National Academies Press: OpenBook

Youth, Pornography, and the Internet (2002)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Youth, Pornography, and the Internet. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10261.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Youth, Pornography, and the Internet. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10261.
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Page 446
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Youth, Pornography, and the Internet. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10261.
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Page 447
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Youth, Pornography, and the Internet. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10261.
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Page 448
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Youth, Pornography, and the Internet. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10261.
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Page 449
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Youth, Pornography, and the Internet. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10261.
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Page 450

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Index A Acceptable use policies, 222-223, 235-240, 282-283, 378 Access control, 69, 110,194. See also Filters/ filtering Adult online entertainment industry future products and services, 68-70, 81- 82 mouse/rapping, 74, 75, 78-79, 80,109, 212-213 possible safe harbors for, 107, 208-209, 342 practices, 71 nit, 74-79, 382-383 regulation, 79-81 size and structure, 72-73, 79 subscriber retention, 72-73, 76-77 targeting children, 78-79, 80, 82-83,104- 105 verification services, 63-65, 78-79,102, 206-209, 340-349, 360 Advertising of sexually explicit material, 38, 74-76, 96,109-110,129,133 n.39, 136. See also Spam Age verification, 62-65, 78-79,102, 206-209, 216, 328-329, 339-349, 360 AltaVista, 273 Ambiguities in language as related to filtering, 54-55, 138-140, 278, 420421, 422 445 American Family Online, 167-168 American Civil Liberties Union, 104 American Family Association, 168 American Social Health Association, 126, 173 Anonymizers, 66, 67,164 AOL parental controls, 162, 272, 275, 276, 284 Authentication technologies, 59, 62-64, 346 Automated policy preference negotiation, 346-347 B Bag-of-words model for matching documents, 422 Bandwidth, 37, 73 Beaver College, 278 n.l5 Best practices for homes, schools, libraries, 374-386 Biometric signatures, 62, 64-65 Black lists of inappropriate material, 52, 54 Blocking inappropriate material, 51-61,100, 103-104, 162, 194, 273-274, 279-280 Bulletin boards, 130, 272, 284 C Chain letters, 109-110

446 Chat rooms and online conversations, 40, 44, 45, 119, 130, 138, 141-142, 162 n.4, 170-171, 173, 272, 276, 284 Child pornography, 66, 71 nit, 93-94, 97-99, 113, 129, 132, 137, 205, 213, 214-215, 424 Children age/developmental considerations, 116- 118, 155, 157-158, 193, 206, 229-230, 290-291, 342, 358-359 First Amendment protections, 89-92 Internet usage, 117, 119-120, 128, 136- 142, 163 media usage, 115-120 monitoring online activities, 103 n.42, 268-269, 272, 284, 286, 291, 304-317 parental knowledge of, 118, 120, 164- 165 rights, 92-93 sexual information from media, 123-127 special-needs populations, 159 targeting of advertising for sexually explicit material, 78-79, 80, 82-83, 104-105 technological sophistication, 49, 162- 163, 165 venues for Internet access, 36-38, 127- 128, 280, 360 Content providers for adult Web sites, 78, 381-382 Coping strategies for exposure to inappropriate material or experiences, 135, 195 Counters for Web traffic, 77 Credit cards as age verification technology, 63,64,73,74,78,110,138,271,341, 342, 343, 345, 349 Crimes Against Children Research Center, 132, 134, 135, 138, 140-142 Cultivation theory, 148 Cybersex, 129, 170-171 CyberTipline, 214-215 D Department of Education, 103 Deterrence as a form of protection, 195 Dial-a-porn services, 110 Digital convergence, 45 Disclosure of personal information, 104 n.46 INDEX Domain names, 38-39, 54-55, 74, 109, 139- 140 .kids top-level, 328-329, 335-339 .xxx top-level, 327-334, 354 E E-mail, 40, 42, 74, 108-109, 119, 138, 142, 272, 274, 276, 281, 286 E-rate program, 103 Education strategies. See Social and education strategies Encryption, 65, 67 Executable dialer programs, 108 Exposure to inappropriate material and experiences age/developmental considerations, 135, 157-158 deliberate, 137, 138, 139, 141-142, 160, 195-196, 268-269, 275, 341, 342 dimensions of, 159-160, 357-358 empirical research, 149-157 extent of, 132-135 First Amendment protections, 89-92 gender and, 117-118, 141, 158-159 impacts of sexually explicit materials, 133, 135, 143-180, 362-364 inadvertent, 133, 135, 137, 138-141, 160, 268-269, 275, 341 on Internet, 133, 136-142 parental challenges, 161-165 passive vs. interactive, 25, 139, 328-329 routes to, 40, 128-142, 281 theoretical perspectives, 117, 143-149 types of materials and experiences, 128- 129, 136-137, 159 warnings, 194, 300, 340, 341 F FBI Sex Offender Database, 114 Federal Communications Commission, 103, 110-112 Federal Trade Commission, 80, 106, 107- 110 File sharing (peer-to-peer), 40, 42, 129, 131, 132, 271, 274, 281. See also Peer-to- peer networks. Filters/filtering client-side, 271, 302

INDEX combinations of methods, 52, 58, 300 content-limited ISPs, 37, 52,131, 268- 269, 270-272, 277, 280-281, 282, 284, 286-288, 293, 301, 302 defeating /circumventing, 280-281, 282 defined, 271 by domain names and IP addresses, 54- 55,279 effectiveness, 51, 53, 56, 58, 60-61, 275- 286, 303-304 flexibility and usability, 289-292 functions, 267-275 future prospects, 298-301 identifying sites to be blocked, 51-59, 286-289 information retrieval technologies and, 54, 55-56, 58, 274, 298-299, 420 labeling of content, 56-58, 59, 209, 268- 269, 282, 288-289, 295-298 liability issues, 100 at libraries, 271, 273, 274-275, 280, 282- 284, 379 placement of, 56, 59, 103-104, 270-273 at schools, 273, 274, 280, 282-284, 285 search engine, 56, 59, 271, 273 selective degradation of service, 299-300 server-side, 59, 272-273, 281 n.21, 302 statutes, 103-104 technologies, 51-59, 267-304 trade-offs in, 58-59, 268-269, 292-298, 301-304 V-chip, 57, 61,110,111,196,197 Financial transaction mechanisms, 63, 68- 69, 73, 74, 78 First Amendment issues, 84-96, 98,100, 102-103, 293, 359 Flying Crocodile Inc. (FCI), 72 n.3, 77 Flynt Digital Media, 81 G GetNetWise, 228, 267, 270 Gnutella, 281 Good Samaritan provisions of Communications Decency Act, 100 Google, 273 Grunwald Associates, 120 447 H Haptic (touch-sensitive) content, 81-82 Harassment, 66,129,137,142,162 n.4, 164, 166 Hate speech and overt racism, 22-23, 53 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 85 Inappropriate material and experiences child as decision maker, 193, 194-195, 218-221 community standards, 192-193 differing views of, 175,192 identification of, 51-59, 183-188 types of, 22-25, 83,137, 290 Indexing services (for adult Web sites), 77 Information processing theory, 148 Information retrieval (and filtering) image analysis, 55-56, 58, 274, 298-299, 423424 location verification, 66-68, 426-428 search engines, 39, 41, 56, 74, 108, 342, 422, 424-426 technologies, 49-51, 418424 textual analysis, 54, 55, 58, 274, 418-422 user interfaces, 428429 INHOPE Hotlines, 215 Instant help, 268-269, 322-326 Instant messaging, 40, 4445, 130-131, 140, 141-142, 272, 274 n.6, 276, 286 Institute of Museum and Library Sciences, 103 Intel Corporation, 61 Intellectual property protection tools, 328- 329, 349-353 Internet access devices, 35-36, 381 anonymity, 33, 35, 66 applications running on, 45-46 benefits, 32, 294 child predation, 24,113,141-142, 166 and communication, 33 comparison to other media types, 32-35, 124-125 connectivity, 31-32, 36-38 deliberate exposure, 137,138,139,141- 142, 195-196, 268-269, 275, 341, 342 digital information characteristics, 31-32 economic issues, 35, 47, 72, 73, 361-362

448 functionality, 3947 inadvertent exposure, 133, 135, 137, 138- 141, 268-269, 275, 341 interactivity, 33, 34 international nature of, 33, 4748, 112 location verification, 66-68, 426-428 nature, 32-35 passive vs. interactive exposure, 25 peer-to-peer networks, 40, 42, 69, 131, 132, 271, 274 n.6 publishing, 35, 67, 102 safety education, 222-223, 230, 233, 240, 242-245, 301, 375, 379 searching, 39, 41, 49-51 telephony, 45 Internet Content Rating Association, 296, 297 Internet Explorer, 59, 282 Internet service providers best practices, 380-381 content-limited, 37, 59, 131, 268-269, 270, 277, 280-281, 284, 301, 302 liability, 100 terms of service and self-regulation, 36- 38, 127, 215-216 IP addresses, 38-39, 54-55, 67, 139, 279 IP-based virtual hosting, 54-55, 279 K Kaiser Family Foundation, 118-119, 120, 135, 197, 284 Kids Passport, 347 n.l3 L Labeling of content, 56-58, 187, 209, 268- 269, 282, 297 Law enforcement, training, and education, 107-109, 112-113, 201-205 Legal and regulatory issues. See First Amendment issues; Regulatory efforts; Statutes and common law Libraries and librarians, 37, 94-95, 100, 103- 104, 127-128, 140, 191-192, 193, 271, 273, 274-275, 280, 346, 378-380 Live Entertainment Group, 81 Location verification, 66-68, 426428 Login names, 272 Lycos, 273 INDEX M Media Access Control (MAC) address, 61 Meeting Internet contacts face-to-face. See child predation Monitoring and development of self-discipline, 308- 309, 313 and punishment, 308, 311 and trust, 312 defined, 305 privacy implications, 312-314 techniques of, 305-306 Mousetrapping, 74, 75, 78-79, 80, 108, 212- 213 Movies, 57-58, 81, 121, 133 n.39 N National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 114, 214-215 National Crime Information Center, 114 National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Center, 114 National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 119-120 Netscape, 59, 282 Network interface card, 61 Network Solutions Inc., 109 Nielsen/Net Ratings, 78 o Obscene for minors definition, 107, 113-114, 137, 294, 359 labeling, 209 prohibitions against spam and mouse/rapping, 209-213 Obscenity civil liability for, 205 community standards, 66, 97, 98, 99, 107, 136 n.42, 137, 184, 203-204, 206- 207, 359 federal statutes, 96-97 First Amendment issues, 87-89, 96-97, 98, 137 prosecution for, 112-113, 201-205, 216-217 record keeping on performers, 99, 213 Offensive material, 137 Overblocking, 58-59, 275, 277, 278-279, 284

INDEX A Pagejacking, 108 Parental consent, 105-107, 347 n.l3 Parental controls, 162, 272, 275, 276, 284, 345 Parental responsibility and involvement, 110, 123, 161-165, 184, 222-223, 225- 233, 271, 374-378, 379 Pay-per-call industry, 67,110 Peer assistance, 222-223, 233-234 Peer-to-peer networks, 40, 42, 69, 131, 132, 271, 274 n.6, 281. See also File sharing Peripheral devices, 4647 Personal digital assistants, 81 Personal information, 104-107,129 Pew Internet and American Life Project, 24, 120 Plain brown wrappers, 208-209, 216, 342 Planned Parenthood, 126 Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS), 57, 282 Playboy, 81, 125 Pornography and sexually explicit material. See also Child pornography and community standards, 97, 98, 99, 102-103 definitions, 20-22, 86-87, 97,101-102,110, 112,133 n.39, 167-168,176, 357-358 differing views and perspectives, 25-28, 94, 166-172, 176, 289 and encryption, 65 hard-core vs. soft-core, 25-26, 424 identifying, 51-59 impacts of viewing, 143-160,166-172 obscene for minors, 107, 137, 209-213, 359 and obscenity, 66, 86-89, 96-97, 98, 99, 107, 136 n.42, 137, 201-205, 359 as proxy in political debate, 172-180, 282-283, 373-374 range, 21-22, 71,128-129,136,160 sources, 136-142 Privacy, 66, 93,104-107, 268-269, 344 Protection. See also Regulatory efforts; Social and education strategies; Statutes and common law; Technology-based tools approaches, 196-200, 218-221, 364-368 dimensions, 188-190 449 First Amendment and, 89-92 identification of inappropriate material, 51-59, 183-188 institutional mission and, 191-192 politics of inappropriate material, 25-28, 192-194, 202-203 techniques, 194-196, 206-209 time line of actions, 190-191 trade-offs in, 368-374 Proxy servers, 281 n.21 Psychoanalytic theory, 117,146 Public policy, 202-203, 373-374, 383-386 Public records, 63-64, 342, 344, 345 Public terminals, 36, 37,127-128 Publius, 67 R Regulatory efforts, 80,107-112 Research needs, 386-387 Restore America's Moral Pride, 168 S Safe harbors for adult industry, 107, 208- 209, 342 School environments, 37, 95-96,100,103- 104, 124, 140, 162, 191-192, 273, 274, 280, 285, 378-380 Screen names, 272 Search engines, 39, 41, 56, 74, 108, 138,141, 208, 271, 342, 422, 424426. See also AltaVista, Google, Yahoo Self-regulation of Internet content, 37-38, 81, 215-216 Sex education, 122,123-127,162,172-173 Sexual assaults, 141 Sexual orientation issues, 173-174 Sexual solicitation, 132-135, 137, 141-142 Sexuality in culture and media, 22-24, 120- 122, 123-124, 126-127, 157, 161 Smart cards, 62, 346 Social and education strategies, 110,195. See also Parental involvement acceptable use policies, 222-223, 235- 240, 282-283, 378 after-the-fact, 240-242 collateral issues, 249-250 compelling and safe content, 222-223, 250-254

450 contextual issues, 357-358, 222-225 definition, 221-223 findings and observations about, 256- 257 information and media literacy, 222- 223, 245-249 Internet safety education, 222-223, 242- 245, 301, 375, 379 peer assistance, 222-223, 233-234 public service announcements and media campaigns, 222-223, 254-256 responsible decision making, 193, 194- 195, 218-221 trade-offs in, 370-371 Social learning theory, 117, 147, 151, 153 Software vendors, 381 Spam, 74, 109-110, 130, 140, 209-212, 268- 269, 317-322 Stalking, 66 Statutes and common law Child Online Protection Act, 101-103, 206, 207, 209-210, 345 child pornography, 97-99, 112, 205 Children's Internet Protection Act, 103- 104, 112, 284 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act, 104-107 Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, 97-98, 204, 205 Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act of 1988, 99 Child Protection Restoration and Penalties Enhancement Act of 1990, 99 Communications Decency Act, 90-91, 99-100, 101, 102, 206 Federal Trade Commission Act, 107 Sex Crimes Against Children Prevention Act, 97 n.27 state, 107 Telecommunications Act of 1996, 99, 103 n.41 Streaming media, video, and audio, 45, 62 n.24, 81 Supervised learning, 421 Surgeon General's report on sexual health, 126 Surveillance. See Monitoring Swimming pool analogy for protecting children, 224 INDEX T Technology-based tools, 258-260. See also Filters/filtering, Monitoring, and Chapters 12 and 13 more generally contextual issues, 261-265 for non-end users, 327-353 questions to be asked about, 265-266 trade-offs in, 371-373 for users, 267-326 Text classification or categorization, 55, 420421 Third-party billing processors, 77 Thornburgh, Dick (chair), personal statement, xv-xviii Time limits for Internet use, 195 U Underblocking, 58-59, 276-277, 284 Unfair and deceptive trade practices, 81, 107-110 University of Pennsylvania Center for the Study of Youth Policy, 141 Usenet newsgroups, 40, 42-43, 100, 129, 130, 131-132, 271, 276 User interfaces, 428429 User profiles, 130 V V-chip, 57, 61, 110, 111, 196, 197 Video games, 36, 57-58, 119 Videoconferencing, 45, 274 n.6 Violent speech and imagery, 23, 121-122, 149-153 Virtual reality, 69, 98 Voice interaction, 69 W White lists for appropriate content, 52, 272, 273 World Wide Web, 39, 40, 4546, 72-73, 101- 103 Consortium on Metadata, 57 hi' y Yahoo, 273 Youth Internet Safety Survey, 134

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The Internet has changed the way we access the world. This is especially true for kids, who soak up new technologies like eager little sponges. They have access to an enormous array of material, including educational links, sports info, chat rooms—and, unfortunately, pornography. But we must approach our need to protect children with care to avoid placing unnecessary restrictions on the many positive features of the Internet.

Youth, Pornography, and the Internet examines approaches to protecting children and teens from Internet pornography, threats from sexual predators operating on-line, and other inappropriate material on the Internet. The National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board explores a number of fundamental questions: Who defines what is inappropriate material? Do we control Internet access by a 17-year-old in the same manner as for a 7-year-old? What is the role of technology and policy in solving such a problem in the context of family, community, and society?

The book discusses social and educational strategies, technological tools, and policy options for how to teach children to make safe and appropriate decisions about what they see and experience on the Internet. It includes lessons learned from case studies of community efforts to intervene in kids' exposure to Internet porn.

Providing a foundation for informed debate, this very timely and relevant book will be a must-read for a variety of audiences.

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