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188 COAL WASTE IMPOUNDMENTS suspended in ponded water in a small impoundment. The success of this method is closely linked to the ratio of coarse to fine particles. It also depends on gradation of the refuse (large gaps in particle size are not acceptable) and proper particle shape (angular or "platy" particles cause problems). Since the impounding structure is raised by deposition of mostly coarse material, it does not compact as the structure increases in elevation. This method has been used primarily in sparsely populated areas with Tow annual rainfall. Questions remain about its suitability for steep hills with high annual rainfall. Unlike a conventional slurry impoundment, which contains only fine refuse, the co-disposal system places all refuse (both coarse and fine) in a slurry and deposits it behind an impounding structure. Therefore, even though the refuse dewaters more quickly and forms a stable bench, it requires more impoundment storage volume than an impoundment designed only for fine refuse. So, for steep terrains, this factor negates the advantage of less total storage area by actually requiring more material (both coarse and fine) to be placed in an impoundment. Its use would hinge on whether increased stability of the refuse outweighs the additional volume of the impoundment. If an effective dewatering approach, such as paste thickening, is used, the resulting waste can be disposed of by thickened high-density residue stacking (tech Brzezinski, LSB Consulting Services, personal communication, 20011. Deep cone paste thickeners produce a homogeneous, non-segregating paste with a solids content of approximately 60 percent. The degree of dewatering is determined by the pumping capabilities. Under controlled conditions, the paste can be deposited in thin layers over the disposal site at uniform slopes of 2 to 5 percent and does not require an impoundment structure. This method is most suitable for homogeneous residues of fine gradation, where the thickening process prevents segregation of the coarse and fine particles during transportation. Thickened high-density residue stacking was developed more than 20 years ago to handle red mud tailings generated by alumina plants. It has been used for approximately 10 years for disposal of gold and base PrepublicaVon Version - Subject to Further Editorial Correction
Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members FRANKLIN M. ORR, JR., chair, is the Beat Professor and Dean of the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University. His research interests include multicomponent fluid phase equilibrium and its interactions with multiphase flow in porous media. Previously he served as chair of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford University and held positions at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Shell Development Company, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. He is a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathe- matics. He is vice-chair of the board of directors of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and member of the board of directors of the David and Lucite Packard Foundation Fellowships in Science and Engi- neering. He is also a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has served as chair on the Panel for Review of the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. GARY A. DAVIS is the founder and director of the University of Tennessee Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies, a senior fellow at the University of Tennessee Energy, Environment, and Resources Center, and an adjunct professor of environmental law at the University of Tennessee. He holds a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Cincinnati and a J.D. from the University of Tennessee. He has conducted research on the life-cycle environmental impacts of products, substitutes for polluting products, and policies to encourage the use of cleaner products and processes. Mr. Davis has been working on technical and policy issues related to pollution prevention for more than 20 years. He has published numerous books and articles on a variety of environmental issues. He was previously with the California Governor's Office, where he worked on hazardous waste and hazardous substance policy. He has also practiced environmental law for 17 years. 189
190 COAL WASTEIMPOUNDMENTS BARBARA A. FILAS, P.E., vice president, Mining and Environment, Knight Piesold Consulting, is a mining engineer with more than 20 years of experience in surface and underground mine operations, engineering, and regulatory support for coal, metals, and industrial mineral mining projects. Knight Piesold is one of the top dam design consulting firms in the world. Previously Ms. Filas was an engineer with Atlas Minerals, Summit Minerals, Monterey Coal Company, and U.S. Steel Corporation with expertise in waste containment facility design, reclamation plans and surety estimates, environmental site and compliance audits, and storm water and sedimen- tation control designs. Ms. Filas holds a B.S. in mining engineering from the University of Arizona. She is a member of several professional organizations such as the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (having served as chair of its Environmental Division and on its Board of Directors) and the National Society of Professional Engineers, and currently serves as a program reviewer for the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Tech- nology. She has published numerous articles on environmental aspects of new project development, environmental controls, and mine waste disposal issues and mine closure and reclamation. C. DAVID HENRY is vice president of operations, Beard Technologies, Inc. There his focus is to develop coal recovery operations through the utilization of advanced technologies and to produce a high-grade fine coal product to be sold in the general coal market. Previously, he held engineering positions at C.D.H. Consulting and Mineral Development Corporation. His area of expertise includes recovery and reclamation of coal slurry impoundments, testing and analysis of coal slurry samples, slurry pond reclamation design, and coal preparation. He has designed a sampling system to extract slurry materials from impoundment structures and a dredging unit. NORBERT R. MORGENSTERN is a university professor of civil engi- neering (emeritus), University of Alberta, and an internationally recognized authority in the field of geotechnical engineering. He was key to the development of one of the leading geotechnical schools, bringing about the foundation of modern practice in permafrost engineering and slope design. Professor Morgenstern has received numerous awards, among them: the Walter Huber Engineering Research Prize from the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Canadian Geotechnical Society Prize, including the Legget Award, the Alberta Order of Excellence, and the Order of Canada. His publications number approximately 300, dealing with foundation engineering, environmental issues, mine abandonment, soil and rock
APPENDIXA 191 mechanics, embankment dams, and arctic soils and excavation. He is affiliated with several professional associations and has served on various committees, including the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation engineering (past president), the Engineering Institute of Canad (past president), the Canadian Geoscience Council (past president), the Canadian Geotechnical Society, the Association of Engineering Geologists, and the Geological Society of London. Professor Morgenstern has consulted on projects in 35 countries and has assisted in technology transfer to developing countries through the United Nations and other agencies. He is also a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the National Academies of Engineering in Canada, the United Kingdom, and India. DAVID A. NEWMAN, P.E., P.G., is president of Appalachian Mining and Engineering, Inc./Geolab and president of Newman Engineering, PSC. From 1984 to 1988, he was an assistant professor of mining engineering at the University of Kentucky. He holds a Ph.D. in mining engineering from Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Newman's areas of expertise include rock and soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering, subsidence prediction and abatement, slope stability, analysis of refuse impoundment stability, underground mine stability, and evaluation of underground mine workings beneath coal refuse impoundments. He holds patent disclosures for sampling devices and mining equipment. He has directed a number of projects on slope stability, focusing on computer-based analysis of soil slopes and impoundments; operational and regulatory considerations for a slurry impoundment; and slurry reclamation. Dr. Newman's memberships in professional societies include the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., serving on the Rock Mechanics Award Committee, as chair and the Professional Engineering Examination Committee; and the Acid Mine Drainage Committee of the National Coal Association. RAJA V. RAMANI, P.E., holds the Anne B. and George H. Jr. Deike Chair in mining engineering at the Pennsylvania State University where he has been on the faculty since 1970 and is a professor of mining and geo- environmental engineering. His research activities include 6 years of experience in the coal mining industry, flow mechanisms of air, gas, and dust in mining environs, innovative mining methods, and health, safety, productivity, and environmental issues in the mineral industry. He has published more than 200 research papers, contributed to 25 books, and edited the proceedings of 15 national and international symposiums. Dr. Ramani has been a consultant to the United Nations and the World Bank and
192 COAL WASTEIMPOUNDMENTS has received numerous awards from academic and technical and professional societies. He was the 1995 president of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. He served on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Mine Health Research Advisory Committee (1991-1998~. He was the chair of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Post Disaster Survival and Rescue (1979-1981), and served on the NAS Committee on Mining Technologies (2000-2001) and the Health Research Panel of the NAS Committee on the Research programs of the U.S. Bureau of Mines (1994~. He was a member of the Department of the Interior's Advisory Board to the Director of U.S. Bureau of Mines (1995), and a member of the Secretary of Labor's Advisory Committee on the Elimination of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (1995-1996~. ROBERT L. SCHUSTER, P.E., P.G., is an engineering geology and geotechnical engineering consultant. He retired from the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 but continues to serve that agency as a scientist emeritus. His research interests include slope failure, engineering geologic aspects of natural, water-storage, and tailings dams, and geologic hazards mitigation. He holds a Ph.D. from Purdue University in civil engineering. He has served as professor of civil engineering at the University of Colorado, professor and head of the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Idaho, and chief of the Engineering Geology Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Among other honors, Dr. Schuster has been awarded the Distinguished Service Award of the U.S. Department of the Interior, the International Meritorious Service Award of The Japan Landslide Society, a NATO Senior Fellowship in Science to the University of London, and a Senior Fulbright Scholarship to MacQuarie University, Australia. He is a member or fellow of numerous professional societies and has served on several NRC boards and committees. Dr. Schuster has written or edited more than 250 papers, texts, and reports on topics in engineering geology and geotechnical engineering. MADAN M. SINGH, P.E., is president of Engineers International, Inc. He has held research positions at the Pennsylvania State University and IIT Research Institute. Dr. Singh's research interests and expertise encompass diverse aspects of rock mechanics, mining, hydrogeology, and geotechnical engineering. He developed a graduate-level course in mine subsidence engineering at the Pennsylvania State University and acted as advisor during the drafting of subsidence-control legislation in He Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He has a Ph.D. in mining engineering from the Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Singh has served in several capacities for professional societies, including national director of the American Consulting Engineers
APPENDIXA 193 Council, president of the Consulting Engineers Council of Illinois, member of the Board of Directors of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), chair of the SME Coal Division, and chair of the American Society for Testing and Materials subcommittee on rock strength. He has authored more than 100 technical papers, in addition to serving as chapter author on mine subsidence in the SME Mining Engineering Handbook (also associate editor) and Mining Environmental Handbook and, as editor of the "Legislative Update" for the Hazardous Waste Action Coalition. Dr. Singh has served on two NAS/NRC committees, the U.S. National Committee on Rock Mechanics (1977-1980) and the U.S. National Committee on Tunneling Technology (1974-1976~. He was named a Centennial Fellow by the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences (1996) and honored with the Robert Stefanko Distinguished Achievement Award by the Department of Energy and Geoenvironmental Engineering (1999), both at the Pennsylvania State University. He won the Howard N. Eavenson Award of SME in 2000. DON W. STEEPLES, is currently Dean A. McGee Distinguished Professor of Applied Geophysics, Department of Geology at the University of Kansas, and president of Great Plains Geophysical, Inc. Previously, he held positions at the Kansas Geological Survey. He holds a Ph.D. in geophysics from Stanford University. Dr. Steeples is involved in the development and appli- cation of noninvasive geophysical techniques, specifically, shallow seismic reflection methods applied to environmental and groundwater problems. He has served on several NAS/NRC committees, such as the Committee for Noninvasive Characterization of the Shallow Subsurface for Environmental and Engineering Applications, the Geotechnical Board, and the Committee to Examine the Research Needs of the Advanced Extraction and Process Technology Program. He has published more than 100 articles on the application of geophysical methods and is currently an editorial referee for more than 20 scholarly journals, including Geophysical Journal International, Geology, Geophysics, Journal of Applied Geophysics, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, and Journal of Geophysical Research. CLINTON L. STRACHAN, P.E., senior geotechnical engineer, Shepherd Miller Incorporated, is a civil engineer with a specialty in geotechnical engineering. Mr. Strachan has been involved with mining and geotechnical engineering projects worldwide. Project experience includes site selection, site exploration, material characterization, design, permitting, construction, and reclamation. Mr. Strachan holds a B.S. in agricultural engineering
194 COAL WASTEIMPOUNDMENTS (1972) and a M.S. in civil engineering (1979), both from Colorado State University. He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Society of Mining Engineers, and chair of the Tailings Dam Committee, U.S. Society on Dams (formerly the U.S. Commission on Large Dams). Mr. Strachan has authored several papers on mine facilities, site investigation, design, and reclamation. RICHARD J. SWEIGARD, P.E., is chair and professor in the Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kentucky. Prior to his academic positions, he was an engineer for Consol Coal Company and a consulting engineering geologist. Dr. Sweigard's research falls under the category of environmental impacts of mining, including the alleviation of excessive compaction of reconstructed soil, postmining land use, slope stabilization on abandoned mine lands, and disposal of coal combustion by-products. He is a registered engineer in Pennsylvania. His professional activities include membership in the Society of Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, and the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation; and formerly the American Society of Civil Engineers. JACK TISDALE is a self-employed coal mine safety specialist, with a specialty in mine safety programs, Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) regulations, and accident analysis. He is retired from MSHA, where he became chief of the Safety Division and program manager of the Accident Investigation (1991-1997) and worked as a safety specialist (1988- 1991~. He received the Department of Labor Award for Distinguished Career Service (19944. While working at MSHA, he also directed several major MSHA special projects including the Bleeder and Gob Ventilation Training Course, the Surface Haulage Task Force, and the implementation of the 1992 Mine Ventilation Regulations. Previously, he developed safety and training programs while working for several companies within the coal mining industry, including Eastem Associated Coal Corporation (1977- 1982), Pennsylvania Mines Corporation (1982-1985), and Island Creek Corporation (1986-1988~. Mr. Tisdale earned a B.S. degree in mining engineering from the University of Illinois. He served as a commissioned officer with the U.S. Navy Reserve (1955-1957~. He was a federal coal mine inspector for the Bureau of Mines in Kentucky, Virginia, and Indiana (1962- 1971) and the sub-district manager and district manager in Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia (1971-1977~. DAVID R. WIJNSCH, P.G., is currently the state geologist and director of the New Hampshire Geological Survey. He is also an adjunct professor at
APPENDIXA 195 Dartmouth College and the University of New Hampshire. Previously, he was the coordinator of the Coal-Field Hydrology Program at the Kentucky Geological Survey, and an adjunct professor at the University of Kentucky, where he taught courses in applied hydrogeology and low-temperature geochemistry. He holds a Ph.D. in hydrogeology from the University of Kentucky, Lexington. His area of expertise includes mine hydrology and reclamation, geologic hazards, groundwater exploration, and groundwater geochemistry. Dr. Wunsch served as a congressional science fellow, where he advised the U.S. House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources. He has authored more than 40 technical publications related to coalfield hydrology, and has served on numerous state and federal task forces and committees, including the Kentucky Ground Water Monitoring Committee, and an OSM task force charged with preparing a technical guidance document to aid in the prevention of hydraulic blow-outs from underground coal mines. He is a member of several professional organizations, including the Association of American State Geologists, the American Geophysical Union, the Geological Society of America, Sigma Xi, and the Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. Dr. Wunsch was chosen as Outstanding Kentucky Geologist, 1999, by the Kentucky Chapter of the American Institute of Professional Geologists, and by the John Webster Foster Memorial Lecturer, Illinois State University. Dr. Wunsch is a registered professional geologist in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. NRC Staff TAMARA L. DICKINSON, study director, is a Senior Program Officer with the National Research Council's Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, responsible for managing the Earth Resources activities of the Board. She has served as program director for the Petrology and Geochemistry Program in the Division of Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation. She has also served as discipline scientist for the Planetary Materials and Geochemistry Program at NASA Headquarters. As a post-doctoral fellow at the NASA Johnson Space Center, she conducted experiments on the origin and evolution of lunar rocks and highly reduced igneous meteorites. She holds a Ph.D. and an M.S. in geology from the University of New Mexico and a B.A. in geology from the University of Northern Iowa. KAREN L. IMHOF is a senior project assistant for the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources of the National Research Council. She previously =
196 COAL WASTEI`~POUNDMENTS worked on the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. Before coming to the Academies, she worked as a staff and administrative assistant in diverse organizations, including the National Wildlife Federation, and the Three Mile Island nuclear facility. KRISTEN L. KRAPF is a research associate for the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources of the National Research Council. She holds a B.A. and an M.S. in environmental sciences from the University of Virginia. Previously, she was the director of programs at the Renewable Natural Resources Foundation in Bethesda, Maryland. MONICA R. LIPSCOMB is a research assistant for the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources of the National Research Council. She is completing a master's degree in urban and regional planning at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Previously, she served as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Ivory Coast and worked as a biologist at the National Cancer Institute. She holds a B.S. in environmental and forest biology from the State University of New York at Syracuse. KERI H. MOORE is a research associate for the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources at the National Research Council. She holds an M.S. in geology from the Colorado School of Mines and a B.S. in geology with a minor in Russian studies from the College of William and Mary. Previously, she worked as a consulting geologist for mineral exploration companies in Denver and Vancouver. WINFIELD SWANSON is a self-employed editorial consultant who writes, edits, does research, manages projects, and compiles indexes primarily for the scientific community in Washington, DC. From 1984 until 1995, she served as managing editor of the National Geographic Society's scholarly quarterly, Research & Exploration'. She has a B.A. in biology from Adelphi University.