Biographies of Committee Members and Key NRC Staff
NORMAN R.AUGUSTINE (Chair) retired in 1997 as chair and CEO of Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC). Prior to the formation of Lockheed Martin, he served as chair and CEO of the Martin Marietta Corporation. After retiring from LMC, he served as a member of the faculty of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University. In 1965, he served in the Pentagon in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 1973, he returned to government as assistant secretary of the Army and in 1975 became under secretary. Mr. Augustine has served as chairman of numerous committees, boards, and advisory panels for the government and has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Planetary Society. He has been awarded numerous medals, including the National Medal of Technology and, on five occasions, the Department of Defense’s highest civilian decoration, the Distinguished Service Medal. He is a former chair of the National Academy of Engineering and a former president of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and he has served on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. He holds eighteen honorary doctorate degrees.
LEWIS M.BRANSCOMB is the emeritus Aetna Professor of Public Policy and Corporate Management and emeritus director of the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program in the Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government.
He was a research physicist at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) and also served as its director. Dr. Branscomb was the founder and first director of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics at the University of Colorado, and was an at-large director of the Associated Universities for Research in Astronomy. He served on the President’s Science Advisory Committee, chairing the PSAC Committee on Space Science and Technology during Project Apollo. He served as vice president and chief scientist of IBM Corporation until his retirement from IBM in 1986. Dr. Branscomb is a former president of the American Physical Society and of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society.
CLAUDE CANIZARES is the Bruno Rossi Professor of Experimental Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and director of the Center for Space Research. He is a principal investigator on NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, leading the development of the High Resolution Transmission Grating Spectrometer for this major space observatory, and is associate director of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center. He has also worked on several other space astronomy missions, including as co-investigator on the Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2). His main research interests are high-resolution spectroscopy and plasma diagnostics of supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies, cooling flows in galaxies and clusters, x-ray studies of dark matter, x-ray properties of quasars and active galactic nuclei, and gravitational lenses. He served on the NASA Advisory Council and was chair of the NRC’s Space Studies Board. Dr. Canizares is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the American Physical Society, a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
SANDRA FABER is a professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California at Santa Cruz and an astronomer at the University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory. Dr. Faber’s research is conducted on the structure and origin of galaxies, the origin of structure in the universe, the nature of the Big Bang, the formation of the Milky Way, distributions and motions of nearby galaxies in space, design and construction of modern, large optical telescopes, and optical instrumentation for astronomy. She is currently the principal investigator for the Deep-Imaging Multiobject Spectrograph Project on the second Keck Telescope and was formerly involved with the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera I. She was co-chair of the Keck Science Steering Committee during the Keck Telescope construction and is a trustee of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dr. Faber has been a leader in developing a physi-
cal understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, beginning with her development of the means for decomposing the spectra of galaxies into their component stellar populations. She is a former member of the NRC Panel on Cosmology, the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Committee on the Physics of the Universe.
ROBERT D.GEHRZ is a professor of physics and astronomy and director of the observatories at the University of Minnesota. From 1972 until 1985, Dr. Gehrz was on the faculty of the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Wyoming, where he and John A.Hackwell built the Wyoming Infrared Observatory with funds they obtained from the State of Wyoming and the National Science Foundation. His primary research contributions are on the physical properties of astrophysical grains in interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system environments, the physics of nova explosions and their chemical contributions to the interstellar medium, the physical characteristics of the circumstellar ejecta of luminous stars, the infrared morphology of regions of star formation, and the infrared activity of comet nuclei. In addition to his research effort in ground-based observations and instrumentation development, Dr. Gehrz has obtained space astronomy observations with the European Space Agency’s Infrared Space Observatory and NASA observatories including the International Ultra-Violet Explorer, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Dr. Gehrz is a member of the Science Working Group for NASA’s Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for which he performs facility scientist duties and leads the SIRTF Community Task Force. Dr. Gehrz was elected a fellow (nonresident) of the Explorer’s Club in 1979 and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1995. He was the chair and a member of the Board of the International Gemini Project from 1996 to 1999 and was president of the American Astronomical Society from 1998 to 2000. He has been a member of the AURA Board (director-at-large), the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (Field Committee), the Committee for Planetary and Lunar Exploration, the NSF Astronomy Advisory Committee, and NASA’s Space Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Gehrz has also chaired or served as a member of numerous other committees and advisory panels for government agencies, national laboratories, and universities.
PHILIP R.GOODE is director of the Big Bear Solar Observatory at Big Bear Lake, California; Distinguished Professor of Physics and Mathematics at the New Jersey Institute of Technology; and a visiting associate in physics, mathematics, and astronomy at the California Institute of Technology. His primary research interests are in solar physics and global
climate change. These include the internal structure of the Sun, the nature of the Sun’s magnetic fields, flares, coronal mass ejections, and space weather. He is also measuring and modeling Earth’s reflectance from studies of earthshine and satellite cloud cover data, respectively. Dr. Goode was a member of the NRC Panel on Solar Astronomy (1998–2000), which advised the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee on scientific opportunities and priorities in the field of solar astronomy, and is currently a member of the survey committee for the NRC study on solar and space physics. He served on the most recent Committee of Visitors for NSF’s Astronomical Sciences Division.
BURTON RICHTER, the Paul Pigott Professor in the Physical Sciences at Stanford University, was jointly awarded the 1976 Nobel Prize for Physics with Samuel C.C.Ting for the discovery of a new subatomic particle, the J/psi particle. In 1956, he became a research associate at Stanford University, becoming a full professor in 1967. His research has focused on quantum electrodynamics, elementary particles, and accelerator physics. In 1973, he completed construction of the Stanford Positron-Electron Asymmetric Ring, a colliding-beam accelerator with which he discovered a new subatomic particle, the first of a new class of very massive, long-lived mesons. Dr. Richter was later instrumental in the conception and construction of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider, where he served as technical director, becoming director in 1984 and then returning to research in 1999. Dr. Richter is a past president of the American Physical Society and is currently president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics.
ANNEILA I.SARGENT is a professor of astronomy at the California Institute of Technology, as well as director of the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and of the Interferometry Science Center at Caltech. Her research concentrates on observational studies of star and planet formation. Dr. Sargent has chaired NASA’s Space Science Advisory Committee and served on the NASA advisory council. She has also served on the advisory committee for the National Science Foundation’s Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate. She was a member of the most recent Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. Currently, Dr. Sargent is president of the American Astronomical Society and is a member of the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. She is an associate of the Royal Astronomical Society.
FRANK H.SHU is a professor of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, and University Professor, University of California. His research concerns the astrophysical processes of star formation, the dynamics and
structure of galaxies, the physics of the interstellar medium, and planetary system formation. He is the recipient of the 1977 Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society, the 1996 Brouwer Award of the Division of Dynamical Astronomy of the American Astronomical Society, and the 2000 Dannie Heineman Prize of the American Astronomical Society and the American Institute of Physics. Prof. Shu serves as co-chair of the science working group for NASA’s Terrestrial Planter Finder project, a member of the Center for Star Formation Studies (NASA Astrophysics Theory Program), and a member of National Optical Astronomy Observatory’s science working group on the Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project. He is a member of the Center for Integrative Planetary Science at the University of California at Berkeley and is chair of the advisory panel for Academia Sinica’s Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Prof. Shu served on the 1983 Astronomy Survey Committee and was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Astronomical Union. He was a member of the 2001 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee’s Panel on Astronomy Education and Policy. He is a past president of the American Astronomical Society.
MAXINE FRANK SINGER is the president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and Scientist Emeritus at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Prior to coming to Carnegie in 1988, she was chief of the Laboratory of Biochemistry, Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis at the National Cancer Institute, where she conducted research in biological chemistry and molecular genetics. At the Carnegie Institution, Dr. Singer oversees the operations and research of five renowned scientific research laboratories, including the Carnegie Observatories and its telescopes at Las Campanas, Chile. She also has instituted a community outreach and education program that brings leading scientific speakers to the community and trains local science teachers. Dr. Singer is a member of various advisory panels to scientific societies, the government, and academia. Currently she chairs the Academies’ Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy and serves on the NASA Astrobiology Institute Scientific Advisory Board.
ROBERT WILLIAMS is currently the Distinguished Research Scholar of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, having served as director of the Institute from 1993 to 1998. The Institute, together with Goddard Space Flight Center, operates the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope for NASA. Before assuming his present position Dr. Williams spent 8 years in Chile as director of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, the national observatory of the United States in the southern hemisphere. He was a Senior Fulbright Professor at the
University of London from 1971 to 1972 and received the Alexander von Humboldt Award from the German government in 1991. Dr. Williams’ research has focused on exploding stars and diffuse gas clouds in space, and he has been a strong advocate of public outreach for science. In 1998 he was awarded the Beatrice Tinsley Prize of the American Astronomical Society for his leadership of the Hubble Deep Field project, which used the Hubble Telescope to study distant galaxies in the early universe. For this project, he was awarded the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal in 1999.
JOSEPH K.ALEXANDER, JR., has been director of the NRC Space Studies Board since February 1998. Mr. Alexander served as deputy assistant administrator for science in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development from 1994 to 1998. Prior to joining EPA, he spent 32 years at NASA as associate director of space sciences at the Goddard Space Flight Center (1993–1994), assistant associate administrator for space sciences and applications in the Office of Space Science and Applications (1987–1993), acting director of life sciences (1992–1993), deputy NASA chief scientist (1985–1987), and senior policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (1984–1985). Prior to those assignments he conducted basic research in astronomy, planetary exploration, and space physics (1962–1984).
JOEL R.PARRIOTT is a senior program officer at the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. Dr. Parriott came to the NRC in 1998 after receiving his Ph.D. in astronomy and astrophysics from the University of Michigan. His research, for which he received the Ralph B.Baldwin Prize from the University of Michigan, involved gas dynamics in elliptical galaxies and high-performance parallel computing. In addition to serving as the study director for this report, Dr. Parriott is the staff officer for the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, the Committee on the Physics of the Universe, and the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics.
DONALD C.SHAPERO received the B.S degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964 and the Ph.D. from MIT in 1970. His thesis addressed the asymptotic behavior of relativistic quantum field theories. After receiving the Ph.D., he became a Thomas J.Watson Postdoctoral Fellow at IBM. He subsequently became an assistant professor at American University, later moving to Catholic University and then joining the staff of the National Research Council in 1975. He took a leave
of absence from the NRC in 1978 to serve as the first executive director of the Energy Research Advisory Board at the Department of Energy. He returned to the NRC in 1979 to serve as special assistant to the president of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1982, he started the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. As BPA director, he has played a key role in many NRC studies, including the two most recent surveys of physics and the two most recent surveys of astronomy and astrophysics. He is a member of the American Physical Society, the American Astronomical Society, and the International Astronomical Union. He has published research articles in refereed journals in high-energy physics, condensed-matter physics, and environmental science.