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A Summary of Techniques: Theory, Research, and Applications This appendix is a summary of the techniques covered in the commit- tee's report. For each technique we summarize the theory and assumptions on which it is based, key elements, the types of evaluations that have been employed, the kinds of performance to which it is relevant, results from relevant research, potential applications, and additional comments. SLEEP-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION Theory and Assumptions There is no well-developed theory for sleep-assisted instruction. Theoretical guidance is provided, however, by models of such basic psychological processes as attention and information processing. Conceptualizations are proposed that take into account cognitive organization intrinsic to the natural state of sleep. Key Elements An individual's need to learn (motivation) and configuration of procedures (stimulus intensity, speech quality) as related to the task (learning or memory). Tasks and Designs Laboratory tasks, control-group designs. 235
236 APPENDIX A Performances Assessed Recall, recognition, and relearning of paired associates, nonsense syllables, or sentences. Examples of Results (1) Sleep-assisted instruction effects are stronger for certain sleep stages (EEG activation containing alpha frequencies) and learning tasks (recognition more than recall); (2) presleep set (need to learn specific material) may be essential for sleep-assisted instruction; (3) stronger effects occur with lengthy training sessions, self-motivated subjects, and material presented before, during, and after sleep; (4) retention of material (recall) is facilitated by repetition of the material during stage II but not REM sleep. Applications Extra time for learning for those who spend most of the day on operational tasks. Comments Different results obtained by Western and Soviet investigators are attributed to different emphases; Western EEG-stage studies focus on memory, whereas Soviet suggestibility studies focus on attention. SUGGESTIVE ACCELERATIVE LEARNING AND TEACHING TECHNIQUES (SALTT) Theory and Assumptions The techniques permit content material to bypass traditional emotional blockages and antisuggestive barriers and go directly into long-term memory areas of the brain. The same information is routed simultaneously to different regions of the brain, producing infor- mation gain rather than the information losses of the forgetting curve. In fact, it is claimed that retention is greater over time. Key Elements Relaxation, guided (pleasant) imagery, concentration, and sugges- tion combined the package is what counts.
APPENDIX A 237 Tasks and Designs Classroom instruction in conjunction with courses and foreign language training institutes. Omnibus evaluation experiments involve treatment versus no-treatment packages. Performances Assessed Classroom learning, including reading comprehension, course con- tent (emphasizes gain scores in before-after designs), foreign language learning. Examples of Results (1) Pretest-to-posttest improvements in science performance; (2) increases in pleasantness ratings, self-motivation ratings, and task- commitment appraisals; and (3) no significant differences on foreign language proficiency between SALTT and the standard Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Course instructional methods. Applications A relaxed approach to new materials, overcoming learning blocks in foreign languages. Comments Weak experimental designs are used to evaluate the effects of packages; further analytical work to "unpack" the parts is needed. GUIDED IMAGERY OR REHEARSAL Theory and Assumptions Mental practice is beneficial because it serves either to give the performer a chance to rehearse the sequence of movements as symbolic task components or to provide a preparatory set by focusing attention and lowering sensory thresholds: the former theory is likely to be more appropriate to cognitive tasks, the latter to motor or strength tasks. Other hypotheses deal with effects of prior experience, type of imagery, and low-gain innervation of muscles.
238 APPENDIX A Key Elements Practice performance, imagined outcomes, focused attention, sym- bolic learning, and preset arousal levels. Tasks and Designs Laboratory tasks usually related to a sport; control-group designs, meta-analysis. Performances Assessed Motor skills that may emphasize motor, cognitive, or strength elements, depending on the task, which is usually related to a sport. Examples of Results (1) Mental practice of a motor skill enhances performance somewhat more than no practice; (2) practice or rehearsal produces larger effects on tasks with more symbolic elements (cognitive) than on those that are primarily motor; (3) performance imagery combined with negative outcome imagery produces a decrement in performance; and (4) vivid imagery (strong visual or kinesthetic imagery) or more practice sessions, or both, improves performance, irrespective of pre- ferred cognitive style. Applications Improved performance on tasks for which the visual component is important, such as surface navigation; for other tasks, it may not be better than physical practice. Comments A common conceptual paradign and many studies make this litera- ture suitable for meta-analysis. An updated meta-analysis by Feltz et al. (see Appendix B) takes into account the relative effects of physical and mental rehearsal. SyberVision~ is a popular technique based on mental practice.
APPENDIX A 239 BIOFEEDBACK Theory and Assumptions This is an external form of feedback that is intended to bring the autonomic system into a regulated homeostatic balance. For example, heart rate or muscle tension levels may be inappropriate for the demands of the task. Such "disregulations" are adjusted through the use of biofeedback. Key Elements Control over internal events related to specific performance, self- regulation. Tasks and Designs Laboratory tasks with a variety of populations (e.g., football players, people prone to motion sickness), control-group designs. Performances Assessed General ability to relax in skilled motor tasks, specifically, riflery, playing stringed instruments, manual dexterity, and problem solving. Examples of Results (1) More effective for improving well-defined, specific performances in which subjects control discrete internal events (e.g., marksmanship, signal response and detection); (~) less effective in reducing general arousal levels, such as antistress training; and (3) learned suppression of a conditioned emotional response may be effective in developing an antistress response. Applications Assist in rehabilitation following injury, refinement of performance through fine tuning. Comments Promising work in two related areas are identifying internal events linked to specific task performances and training in self-regulation
240 APPENDIX A for performers. Additional control groups are needed to separate biofeedback effects from expectancy of positive outcomes resulting from sophisticated gadgetry. HEMI-SYNC~) Theory and Assumptions Assumes a binaural beat phenomenon resulting from presenting two tones of slightly different frequency simultaneously, one to each ear. Binaural beats result in an alteration of the main frequency components of the EEG such that a frequency following response occurs. The EEG states produced improve performance. Key Elements Production of binaural beats, extending the duration of the period of theta activity (4 to 7 hertz), extended exposure to Hemi-Sync~ (for example, three days with an experienced staff administering the treatments), and music combined with Hemi-Sync~ may further en- hance effectiveness. Tasks and Designs Laboratory tasks, clinics with controlled presentation of tones, classrooms (open-field presentation of tones). Testimonials, self- reports, small-sample experiments. Performances Assessed Purports to enhance receptivity to learning, more efficient sensory integration, more focused attention, deep relaxation, and expecta- tions for unlimited learning. Examples of Results (1) In one study, about 78 percent of a class reported improvement in mental and motor skills; (2) more positive self-reports of feelings, ability to relax, increased energy levels, and so on when compared with no Hemi-Sync~ and guided imagery only (see comments below).
APPENDIX A Applications Relaxation, induced sleep for jet lag, receptivity to learning. Comments 241 The evidence supporting the hypothesized effects of Hemi-Sync~ on performance is based largely on testimonials and self-reports from small samples. The research designs to date are not adequate in terms of subject assignment to conditions or possible confounding effects of the atmosphere; moreover, the focus to date has been on feelings rather than skilled performances. STRESS MANAGEMENT Theory and Assumptions High or inappropriate levels of stress reduce effectiveness in both cognitive and motor tasks. Various techniques are effective in re- ducing stress or in inducing relaxation. Each technique addresses one or all of the following: sources of stress, the environment (background music), and physiology (tranquilizing drugs). Key Elements Atmosphere and related expectations; specific treatments, including meditation or rest, biofeedback, drugs. Tasks and Designs Laboratory tasks, clinics, in situ (battlefield, sports competition), correlational designs. Performances Assessed Tension reduction per se (physiological and cognitive indicators), coping skills, learning. Examples of Results (1) The prospect of receiving treatment for tension in the near future may be as effective as active treatment techniques for reducing tension; (2) decreases in tension are reflected more strongly on
242 APPENDIX A cognitive (self-rating scales) than on physiological (EMG) measures; and (3) reduced tension may enhance performance involving drawing inferences from materials but not simple recall of passages. Applications Enhancing coping skills, better physical and mental health, in- creased chances for a peak performance. Comments It is useful to distinguish between techniques for managing stress (organizations) and techniques for treating stress (relaxation ther- apies, tranquilizing drugs). NEUROLINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING Theory and Assumptions Cognitive processes are represented by sensory systems or imagery that is visual, auditory, or kinesthetic. These are referred to as a client's preferred representational system (PRS). The PRS is the 'weep structure" of a client's thought processes and is reflected in such "surface structure" clues as eye movements and predicate use. Knowledge about a client's PRS enables a counselor to speak the client's language, a process that enhances empathy and influence. Key Elements Matching on verbal (preferred predicates) and nonverbal (eye movements) dimensions. Tasks ant! Designs Interviews, counseling, analogue counseling interviews. Experi- ments designed to evaluate the PRS and effects of matching on perceptions. Performances Assessed Language style, perceptions of interviewer or counselor, relaxa- tion and rapport, accommodative behaviors.
APPENDIX A 243 Examples of Results (1) Evidence for a PRS is weak; correlations among alternative measures are low; (2) evidence for matching on preferred predicates only is weak; and (3) matching on all predicates produces significant effects on perceptions. Applications Potentially more effective vertical (and horizontal) communica- tion, modeling experts as a training strategy. Comments Empathic verbal responding may underlie effects obtained for matching per se. Two parts of this technique are matching and modeling: the former is one of several influence strategies that may well produce effects; the latter is a possible basis for enhanced motor or cognitive performance. COHESION Theory and Assumptions Cohesion is an aspect of the relation between a group and its members: it consists of affective (attraction among members), cognitive (goal satisfaction), and process (risk-taking behavior) elements. Cohe- sion is stronger in groups that provide for member needs and whose influence over member behavior is the result of perceived legitimacy rather than enforced sanctions. High group cohesion is associated with positive outcomes for group members. Key Elements Procedures (e.g., the COHORT system) and group properties (e.g., relation of group to members) that serve to increase intermember attraction, a sense of belonging, instrumental value of the group, risk taking, and teamwork. Tasks and Designs Work with sports teams, organizations (e.g., Army reservists), camps, personal change groups. Attitude surveys of soldiers in COHORT and non-COHORT units.
244 APPENDIX A Performances Assessed Win-loss percentages in interacting (basketball, hockey) and coact- ing (track and field) sports, organizational commitment, intergroup competition or cooperation, goal achievement, satisfaction. Examples of Results (1) Group-serving patterns of attribution (diffusing responsibilty to entire group and attributing more responsibility to self for failure and no more than equal responsibility to self and others for success) enhance team cohesion; (2) cohesion is a stronger correlate of organizational commitment than such factors as quality of training, increased communications, and compensation or tenure; (3) early and midseason cohesion is a significant predictor of late-season perform- ance (win-loss record); and (4) team cohesion is functional for interacting sports but may be dysfunctional for coacting sports. Applications New Manning System of regiment or company stability across assignments and locations. Comments This literature can be divided into three parts: components of cohesion, factors that influence cohesion, and effects of cohesion on unit performance. Army studies document benefits of unit stability: for example, COHORT units have higher reenlistment rates, positive self-image, and psychological readiness for combat, including an ability to withstand more stress. PARAPSYCHOLOGY Theory and Assumptions Psi phenomena exist and can be demonstrated; they are sensitive to aspects of the situation and moods of the percipient. An appropriate explanation is assumed to derive from an understanding of the role of consciousness in the physical world.
APPENDIX A 245 Key Elements Elusive effects (rarely replicated) are explained in terms of a variety of phenomena including the nature of human consciousness, quantum mechanics, attitudes and laboratory ambiance, experimenter communi- cations, and statistical (random) processes. Tasks and Designs Laboratory demonstrations and experiments (although anecdotal re- porting of experiences in situ appear also). Performances Assessed Experience of state or event without sensory contact (extrasensory perception), prediction of future events the occurrence of which cannot be inferred from present knowledge (precognition), direct mental influence on an external physical process or object (psycho- kinesis). Examples of Results (1) Success rates for psi effects in Ganzfeld experiments range from an alleged 55 percent to a critically evaluated 30 percent; (2) psychokinesis effects demonstrated for very large data bases as small deviations from theoretical distributions (random event generator experiments); and (3) statistically significant remote perception effects reported over many trials with different stimulus materials. Applications Intelligence gathering, if demonstrated. Comments The key issues in this literature are whether psi effects are replicable and whether a certain configuration of circumstances is needed to produce them.