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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology

A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE

Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division of Earth and Life Studies

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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    NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

    Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-9630106, the National Institutes of Health under Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, and the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER14556. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Energy.

    International Standard Book Number 0-309-07573-4

    Additional copies of this report are available from:

    National Academy Press
    2101 Constitution Avenue, NW
    Box 285
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    Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW
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    Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

    Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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    THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

    National Academy of Sciences

    National Academy of Engineering

    Institute of Medicine

    National Research Council

    The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

    The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

    The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

    The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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    CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE

    RICHARD C. ALKIRE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Chair

    MARION C. THURNAUER, Argonne National Laboratory, Vice Chair

    ALEXIS T. BELL, University of California, Berkeley

    DARYLE H. BUSCH, University of Kansas

    MARCETTA Y. DARENSBOURG, Texas A&M University

    MICHAEL P. DOYLE, Research Corporation

    BRUCE A. FINLAYSON, University of Washington

    MICHAEL J. GOLDBLATT, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    RICHARD M. GROSS, Dow Chemical Company

    ESIN GULARI, National Science Foundation

    L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Atofina Chemicals, Inc.

    ANDREW KALDOR, Exxon Mobil

    FLINT LEWIS, American Chemical Society

    MARY L. MANDICH, Bell Laboratories

    ROBERT S. MARIANELLI, Office of Science and Technology Policy

    TOBIN J. MARKS, Northwestern University

    JOE J. MAYHEW, Chemical Manufacturers Association

    WILLIAM S. MILLMAN, U.S. Department of Energy

    NORINE E. NOONAN, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    JANET G. OSTERYOUNG, National Science Foundation

    NANCY L. PARENTEAU, Organogenesis, Inc.

    MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institute of General Medical Sciences

    HRATCH G. SEMERJIAN, National Institute of Standards and Technology

    PETER J. STANG, University of Utah

    D. AMY TRAINOR, Zeneca Pharmaceuticals

    JEANETTE M. VAN EMON, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Exposure Research Laboratory

    ISIAH M. WARNER, Louisiana State University

    Staff

    RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer

    SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate

    DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

    SCOTT C. JENKINS, National Research Council Intern

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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    BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

    KENNETH N. RAYMOND, Co-Chair, University of California

    JOHN L. ANDERSON, Co-Chair, Carnegie Mellon University

    JOSEPH M. DESIMONE, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University

    CATHERINE C. FENSELAU, University of Maryland

    ALICE P. GAST, Stanford University

    RICHARD M. GROSS, Dow Chemical Company

    NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratory

    GEORGE E. KELLER II, Union Carbide Company (retired)

    SANGTAE KIM, Eli Lilly and Company

    WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University

    THOMAS J. MEYER, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    PAUL J. REIDER, Merck Research Laboratories

    LYNN F. SCHNEEMEYER, Bell Laboratories

    MARTIN B. SHERWIN, ChemVen Group, Inc.

    JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Kodak Company

    CHRISTINE S. SLOANE, General Motors Research Laboratories

    ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology

    PETER J. STANG, University of Utah

    JOHN C. TULLY, Yale University

    CHI-HUEY WONG, Scripps Research Institute

    STEVEN W. YATES, University of Kentucky

    Staff

    DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director

    RUTH MCDIARMID, Program Officer

    CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer

    SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Preface

The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities. Organized by the NRC's Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. The CSR does this primarily by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national attention.

The topic “Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences” was selected by the Chemical Sciences Roundtable in response to concern that the chemical sciences community should be prepared to respond in the event that a policy decision might be implemented in the area of carbon management. The workshop, entitled Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences, brought together leaders in chemistry and chemical engineering from government, academia, and industry to gather information and explore possible roles that the chemical sciences R&D community might play in identifying and addressing underlying chemical questions that might arise if government action were taken to regulate carbon dioxide output or fossil fuel consumption. The workshop focused not on the debate over whether we have seen anthropogenically driven climate change or what the climate change effects might be, but on how the chemical community could prepare for and react to a possible national policy of carbon management.

The chapters in this report are the authors' own versions of their presentations, and the discussion comments were taken from a transcript of the workshop. In accord with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the NRC or any of its constituent units.

Alexis T. Bell and Tobin J. Marks

Workshop Organizers

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

David C. Bonner, Rohm and Haas Company
Glenn A. Crosby, Washington State University
Joseph M. DeSimone, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University
Gregg Marland, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Edward M. Arnett, Duke University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the organizers and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Contents

Summary 1
1     Carbon Management: The Challenge
James A. Edmonds, J. F. Clarke, and J. J. Dooley (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
7
2     Carbon Dioxide Mitigation: A Challenge for the Twenty-First Century
David C. Thomas (BP Amoco Corporation)
33
3     An Industry Perspective on Carbon Management
Brian P. Flannery (ExxonMobil Corporation)
44
4     Opportunities for Carbon Control in the Electric Power Industry
John C. Stringer (Electric Power Research Institute)
60
        Session 1 Panel Discussion, 73
5     Carbon Dioxide as a Feedstock
Carol Creutz and Etsuko Fujita (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
83
6     Advanced Engine and Fuel Systems Development for Minimizing Carbon Dioxide Generation
James A. Spearot (General Motors Corporation)
93
7     Renewable Energy: Generation, Storage, and Utilization
John Turner (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
111
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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8     Industrial Carbon Management: An Overview
David W. Keith (Carnegie Mellon University)
127
        Session 2 Panel Discussion, 141
9     Managing Carbon Losses for Selective Oxidation Catalysis
Leo E. Manzer (DuPont Central Research and Development)
147
10     Increasing Efficiencies for Hydrocarbon Activation
Harold H. Kung (Northwestern University)
159
11     Commodity Polymers from Renewable Resources: Polyactic Acid
Patrick R. Gruber (Cargill Dow LLC)
166
12     Chemicals from Plants
John W. Frost, K. M. Draths, David R. Knop, Mason K. Harrup, Jessica L. Barker, and Wei Niu (Michigan State University)
185
        Session 3 Panel Discussion, 197
Appendixes
    A     Workshop Participants 211
    B     Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers 214
    C     Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable 220
    D     Acronyms and Definitions 222
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Carbon Management: Implications for R&D in the Chemical Sciences and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10153.
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Considerable international concerns exist about global climate change and its relationship to the growing use of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is released by chemical reactions that are employed to extract energy from fuels, and any regulatory policy limiting the amount of CO2 that could be released from sequestered sources or from energy-generating reactions will require substantial involvement of the chemical sciences and technology R&D community.

Much of the public debate has been focused on the question of whether global climate change is occurring and, if so, whether it is anthropogenic, but these questions were outside the scope of the workshop, which instead focused on the question of how to respond to a possible national policy of carbon management. Previous discussion of the latter topic has focused on technological, economic, and ecological aspects and on earth science challenges, but the fundamental science has received little attention. This workshop was designed to gather information that could inform the Chemical Sciences Roundtable in its discussions of possible roles that the chemical sciences community might play in identifying and addressing underlying chemical questions.

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