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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
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Index

A

AAMR. See American Association on Mental Retardation

Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), 203

Activities of daily living, 175

Adaptive behavior, 141-207

classification simulations, 224-229

declines with age, 251

differing conceptualizations, 144-148

dimensions of, 148-154

domains, 148-153, 182-183, 214-218

and maladaptive behavior, 154

nature and definition of, 141-154

personal competence model, 153

relationship to intelligence, 208-244

social competence model, 152

structure, 148-150

Adaptive behavior assessment, 6-8, 32-33, 155-174, 176-180

adaptive behavior scales, 166-174

breadth of domains, 149-150

combining with assessment of intellectual capabilities, 3

domains missing from adaptive behavior scales, 150-153

in eligibility determination, 174-195

methods, 155-158

psychometric concerns in using adaptive behavior scales, 158-166

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

recommendations, 7-8, 205-206

research areas, 195-205

Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS), 160, 163, 167, 170-171, 184, 217, 219, 221-222, 228-229

Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale (ABES), 173

Adaptive Behavior Inventory (ABI), 172

Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC), 219

Adaptive behavior scale content and SSA criteria, 174-183

activities of daily living, 175

personal functioning, 180-181

social functioning, 175, 180

Adaptive Behavior Scales (ABS), 154, 160, 168-169

adequacy of normative samples for, 163-164

School Edition, 163-164, 167

Adaptive behavior scales, 166-174

AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales, 168-169

Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, 170-171

Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale, 173

Adaptive Behavior Inventory, 172

Battelle Developmental Inventory, 171

Comprehensive Test of Adaptive Behavior, 171-172

Independent Living Scales, 172-173

Parent Rating of Student Behavior, 173

Scales of Independent Behavior, 169-170

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 167-168

Administrative law judge, 17

Adults, 270-273

criteria for mental retardation, 20

Aicardi syndrome, 259

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) benefits, 43-45

American Association of Mental Deficiency, 143

American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR)

Adaptive Behavior Scale-School Edition, 163-164, 167

Adaptive Behavior Scales, 154, 160, 163-164, 168-169, 203

on behavioral descriptions of adaptive functioning, 7, 30-31, 149

defining mental retardation, 22-24, 147, 150-151

American Psychiatric Association, 24, 29-31, 145

American Psychological Association, 104, 125

American Psychological Association, Division 33

defining mental retardation, 29, 147-148, 213-214

on standardized assessment of adaptive functioning, 7, 30, 145

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 46, 61, 65

Annual Statistical Supplement, 26

Appeals Council, 17

Army Mental Tests, 72

Asperger’s disorder, 256-257

Assessment, 155.

See also Adaptive behavior assessment;

Intellectual functioning assessment

issues in eligibility determination, 174-195

methods, 155-158

Assessment conditions that affect intelligence test scores, 100-106

environmental conditions, 105-106

examinee characteristics, 101-104

examiner influences, 104-105

potential threats to validity of intelligence test results, 102-103

psychometric considerations, 106

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257

Avoidant personality disorder, 256

B

Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 10, 34

Barriers to employment, for people with disabilities, 61-63

Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI), 106, 171

Binet Scale, 70-71

Binet-Simon Scale, 70

Borderline intellectual functioning, 265-266

British hierarchical theorists, 80-82

C

Carroll’s three-stratum theory, 88-91

Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory, 112

Cattell-Horn theory, of fluid and crystallized intelligence, 5n, 82-88

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program, 25

Cerebral palsy, 257-258

Childhood disintegrative disorder, 256-257

Children, criteria for mental retardation, 21-22

Classification agreement in IQ and adaptive behavior, 223-230

classification agreement in existing data, 223-224

simulations of IQ and adaptive behavior classification agreement, 224-229

Classification criteria for adaptive behavior, 212-218

adaptive behavior domains, 214-218

cutoff scores, 212-214

Classification criteria for intellectual functioning, 210-212

Clinical considerations in adaptive behavior scales, 189-195

choice of assessment methods, 189-190

differences among typical performance measures, 193-194

instrument choice, 190-192

response sets, 194-195

structured versus unstructured interviews, 194

typical performance measurement, 192-193

Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), 92, 98, 110, 113

Combination of IQ and adaptive functioning data, 3, 8-9, 33-34, 208-244

classification agreement in IQ and adaptive behavior, 223-230

diagnostic construct of mental retardation, 209-218

recommendations, 8-9, 242-244

relationship of adaptive behavior and intellectual functioning, 218-230

SSI and DI eligibility decisions, 230-241

variables that influence correlations, 218-223

Comparable prediction, in IQ tests, 136

Competencies versus perceptions, 219-220

Composite scores supported through factor analyses, of IQ tests, 129

Comprehensive evaluation, 232-233

Comprehensive Test of Adaptive Behavior (CTAB), 171-172, 217

adequacy of normative samples for, 164

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Concurrent validity, 130

Confirmation bias, 231

Confirmatory factor analyses, of IQ tests, 129-130

Consequential reasoning, methodologies for, 200

Consequential validity, of IQ tests, 131

Content validity, of IQ tests, 128

Convergent validity, 237-241

changes in prevalence of learning disabilities and mental retardation, 239

evidence of, 130

inconsistent information, 238

information from other agencies, 238-241

Correlates, of assessed intelligence, 73-74

Correlations, variables that influence, 218-223

Criteria for mental retardation, 19-22

for adults, 20

for children, 21-22

Criterion-related validity, of IQ tests, 130

Crystallized intelligence, Cattell-Horn theory of, 5n, 82-88, 112, 114n, 140n

Cultural issues, 273-274

Current SSA regulations, adaptive behavior domains in, 217

Current standardization sample, norms for IQ testing, 123-126

Cutoff scores, 212-214

D

Data, methods for collecting, 233-235

DDS. See Disability determination services

Determination decisions, 2.

See also Disability determination process

Developmental disorders, autism and pervasive, 254-257

Developmental period, onset of mental retardation in, 3

Developmental range effects, 159-160

DI. See Disability Insurance benefits

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)

on behavioral descriptions of adaptive functioning, 7

defining mental retardation, 24-25, 29, 145-146, 250, 262-263, 265, 267

Diagnostic construct of mental retardation, 209-218

classification criteria for adaptive behavior, 212-218

classification criteria for intellectual functioning, 210-212

Differential diagnosis, 10-11, 34-35, 245-281

adults, 270-273

clinical considerations and eligibility determination, 247-251

cultural issues, 273-274

high school years and adolescence, 266-270

infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, 252-261

part scores, 277-278

recommendations, 10-11, 280-281

school-age children, 261-266

specific disorders associated with mental retardation, 274-278

Differential item function (DIF), in IQ tests, 135

Differential test function (DTF), 135

Dimensions of adaptive behavior, 148-154

Disability determination process, 16-19

commonly used instruments, 2

for mental retardation, 1

sequential evaluation, 18-19

Disability determination services (DDS), 17

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Disability examiners, 17

Disability Insurance (DI) benefits

gateway to other services, 47-51

health care linkages, 53-55

and other federal social service programs, 42-47

recipients of, 2, 39-42

role in reducing poverty, 51-52

Disability Insurance (DI) eligibility decisions, 230-241

common judgment errors, 231-232

comprehensive evaluation, 232-233

convergent validity, 237-241

examiner qualifications, 237

information on intellectual and adaptive functioning, 233-237

Discriminant evidence of validity, 130

Division 33, American Psychological Association. See American Psychological Association, Division 33

Doll, Edgar, 142-143

Down syndrome, 275

DSM-IV. See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition

Dual diagnosis, 204

E

Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (EPSDT) program, 55

Educational systems, identification of students with mental retardation, 2, 67

Electroencephalography, 259

Eligibility determination, 174-195, 248-251

clinical considerations, 189-195

correspondence between SSI classification domains and those in prominent adaptive behavior measures, 182-183

general clinical practice and adaptive behavior scales, 187-189

principal measures, 176-180

relation of principal adaptive behavior scale content to SSA criteria, 174-183

sensitivity of scales at ranges in which diagnostic confirmation is a priority, 181, 184-187

Employability, of people with mental retardation, 3-4, 55-60, 65-66

Employment barriers, for people with disabilities, 61-63

English as a second language, 134

Environmental conditions, 105-106

Examinee characteristics, 101-104

Examiner influences, 103-105

Examiner qualifications, 237

Examiner’s manual

norms for IQ testing, 122-123

reporting all statistical transformations used to develop interpretive scores in, 122-123

External evidence of IQ test fairness, 136-137

comparable prediction, 136

minimizing adverse impact and selection bias outcomes, 136-137

External evidence of IQ test validity, 130-131

criterion-related validity, 130

generalizability of validity, 131

tests guiding decision making meaningfully, 130-131

tests providing evidence of consequential validity, 131

F

Face validity, of IQ tests, 128

Factor analysis techniques, 74

Factorial invariance, 136

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Fairness in IQ testing, 133-137

external evidence of, 136-137

internal evidence of, 134-136

False negatives, 230

False positives, 11, 230

Federal social service programs, SSI and DI in context of, 42-47

Fetal alcohol syndrome, 277-278

Floor and ceiling

effects, 159

problems with, 220-221

Fluency factors, 85

Fluid intelligence, Cattell-Horn theory of, 5n, 82-88, 112, 114n, 140n

Fragile X syndrome, 275

Full-scale IQ (FSIQ), 20-21, 31, 73, 108-109, 115

Functional unities, 79

G

Generalizability

of test score reliability, 133

of validity of IQ tests, 131

Genetic conditions, associated with mental retardation, 275-276

Grand mal seizures, 259

Group Examination Alpha, 72-73

Group Examination Beta, 72-73

Group language and nonverbal assessments, 72

Guilford’s structure of intellect, 82

Gullibility/credulity component of social competence, 151-153

H

Health care linkages, with SSI and DI, 53-55

Health-related organizations, defining mental retardation, 3

Hearing impairment, 260

High school years and adolescence, 266-270

History of intelligence tests, 70-74

Binet Scale, 70-71

correlates of assessed intelligence, 73-74

group language and nonverbal assessments, 72

pioneer nonverbal assessments, 71-72

Wechsler scales, 72-73

History of mental retardation definitions, 22-24

Home and Community Based Services waiver program, 48

Horn, John L., 85

I

ICD-9. See International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification

IDEA. See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990

Illinois Planning Council on Development Disabilities (IPCDD), 60

Inconsistent information, 238

Independent Living Scales (ILS), 172-173

Individual capabilities, combining data from intellectual and adaptive functioning to profile , 3

Individualized education program (IEP), 50

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 (IDEA), 50, 58, 261, 270

Amendments of 1997, 50

Infants, 252-261

autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257

cerebral palsy, 257-258

hearing impairment, 260

mortality in U.S., 53

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

seizure disorders, 258-260

vision impairment, 261

Information on intellectual and adaptive functioning, 233-237

methods for collecting data, 233-235

settings, 236-237

sources of information, 235-236, 238-241

Information processing theories, 92

Institute of Medicine, 260

Instruments

choice among, 190-192

commonly used in determining retardation, 2

Intellectual functioning

deficits in, 1

relationship to adaptive behavior, 208-244

theories of the structure of intellectual abilities, 75-93

Intellectual functioning assessment, 4-6, 31-32, 69-140

conditions that affect intelligence test scores, 100-106

history of intelligence tests, 70-74

intelligence tests commonly used in diagnosing mental retardation, 95-100

multidimensional versus unidimensional measures, 117-118

psychometric standards, 118-137

recommendations, 5-6, 139-140

use of total test scores and part scores, 106-117

Intelligence test norms, 119-127

floors and ceilings , 127

item difficulty gradients, 126-127

normative samples, 120-121

standardization sample, 123-126

statistical transformations, 122-123

Intelligence tests commonly used in diagnosing mental retardation, 95-100

principal measures, 96-99

Internal consistency, 132

Internal evidence of IQ test fairness, 134-136

differential item function, 135

invariant factor structure and scale reliabilities, 135-136

multicultural bias and sensitivity reviews, 135

theoretical underpinnings, 134-135

Internal evidence of IQ test validity, 127-130

composite scores supported through factor analyses, 129

content validity, 128

face validity, 128

factor analyses, 129-130

substantive validity, 128-129

International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9), 25-26, 29

International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10), 30, 146, 262-263

International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICIDH-2), 204

International English, 146

Interviews, structured versus unstructured, 194

Invariant factor structure and scale reliabilities, in IQ tests, 135-136

IQ simulations, 224-229

Monte Carlo, 225-226

Item density, 161

Item sampling in relation to age, 160-161

J

Joint Association Test Standards, 224

Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 167

Judgment errors in eligibility decisions, 231-232

confirmation bias, 231

primacy effect, 232

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

K

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), 98, 113

L

Landau-Kleffner syndrome, 259

Leiter International Performance Scale, 71

Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R), 99

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 259

Levels of mental retardation, 221-223

Life span development, 251

Listings of Impairments, 19-21, 62

Local reliability, 132-133

M

MADDSP. See Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program

Magnitude of total test score, in part scores, 113-117

Maladaptive behavior, 154

Manual of Diagnosis and Professional Practice in Mental Retardation, 144

McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities, 124, 126

Meaningful differences, in part scores, 110-111

Medicaid benefits, 43-45, 47-48, 53, 55, 64

need to extend to people with mental retardation, 67

Medical consultants, 17

Medically Needy Program, 54

Mental energy, 76-77

Mental Measurements Yearbooks, 167

Mental retardation

defining, 1-4, 29-30, 67-68, 147-148, 213-214

disability determination process for, 1

employment of people with, 55-60

mild range of, 1

onset, 3

prevalence in U.S., 2, 15, 25-27, 246

Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP), 25

Mild mental retardation, 1

versus learning disability, 262-265

Minimizing adverse impact and selection bias outcomes, in IQ tests, 136-137

Monte Carlo simulations, 36, 184, 224- 226

Multicultural bias and sensitivity reviews, in IQ tests, 135

Multidimensional versus unidimensional measures, of cognitive functioning, 117-118, 148-149

N

National Academy of Social Insurance, 63

National Association of School Psychologists, 104, 125

National Commission on Childhood Disability, 44

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 26

National Health Interview Survey Disability Supplement (NHIS-D), 52

Nongenetic conditions, associated with mental retardation, 277-278

Normally distributed characteristics, 211

Normative samples for IQ testing

reflective of appropriate demographic parameters, 120-121

sufficiently large, 120

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Normative samples in adaptive behavior scales, 163-164

for the AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School scales, 163-164

for the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, 163

for the Comprehensive Test of Adaptive Behavior-R, 164

for the Scales of Independent Behavior-R, 163

for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 164

Norms for IQ testing, reflective of adequate item difficulty gradients, 126-127

North American English, 146-147

O

Office of Special Education Programs, 239

Onset of mental retardation, age of, 3

Outdated tests, 124

P

Parent Rating of Student Behavior (PRSB), 173

Part scores, 109-117, 277-278

appropriate cognitive abilities, 112-113

magnitude of total test score, 113-117

meaningful differences, 110-111

statistical significance, 109-110

use of, 109-117

PASS model, 91-92

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 117-118

People with disabilities, employment barriers for, 61-63

People with mental retardation and employment, 55-60

lower than two standard deviations below the mean in adaptive behavior assessment, 185

need to extend Medicaid benefits to, 67

return to work, 61

Performance IQ (PIQ), 20-21, 31, 115

Personal competence model, 153

Personal functioning, 180-181

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 , 10, 34

Pervasive developmental disorders, autism and, 254-257

Pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD NOS), 256-257

Petite mal seizures, 259

Pioneer nonverbal assessments, 71-72

PIQ. See Performance IQ

Policy context, 28, 38-68

Positive manifold, 76

Poverty

link with disability, 52

risks associated with, 52

role of SSI and DI benefit programs in reducing, 51-52

Prader-Willi syndrome, 275-276

Predictive validity, 130

Preschoolers, 252-261

autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257

cerebral palsy, 257-258

hearing impairment, 260

seizure disorders, 258-260

vision impairment, 261

Prevalence of learning disabilities, changes in, 239

Prevalence of mental retardation, 2, 15, 25-27, 246

changes in, 239

in the general population, 25-26

in the social security system, 26-27

Primacy effect, 232

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Primary mental abilities, 78

Principal adaptive behavior scale content, relation to SSA criteria, 174-183

Professional organizations. See also individual organizations

defining mental retardation, 2-3

Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability (PASS-ADD), 204

Psychological examiners, 103-105

Psychometric concerns with adaptive behavior scales, 106, 158-166

adequacy of normative samples, 163-164

developmental range effects, 159-160

floor and ceiling effects, 159

item density, 161

item sampling in relation to age, 160-161

reliability of informant judgments, 161-162

sociocultural biases, 164-166

validity of informant judgments, 162-163

Psychometric standards, 118-137

evidence of test score validity, 127-131

fairness in testing, 133-137

intelligence test norms, 119-127

test score validity, 131-133

Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults, 204

Q

Question guide, for assessment of social-cognitive processes, 202

R

Racial backgrounds, of applicants for services under SSA, 2

RAND, 13

Raven Progressive Matrices, 118

Recency effect, 232

Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, 204

Reliability of informant judgments, 161-162

Research needed, 12-14, 35

Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 203

in adaptive behavior assessment, 195-205

Assessment of Dual Diagnosis, 204

International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health, 204

Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability, 204

Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults, 204

recommendations, 13-14

Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, 204

social-cognitive perspective, 195-203

World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II, 204-205

Response sets, 194-195

Rett’s disorder, 256

Return to work, by people with mental retardation, 61

Rural educational systems, identification of students in, 2, 67

S

Sample variance, 220

Sampling plans, thoroughly described norms for IQ testing, 120

Scale content, 218-219

Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB-R), 32-33, 169-170, 218, 222-223, 225-226

adequacy of normative samples for, 163, 166-167

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Schizophrenia, 256

School-age children, 261-266

borderline intellectual functioning, 265-266

mild mental retardation versus learning disability, 262-265

Scoring, use of total test scores versus part scores, 106-117

Seguin Form Board, 71

Seizure disorders, 258-260

Sensitivity of scales at ranges in which diagnostic confirmation is a priority, 181, 184-187

Sequential evaluation, in the disability determination process, 18-19

Settings, 236-237

Social-cognitive perspective, 195-203

question guide for assessment of social-cognitive processes, 202

Social competence model, 152

Social functioning, 175, 180

Social maturity, 141

Social Problem-Solving Test, 199, 201

Social Security. See U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA)

Social skills and vocational success, 173-174

Social skills dimension of social competence, 150-151

Social Skills Rating Scales (SSRS), 174

Sociocultural biases, 164-166

Sources of information, 235-236

Spatial reasoning, 113

Spearman, Charles, 74

Spearman’s two-factor theory, 75-78

Specific disorders associated with mental retardation, 274-278

genetic conditions, 275-276

nongenetic conditions, 277-278

SSA. See U.S. Social Security Administration

SSI. See Supplemental Security Income benefits

Standardization of examiners and procedures, in IQ testing, 123

Standardized assessment, of adaptive functioning, 7, 30, 145

Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 98n, 117, 119, 125, 180n

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition, 98-99, 111, 113, 128-129, 221

State Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 54

State disability determination services (DDS), 17

Statistical significance, in part scores, 109-110

Structure of intellect (SOI), 82

Structured interviews, versus unstructured, 194

Students, identification of in educational systems, 2

Substantive validity, of IQ tests, 128-129

Sullivan v. Zebley, 10, 34, 43-44

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits

gateway to other services, 47-51

health care linkages, 53-55

and other federal social service programs, 42-47

recipients of, 2, 39-42

role in reducing poverty, 51-52

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) eligibility decisions, 230-241

common judgment errors, 231-232

comprehensive evaluation, 232-233

convergent validity, 237-241

examiner qualifications, 237

information on intellectual and adaptive functioning, 233-237

Supports and services, recommendations, 66-67

T

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) benefits, 45-46

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

Terman, Lewis M., 70

Terminology issues, 134, 146

Test Critiques, 167

Test of Interpersonal Competence for Employment (TICE), 200-201

Test of Social Interference (TSI), 198, 201

Test score validity, 127-133

external evidence of, 130-131

generalizability of test score reliability, 133

internal consistency, 132

internal evidence of, 127-130

local reliability, 132-133

total test short-term stability, 133

Theories of intellectual abilities, 75-93, 134-135

British hierarchical theorists, 80-82

Carroll’s three-stratum theory, 88-91

Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence, 5n, 82-88

Guilford’s structure of intellect, 82

information processing theories derived from cognitive psychology, 92

multiple intelligences, 93

PASS model, 91-92

Spearman’s two-factor theory, 75-78

Sternberg’s notion of successful intelligence, 93

Thurstone’s primary mental abilities, 78-80

Thurstone, L.L., 78

Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act, 63-66

need to go beyond, 66

Toddlers, 252-261

autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257

cerebral palsy, 257-258

hearing impairment, 260

seizure disorders, 258-260

vision impairment, 261

Total test scores, 108-109

Total test short-term stability, 133

True positives, 230

U

Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), 99, 110, 113

Urban educational systems, identification of students in, 2, 67

U.S. Department of Education, 25, 261

Office of Special Education Programs, 239

U.S. General Accounting Office, 58, 61

U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA), 1

Annual Statistical Supplement, 26

Appeals Council, 17

applicants for services under, 2

defining mental retardation, 2-4, 19-22, 67-68, 209

disability determination process, 16-19

disability programs, 15-22

examiners, 103-105

locating local offices of, 17

Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, 39

programs in context, 11-12

U.S. Supreme Court, 10, 34, 43-44

V

Validity of informant judgments, 162-163

Validity of IQ tests, 127-131

external evidence of, 130-131

internal evidence of, 127-130

potential threats to, 102-103

Variables that influence correlations, 218-223

ceiling and floor problems, 220-221

competencies versus perceptions, 219-220

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
×

level of mental retardation, 221-223

sample variance, 220

scale content, 218-219

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome, 275

Verbal comprehension, 113

Verbal IQ (VIQ), 20-21, 31, 115

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), 33, 154, 167-168, 180n, 218-219, 225-229

adequacy of normative samples for, 164

manual for, 221

Survey Form, 166

Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), 23, 143, 167

VIQ. See Verbal IQ

Vision impairment, 261

W

Wechsler, David, 72

Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, 118

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, 96-97

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III), 96-97, 110, 219

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-R, 108

Wechsler scales of intelligence, 4, 6, 31-32, 72-73, 99

outdated, 124

Wechsler Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization Indexes, 115

West syndrome, 259

Williams syndrome, 275

Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, 100, 169

Work incentives. See also Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act

recommendations, 66-67

World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II), 204-205

World Health Organization (WHO), 204

defining mental retardation, 2, 29-30, 146

on standardized assessment of adaptive functioning, 7, 30

Z

Zebley decision. See Sullivan v. Zebley

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10295.
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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Get This Book
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Current estimates suggest that between one and three percent of people living in the United States will receive a diagnosis of mental retardation. Mental retardation, a condition characterized by deficits in intellectual capabilities and adaptive behavior, can be particularly hard to diagnose in the mild range of the disability. The U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits to individuals with cognitive limitations who experience significant problems in their ability to perform work and may therefore be in need of governmental support. Addressing the concern that SSA's current procedures are consistent with current scientific and professional practices, this book evaluates the process used by SSA to determine eligibility for these benefits. It examines the adequacy of the SSA definition of mental retardation and its current procedures for assessing intellectual capabilities, discusses adaptive behavior and its assessment, advises on ways to combine intellectual and adaptive assessment to provide a complete profile of an individual's capabilities, and clarifies ways to differentiate mental retardation from other conditions.

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