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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2002. Small Wonders, Endless Frontiers: A Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10395.
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B

Acronyms


ATP

Advanced Technology Program


CBRE

chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive

CIA

Central Intelligence Agency

CRADAs

cooperative research and development agreements


DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DOD

Department of Defense

DOE

Department of Energy

DOJ

Department of Justice

DOT

Department of Transportation


EPA

Environmental Protection Agency


GMR

giant magnetoresistive

GPRA

Government Performance and Results Act


IWGN

Interagency Working Group on Nanotechnology


NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NNAB

nanoscience and nanotechnology advisory board

NNCO

National Nanotechnology Coordination Office

NNI

National Nanotechnology Initiative

NNUN

national nanotechnology user network

NRC

National Research Council

NSET

Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology (subcommittee)

NSF

National Science Foundation

NSTC

National Science and Technology Council


OMB

Office of Management and Budget

OSTP

Office of Science and Technology Policy


PCAST

President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

PITAC

President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee


SBIR

small business innovation research

SET

single electron transistor State Department of State

STTR

small business technology transfer


Treasury

Department of the Treasury


USDA

Department of Agriculture

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2002. Small Wonders, Endless Frontiers: A Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10395.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2002. Small Wonders, Endless Frontiers: A Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10395.
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Page57
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2002. Small Wonders, Endless Frontiers: A Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10395.
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Nanoscale science and technology, often referred to as "nanoscience" or "nanotechnology," are science and engineering enabled by our relatively new ability to manipulate and characterize matter at the level of single atoms and small groups of atoms. This capability is the result of many developments in the last two decades of the 20th century, including inventions of scientific instruments like the scanning tunneling microscope. Using such tools, scientists and engineers have begun controlling the structure and properties of materials and systems at the scale of 10?9 meters, or 1/100,000 the width of a human hair. Scientists and engineers anticipate that nanoscale work will enable the development of materials and systems with dramatic new properties relevant to virtually every sector of the economy, such as medicine, telecommunications, and computers, and to areas of national interest such as homeland security. Indeed, early products based on nanoscale technology have already found their way into the marketplace and into defense applications.

In 1996, as the tremendous scientific and economic potential of nanoscale science and technology was beginning to be recognized, a federal interagency working group formed to consider creation of a national nanotechnology initiative (NNI). As a result of this effort, around $1 billion has been directed toward NNI research since the start of FY 2001. At the request of officials in the White House National Economic Council and agencies that are participating in NNI, the National Research Council (NRC) agreed to review the NNI. The Committee for the Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative was formed by the NRC and asked to consider topics such as the current research portfolio of the NNI, the suitability of federal investments, and interagency coordination efforts in this area.

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