improve the performance assessment for recertification purposes. These results will determine whether the need for a new performance assessment is warranted. For the National TRU Program, the committee finds that the DOE is implementing many of the recommendations of its interim report. It is important that the DOE continue its efforts to improve the packaging, characterization, and transportation of the transuranic waste.

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