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i From Scarcity to Visibility Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Summary Panel for the Study of Gender Differences in the Career Outcomes of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Policy and Global Affairs National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, D.C.20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by a grant between the National Academy of Sciences, the Andrew W.Mellon Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health (Contract No. DHHS P.O. 263- MD-423043). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publica- tion are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agen- cies that provided support for the project. Additional copies of this summary are available from Policy and Global Affairs, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418; (202) 334â2700; Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
iii The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
iv PANEL FOR THE STUDY OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THECAREER OUTCOMES OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PH.D.S J.SCOTT LONG, Chair,Indiana University LILLI S.HORNIG, Professor emeritus, Wellesley University GEORGINE M.PION, Vanderbilt University ANNE E.PRESTON, Haverford College LEE B.SECHREST, University of Arizona Staff of Policy and Global Affairs CHARLOTTE V.KUH, Executive Director MARILYN J.BAKER, Associate Executive Director LINDA D.SKIDMORE, Director (to November 1997) JONG-ON HAHM, Director (April 1998-Present) ALAN ANDERSON, Consultant