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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. NASW-01008 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
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Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2002). Human Interactions with the Carbon Cycle: Summary of a Workshop. Paul C. Stern. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Engineering
Institute of Medicine
National Research Council
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
COMMITTEE ON THE HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL CHANGE
THOMAS DIETZ (Chair),
Department of Environmental Science and Policy and Department of Sociology and Anthropology, George Mason University
Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina
Department of History, University of Texas at Austin
Department of Political Science, University of Oregon
Department of Anthropology, Indiana University
M. GRANGER MORGAN,
Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University
John F. Kennedy School of Government, Environment and Natural Resources Program, Harvard University
Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics, Ohio State University
PETER J. RICHERSON,
Division of Environmental Studies, University of California, Davis
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania
STEPHEN H. SCHNEIDER,
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University
Department of Anthropology and Environmental Studies Program, University of California, Santa Barbara
ELKE U. WEBER,
Department of Psychology, Columbia University
THOMAS J. WILBANKS,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
CHARLES KENNEL (ex officio, chair, Committee on Global Change Research),
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego
ORAN R. YOUNG (ex officio, International Human Dimensions Program Liaison),
Institute of Arctic Studies, Dartmouth College
PAUL C. STERN, Study Director
DEBORAH M. JOHNSON, Senior Project Assistant
The Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change is grateful to the many individuals whose efforts made this workshop summary possible. The committee’s work and other work of the National Research Council in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is supported by a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, acting on behalf of the USGCRP agencies.
We also wish to thank the workshop speakers, whose remarks stimulated a rich and wide-ranging discussion (see the Appendix for the workshop agenda). Committee members, as well as workshop participants, contributed questions and insights that significantly enhanced the dialogue. The workshop was conceived by the committee, with organizational responsibility delegated to a planning group consisting of the chair, Thomas Dietz, and members Emilio Moran, Edward Parson, and Thomas J. Wilbanks. This summary was executed by Paul C. Stern, staff director of the committee, to reflect a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop.This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the
study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David Cash, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Clark C. Gibson, Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego; Diana Liverman, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Arizona; and Robert Mendelsohn, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University.
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Oran R. Young, Institute of Arctic Studies, Dartmouth College. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.