National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Dietary Reference Intakes Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber


A Report of the Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber
and the
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes
Food and Nutrition Board
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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    NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

    NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

    Support for this project was provided by Health Canada; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282-96-0033, TO4; the Dietary Reference Intakes Private Foundation Fund, including the Dannon Institute and the International Life Sciences Institute; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors' Fund. Contributors to the Fund to date include Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc.; Kemin Foods, L.C.; M&M/Mars; Mead Johnson Nutritionals; Nabisco Foods Group; Natural Source Vitamin E Association; Roche Vitamins Inc.; U.S. Borax; and Weider Nutrition Group. The opinions or conclusions expressed herein are those of the committee and do not necessarily reflect those of the funders.

    International Standard Book No. 0-309-07564-5

    This report is available for sale from the National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. , Box 285, Washington, DC 20055 ; call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP's online bookstore at http://www.nap.edu .

    For more information about the Institute of Medicine or the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM home page at http://www.iom.edu .

    Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved.

    Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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“Knowing is not enough; we must apply, Willing is not enough; we must do.”

—Goethe

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~ enlarge ~


INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

Shaping the Future for Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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    THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

    National Academy of Sciences

    National Academy of Engineering

    Institute of Medicine

    National Research Council

    The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

    The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

    The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

    The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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    PANEL ON THE DEFINITION OF DIETARY FIBER

    JOANNE R. LUPTON (chair), Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station

    GEORGE C. FAHEY, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    DAVID A. JENKINS, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario

    JUDITH A. MARLETT, Department of Nutritional Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    JOANNE L. SLAVIN, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

    JON A. STORY, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

    CHRISTINE L. WILLIAMS, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, Babies and Children's Hospital of New York

    Consultants

    LEON PROSKY, Prosky Associates, Rockville, Maryland

    ALISON M. STEPHEN, CANTOX Health Sciences International, Mississauga, Ontario

    Staff

    PAULA R. TRUMBO, Study Director

    CARRIE L. HOLLOWAY, Research Assistant

    MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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    STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

    VERNON R. YOUNG (chair), Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

    JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (vice chair), Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    LINDSAY H. ALLEN, Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis

    STEPHANIE A. ATKINSON, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario

    ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville

    JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

    JOHN D. FERNSTROM, UPMC Health System Weight Management Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania

    SCOTT M. GRUNDY, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

    SANFORD A. MILLER, Center for Food and Nutrition Policy, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

    WILLIAM M. RAND, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

    U.S. Government Liaison

    KATHRYN McMURRY, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

    Canadian Government Liaison

    PETER W.F. FISCHER, Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa

    Staff

    ALLISON A. YATES, Study Director

    GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

    MARY POOS, Senior Program Officer

    SANDRA SCHLICKER, Senior Program Officer

    PAULA R. TRUMBO, Senior Program Officer

    KIMBERLY FREITAG, Research Associate

    ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate

    CARRIE L. HOLLOWAY, Research Assistant

    SHELLEY GOLDBERG, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Page vii

    FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD

    CUTBERTO GARZA (chair), Division of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

    ALFRED H. MERRILL, JR. (vice chair), Department of Biochemistry and Center for Nutrition and Health Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

    ROBERT M. RUSSELL (vice chair), Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

    VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS (vice chair), Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    LARRY R. BEUCHAT, Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, University of Georgia, Griffin

    BENJAMIN CABALLERO, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

    ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville

    SHIRIKI KUMANYIKA, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia

    LYNN PARKER, Child Nutrition Programs and Nutrition Policy, Food Research and Action Center, Washington, D.C.

    ROSS L. PRENTICE, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington

    A. CATHARINE ROSS, Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

    ROBERT E. SMITH, R.E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont

    STEVE L. TAYLOR, Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

    IOM Liaison

    JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

    Staff

    ALLISON A. YATES, Director

    GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

    ALISON GROGAN, Financial Associate

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Page viii

REVIEWERS

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Nils-Georg Asp, Lund University, Sweden; Fergus Clydesdale, University of Massachusetts at Amherst; Martin Eastwood, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland; Betty Li, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland; Michael McBurney, W.K. Kellogg Institute, Battle Creek, Michigan; and Irwin Rosenberg, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Judith Stern, University of California at Davis, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Contents

I.     OVERVIEW AND CHARGE TO THE PANEL 1
II     DEFINITIONS OF DIETARY FIBER 3
III.     ISSUES IN DEFINING DIETARY FIBER 12
IV.     PROPOSED DEFINITION OF DIETARY FIBER 22
V.     IMPACT OF THE DEFINITIONS OF DIETARY FIBER AND UNRESOLVED ISSUES 26
VI.     REFERENCES 34
APPENDIX A:     Acknowledgments 43
APPENDIX B:     Glossary 45
APPENDIX C:     Development and Evolution of Methods Used to Purify and Measure Dietary Fiber 49
APPENDIX D:     Determination of Energy Values for Fibers 63
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10161.
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The current situation regarding labeling and defining dietary fiber in the United States and many other countries is arbitrary due to its reliance on analytical methods as opposed to an accurate definition that includes its role in health. Without an accurate definition, compounds can be designed or isolated and concentrated using the currently available methods, without necessarily providing beneficial health effects. Other compounds can be developed that are nondigestible and provide beneficial health effects, yet do not meet the current U.S. definition based on analytical methods. For the above reasons, the Food and Nutrition Board, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fiber. This Panel held three meetings and a workshop.

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