National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix: Biographical Sketches
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 401
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 402
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 403
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 404
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 405
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 406
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 407
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 408
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 409
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 410
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 411
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 412
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 413
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10419.
×
Page 414

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Index A terrorist incident prevention and response, 209­214 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, 22 time allocation for, 71 Accreditation, 102, 308­309 uniformed patrol, 57­62 Activities of policing See also specific activity in community policing, 32, 85­88, 233 Aggressive preventive patrol, 60, 61 conceptualization of, 57 Allocation of police resources, 71, 314­317 crackdowns, 236­237 American Bar Association, 22, 29 for crime prevention, 73 American Indian police departments, 50 disorder policing, 228­230 American Police Systems, 21 exercise of authority, 63­69 American Society of Criminology, 22 field interrogations, 231 Americans with Disabilities Act, 54 in focused policing, 235­236 Arrests informal enforcement measures, 162­164 agency size as factor in rate of, 172 information collection and processing, citizen characteristics as factor in, 116­ 75­77, 166­168 128 innovative approaches, 94­95 deterrent effectiveness of, offender investigations, 73­75 characteristics and, 242 legal constraints to, 253­254 domestic violence intervention, 64­65, maintaining order, 69­71 231­232, 309­310 organizational measures and outputs, gender differences as factor in, 151, 152 157­162 as goal of policing, 93 in problem-oriented policing, 92­93, 243 illegal search leading to, 264­265 public interaction in, 58, 62­63 legal definition, 159 random preventive patrols, 5, 17, 226 neighborhood characteristics and for reducing fear in community, 86 likelihood of, 191­192 research needs, 214­215, 218 officer attitudes as factor in, 135, 136 service activities, 71, 164­165, 191 officer discretion, 64, 70 specialized services, 77­78, 176­179, organizational data on, 159 215­216, 310­311 percentage of investigations resulting in, standard model, 94, 223­224 74 401

402 INDEX police behavior in urban environments, proactive policing and, 61­62, 75 194­195 search and seizure protections, 262­263 political factors in police practice and Civil Rights Act, 54, 81 policy, 199­200 Civilian review boards. See Citizen oversight at protest demonstrations, 65­66 of police racial factors in, 64, 122­126, 149­150, Commission on Accreditation for Law 191­192, 316 Enforcement Agencies, 102 situational determinants of police Communication systems. See Dispatch behavior, 115­117 system state legislation and, 205 Community characteristics, 155­156 in traffic stops, 72, 160­161 crime risk, 217­218 vs. taking into custody, 70 organization of police agency and, 174­ See also Case clearance 175 Auditing organizations, 102 police behavior and, 189­193, 216 Auto theft, 246 police corruption risk and, 273 See also Urban areas Community Oriented Policing Program, 25 B Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), 30­33, 103, 105, 207 Beat Health Study, 240 Community police specialists, 178­179 Behavior of police. See Determinants of Community policing police behavior; Lawfulness of police activities, 32, 85­88, 233 behavior adoption and diffusion, 104­105, 106, Bicycle patrol, 58 311­312 Boston Ceasefire project, 241 benefits, 61 Brown v. Mississippi, 253­254 characteristics, 5, 18, 84, 85, 233, 248­ Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, 249 76, 77 community relations and, 61, 62, 88, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 103 89­90, 91­92, 235, 298, 307 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 9, 107, 166, conceptual basis, 24 328, 329­330 COPS effectiveness, 31­32 degree of innovation in, 84­85, 94­95 C educational attainment of officers and performance in, 140 Case clearance effectiveness, 7, 33­34, 232­235, 246, effectiveness of follow-up investigations, 250­251 227­228 federal support for, 1, 11, 105­106, 207 organizational data, 160 gender differences in officer behavior in, rate, 74 151­152 size of police agency and, 172­173 legitimating effects of, 312 Challenge of Crime in a Free Society, The, 20 officer attitudes in performance of, 32 Citation issuance, 160­161 organizational structure of policing for, Citizen oversight of police, 6, 19, 55, 202­ 88­89, 173­174, 309 204, 288­289, 310 police culture and, 132 Citizen policing, 56­57, 89 proactive policing and, 61­62, 87­88 Civil liberties, 57, 195 problem-oriented policing and, 90­92, 93 data collection on police practice, 319 recruitment and training of officers for, excessive force lawsuits, 278­280 105­106, 143, 144 Miranda rights, 207, 255­258 relations with other government agencies policing of protest demonstrations, 65­ in, 89­90 66, 70­71, 208 research recommendations, 9, 33­34, 166, 330

INDEX 403 research trends, 14, 24, 25 on interrogation practice, 253­258 role of patrol officers in, 60 racial equality concerns, 253­254 specialization in police agencies for, 78, sanctioning police discretion in stop and 177, 178­179 search procedures, 318 Community Profile Development project, on search and seizure procedure, 262­ 142­143 263 Complainant behavior and characteristics traffic enforcement and, 204­205 delay in calling police, 227 Crime control and prevention demeanor toward police, 119 activities of, 73 as factor in police behavior, 116, 119, case clearance rate and, 227­228 120­121, 122, 192 characteristics of effective policing, 95­ gender, 122 96 perceptions of police legitimacy, 292 citizen requests for police service, 58­59, race, 123­124 60 social class, 120­121 citizen rights and, 61­62, 75 Complaints about police behavior, 161­162 community policing perspective, 85­88 CompStat, 16, 76, 167, 174, 230, 309 conceptualization, 72 adoption trends, 185 disorder policing, 228­230 effects on policing practice, 185, 186­188 effectiveness of problem-oriented management structure and function, policing, 244­246 186­187, 188 fairness in policing and, 1 program features, 186­187 federal law enforcement agencies, 50 rationale, 185­186 focus on previous offenders, 236, 240­ research needs, 188­189 243 Computer-aided dispatch, 58 focused model, 4­5, 17­18 Conflict theory, 193­195, 216 geo-focused policing, 181­183, 216 COPS. See Community Oriented Policing individual-level intervention, 87, 88 Services information technology for, 76 Corruption, 6, 7, 18 models of social regulation, 294­297 causes, 271­275 nonenforcement activities in, 164 definition, 268 nonpolice factors, 217­218 environmental risk factors, 273­275 nonpolice participants, 56­57 forms of, 268 opportunities for improving police government commissions to investigate, capacity, 3 289­290 origins of suspect profiling, 317­318 measurement, 268­271 patrol officer activities, 59­61, 71 officer characteristics predisposing to, police crackdown effectiveness, 236­237 271­272 in problem-oriented policing, 91 opportunity for, 272 public expectations for policing, 1, 12 organizational environment and, 272­ random patrol strategy, 226 273 recommendations for improving, 7, 328 political factors in police behavior and research methodology, 4 policy, 201 research spending, 30 strategies for preventing, 287­288 research trends and topics, 23­24 in vice units, 74­75, 78 restorative policing rationale and effects, Cost of policing, 51 305­307 federal spending, 53­54, 105 situational approach, 87­88 County police force, 49­50 size of police agency and, 224­225 Court decisions, 99­100 standard model, 4, 17, 223­224 influence on police behavior and traffic enforcement and, 231 policies, 54, 206­207, 216, 253­255, youth firearms violence prevention, 32 260­261, 263­267, 273, 279­280

404 INDEX Crime-mapping, 100­101, 236, 238 ecological theory of, 190 Crime rate environmental factors, 155­156 community characteristics and, 217­218 federal standards, 54, 207­214 declines in 1990s, 25, 229­230 importance of research in, 109­110 local distribution of police resources legal liability concerns, 275­280 and, 315 legally relevant factors, 3, 7, 15­16, structure of police industry and, 25 115­117, 152­153 Culture, police, 16, 18 local government controls, 54 community policing and, 132 neighborhood characteristics, 189­193, gender issues, 80 216 officer behavior and, 6, 16, 130­133 organizational factors, 4, 16, 110, 155, 156, 171­172, 174­175, 215­216, 282­288 D police culture, 6, 16, 130­133 police leadership, 283 DARE program, 87 political environment, 156, 196­202 Data collection for research recruitment and training, 141­147, 153­ on community liaison and mobilization 154 activities, 165­166 research methodology, 3, 15­16, 111­ on corruption, 268­271 113 federal support for, 1, 11, 76­77, 215 research needs, 152­154 on informal activities of policing, 17, research trends, 22­23 214­215 state government standards, 54­55, 205­ on information technologies and 206 practices, 167, 168 urban context, 193­195, 216 on nonenforcement activities, 164­165 See also Environmental influences on on officer behavior, 8 police behavior; Officer on organizational structure and characteristics; Situational factors in functioning, 9, 214­215 policing on policing processes, 165 Deterrence model of social regulation, 294­ on public assessments of policing, 8, 292 296 on racial profiling, 286­287, 319­323, Disaster response, 75 324, 325­326 Discretion of individual officers, 14­15, 57 recommendations, 262, 328, 329 arrest decisions, 64, 70 on search and seizure procedures, 267 domestic violence intervention, 64­65 on use of force by police, 7­8, 67, 259­ formalization of police policies and, 260, 261­262 184­185 Department of Justice, 1­2, 21, 30, 53, 105, in geo-focused policing, 182­183 277 public perception of policing and, 2­3, Detective work. See Follow-up 15 investigations racist practices, 254 Determinants of police behavior, 215­216 research, 22­23, 24 citizen behavior and characteristics, 116­ specialization and, 179 128, 192 Dispatch system, 58­59, 60 citizen review boards, 202­204 Domestic violence, 64­65, 122, 200, 231­ in community policing, 32 232, 285, 309­310 court decisions and government Drug crimes and drug law enforcement, regulation, 54, 206­207, 216, 253­ 206, 239, 240, 265, 317­318 255, 256­258, 260­261, 263­267, Drug Enforcement Agency, 317 273, 279­280 Drunk-driving enforcement, 172, 310 diversity of police force, 147­148 Due process, 253, 262

INDEX 405 E suspect characteristics and, 242­243 understudied police activities, 218 Early warning systems, 285 youth firearms violence prevention, 32 Ecological theory, 190 See also Crime control and prevention Educational attainment of officers, 79, 138, Environmental influences on police 139­141, 329 behavior, 155­156 Effectiveness of policing corruption risk, 273­275 assessment of, 7 neighborhood characteristics, 189­193, case clearance rate, 74, 160 216 community policing, 7, 33­34, 232­235, scope of, 189 246, 250­251 size of community and police agency, 5, comparison of strategies, 247­251 17, 49, 168­173 COPS investments and, 31­32 See also Community characteristics crackdowns, 236­237 Evidence-based policing, 308 disorder policing, 228­230 drop in 1990s crime rate and, 25 fairness in policing and, 2, 19 F federally mandated research, 1­2, 11 field interrogations, 231 Fairness in policing focused model of policing, 235­243, citizens' legal behavior related to 246­247, 250, 251 perception of, 6, 19 follow-up investigations, 227­228 effectiveness of policing and, 2, 19 geo-focused policing, 181­183 federal enforcement, 53 hot-spots policing, 238­240 public perception, 5­6, 15, 19, 115 innovation and, 95­96 research recommendations, 7­8, 314­ intensive enforcement strategies, 228­ 317 232 research trends, 13­14 models of crime control, 4­5, 17­18 in resource allocation, 314­317 models of social regulation, 294­297 See also Legitimacy of police; Racial perceived legitimacy of police and, 291, profiling 293­294, 304­306 Family intervention, 87 potential effects of government Federal Bureau of Investigation National sponsorship of research in, 34­35 Academy, 208­209 proactive patrol methods, 60­61 Federal government action, 1­2, 11, 30­34 problem-oriented policing, 33­34, 91, capacity to influence structure of 243, 244­246, 251 policing, 53 racial differences in public perception, community policing initiatives, 25, 105­ 300 106 random preventive patrols, 5, 17, 226 data collection, 1, 11, 76­77, 215 recommendations for improving, 7, 328 as driver of innovation, 103, 327 research methodologies, 218­223 to eliminate racial profiling, 324­325 research needs, 247 employment standards, 54 research trends and topics, 13­14, 23­ influence on police behavior and 24, 25 policies, 54, 207­214 response time and, 226­227 local context of policing and, 2, 14 size of agency and, 168­173, 215 police procedure standards, 54 size of police agency and, 224­225 prosecution of excessive force cases, 277, specialization and, 78 280­281 standard model, 223­224, 246, 247, recommendations for, 10 248, 249­250 research spending, 30, 31, 53­54 structural factors, 2, 52 spending on law enforcement, 53­54

406 INDEX Federal law enforcement, 50 I Firearm violence, 32 intensive enforcement strategy, 239, 241 Impact munitions, 69 Focused model of policing, 4­5, 17­18, 249 Information management in police work effectiveness, 235­243, 246­247, 250, activities in, 75­77, 83­84, 166­168 251 CompStat program, 185­186, 187, 188 recommendations, 7 for hot-spots policing, 5 trends, 236 innovation in, 76 Follow-up investigations, 5, 17, 73­75 for internal accountability analysis, 286­ effectiveness, 227­228 287 opportunities for improving crime problem identification in problem- control, 15 oriented policing, 92­93 technological advances, 228 for racial profiling assessment, 319­323, Foot patrols, 233, 234 325­326 Ford Foundation, 29­30, 100 recommendations for research on, 167, Foreign police practices, 12, 53 168 Fourteenth Amendment, 253 Innovation in policing Fourth Amendment, 262, 263, 266 adopting units and programs to foster Functions of the Police in Modern Society, legitimacy, 308­312 The, 23 adoption and diffusion of, 96, 97­99, 102­103, 104­105 CompStat as, 185, 188 G as continuous process, 95 effectiveness of policing and, 95­96 Gang crime, 201, 311 federal role, 103, 327 Gay and lesbian officers, 82 identifying, 94, 98 Gender in information processing, 76 citizen characteristics as determinants of local governance as source of, 101 police behavior, 121­122 organizational structure of policing and, female officers, 79­80 2, 47­48, 98, 106 officer's, performance and, 147­148, police receptiveness to, 6­7 151­152, 154 process of origination, 97­98, 99­103 as outcome factor in police-citizen professional organizations as source of, interactions, 16 101­102 political factors in police policy, 200 recent efforts, 82­83, 94 recruitment trends, 132, 147, 312­313 research goals, 12 Geo-focused policing, 181­182, 216, 236 research needs, 96, 99 See also Focused model of policing research recommendations, 9, 106­108, Guns. See Firearm violence 329­330 as social learning process, 102­103 strategic, 84­85 H technological, 83­84 High-speed pursuits, 285 through court order, 99­100 Hot-spots policing, 5, 17­19, 61, 100­101 through federal action, 103 through research, 100 effectiveness, 238­240 rationale, 237­238 See also Community policing; Problem- See also CompStat; Focused model of oriented policing Intelligence testing, 138 policing Internal affairs investigations, 285­286 International Association of Chiefs of Police, 101, 159, 261, 262

INDEX 407 Interrogations, 6, 54 regulatory trends, 253­255 effectiveness, 231 research needs, 7, 18­19, 290 effects of legal regulation on police research recommendations, 323, 324, practice, 253­254 326, 328 legal rights of citizens in, 256­258 research trends, 13­14, 252­253 non-custodial interviews, 257­258 state government oversight, 54­55 police compliance with regulations on, strategies for promoting, 18­19, 275­ 256­258 290 in use of force, 258­262 Leadership, police J governance structure of police agencies, 51­52 Jersey City Drug Hot Spots Experiment, 239 influence on officer behavior, 283 Jersey City Drug Market Analysis lawfulness of police behavior and, 6 Experiment, 240, 245 limitations of current research, 4 Jersey City Problem Oriented Policing in Legislation Violent Crime Places, 239 to eliminate racial profiling, 325 Justice Research and Statistics Association, federal, 1, 11, 54 159 recommendations for, 7 Justice Without Trial, 22­23 See also specific legislation Legitimacy of police, 5­6, 218 citizen behavior and, 304­308 K community policing effects, 312 Kansas City Crack House Raids consequences of, 304­308 Experiment, 239 definition, 18, 252, 291 Kansas City Gun Project, 239, 240 determinants of public perception, 15, Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment, 291­292, 303­304 27­28, 100 disadvantaged citizens' perceptions of, Knapp Commission, 269­270 307­308 effectiveness of policing and, 291, 293­ 294, 304­306 L local control of police and, 51 model of self-regulation, 296­297 Law Enforcement Assistance organizational role in establishing, 292, Administration, 30 308­312 Law Enforcement Management and perception of procedural justice and, Administrative Statistics, 9, 107, 301­303 165­166, 329­330 personnel practices and, 312­314 Lawfulness of police behavior, 5­6 proactive policing and, 61­62 citizen complaint data, 161­162 public perspectives, 292­293 definition, 18, 252, 291 racial context, 300­301 external oversight, 288­290 recommendations for improving, 8, 329 influence of law on, 54, 206­207, 216, research methods, 292, 299 253­255, 256­258, 260­261, 263­ research needs, 326 267, 273, 279­280 sources of, 298­299 internal affairs investigations, 285­286 See also Fairness in policing; Public legal liability of individual officer, 275­ opinion and understanding 280 Lethal force, 66­67 public perception of, 5­6, 19, 115 circumstances, 66­67, 260 recommendations for improving, 7­8, department and government policy, 67, 290, 328 259

408 INDEX formalized police policies on, 184­185, O 216, 284­285 frequency of shootings, 66, 67, 259­261 Observational studies, 27, 63, 220­221 organizational data, 157­158 police behavior research, 111­113 organizational differences, 157 Occupational Safety and Health political factors in police behavior and Administration, 56 policy, 199­200 Office of Justice Programs, 53, 54 racial context, 123, 259­260 Officer characteristics See also Use of force by police attitudes and beliefs, 135­136, 144­145, Local policing, 51 153, 190 fairness in allocation of resources, 314­ attitudes toward community policing, 32 317 authoritarian personality, 129­130 local government oversight, 55 corruption risk, 271­272 organizational structure, 49­50 cynicism, 133­134, 190 size of police force, 169, 170 demographic trends, 79 Locally Initiated Research Project, 33 early warning systems, 285 Lojack, 246 educational attainment, 79, 138, 139­ 141, 329 female officers, 79­80, 147­148, 151­ M 152, 154 gay and lesbian officers, 82 Mapp v. Ohio, 263, 280 integrity, 274­275 Mayors, 196, 198­202, 261 job satisfaction, 134 Media portrayals, 47, 171 knowledge and skills, 137­139 Mentally disordered citizens, 126­128 limitations of current research, 3­4, 16 Militarist stance, 212­213 minority officers, 79, 81­82 Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, performance assessments, 8, 76, 282­ 100 283 Minneapolis Hot Spots Patrol Experiment, race, 147­150, 154 238 research base, 129 Minneapolis Spouse Assault Project, 25 scope of, 110 Miranda rights, 207, 255­258 search and seizure practices and, 265 Moral behavior, 296 training experiences, 141­147 Municipal police force, 49, 52 Ohio v. Robinette, 318 distribution of police resources, 316 Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets size and structure, 170 Act (1968), 1, 11 See also Urban areas Operation Pipeline, 317 Organizational structure and functioning, 14­15 N change processes, 9, 14 National Crime Information Center, 76­77 citizen oversight, 202­204 community liaison and mobilization National Evaluation of Youth Firearms Violence Initiative, 32 activities, 165­166 National Instant Criminal Background for community policing, 85, 88­89, 309 complexity, 176­181 Check System, 77 National Institute of Justice, 1, 11, 23, 30­ CompStat features and effects, 185­189 33, 53­54, 103, 112­113, 167 coordination among components, 52­53 corruption risk, 272­273 recommendations for, 10, 330 National Science Foundation, 30, 112 current state, 2, 48­51, 170­171 National Sheriffs Association, 101 decentralization, 2, 14, 52­53, 88­89, 173­175

INDEX 409 as determinant of police behavior, 4, 16, P 110, 155, 156, 171­172, 215­216, 282­288 Peacekeeping mission of police, 69­71 distribution of employees, 58 Personality traits of officers effect of civil lawsuits against police, authoritarian, 129­130 279­280 corruption risk, 271­272 effectiveness of training programs Police Executive Research Forum, 29­30, influenced by, 144 101 in establishing legitimacy, 292, 308­312 Police Foundation, 29, 100 external oversight, 288­290 Police Project of the Philadelphia Public federal capacity to influence, 53 Interest Law Center, 261 formalization of police policies, 184­185 Police-Public Contact Surveys, 159 geo-focused policing, 181­183 Police Services Study, 112, 127, 191, 192 governance, 51­52 Police Systems in the United States, 21 hierarchical differentiation, 179­181 Political context of policing, 4, 16­17, 52 information collection and processing commissions to investigate police activities, 166­168 behavior, 289­290 innovation and, 47­48, 98, 106 as determinant of police behavior, 156, innovation in, 83 196­202 interaction with other governmental local distribution of police resources agencies, 204­205, 210, 211 and, 315 job specialization, 77­78, 176­179 police corruption risk and, 273­274 level of government and, 49­50 police hiring patterns, 225 measures and indicators of, 156­162 race factors in police-citizen interaction militarism in, 212­213 and, 125 nonenforcement service delivery, 164­ Pregnancy Discrimination Act, 54 165 President's Commission on Law number of agencies, 48, 50 Enforcement and the Administration number of employees, 48, 50 of Justice, 20, 21, 29, 35, 112 political context, 196­202 Prevention. See Crime control and populations served, 48­49 prevention for problem-oriented policing, 244 Principal-agent theory, 196­198 problems of fragmentation, 52­53 Private security industry, 55­56 research needs, 214­216 research recommendations, 107 research recommendations, 9 Problem-oriented policing research trends and topics, 4, 23 adoption and diffusion, 104 self-assessment for legal compliance, characteristics, 5, 18, 84, 90­91, 243­ 286­287 244, 249 significance of, in achieving goals of community policing and, 90­92, 93 policing, 168 conceptual basis, 91, 243 size of agency, 5, 17, 49, 168­173, 215 crime prevention strategies, 87 state government influence, 54­55, 205­ degree of innovation in, 84­85, 94­95 206 effectiveness, 33­34, 243, 244­246, 251 terrorist incident preparedness, 209­214 problem identification, 92­93, 243­244 traditional model, 93­94 research recommendations, 9, 33­34, use of force policies, 282­283 166, 330 See also Leadership, police research trends, 14 Overtime pay, 51 role of patrol officers, 60 Problem Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places, 240

410 INDEX Procedural justice, 301­303, 307 local distribution of police resources Processes of policing, 165 and, 314­315 Professional organizations, 101­102 officer's, 147­150 Professional standards units, 285­286 as outcome factor in police-citizen Project on Policing Neighborhoods in interactions, 16, 64, 122­126, 148­ Indianapolis and St. Petersburg, 32, 150, 191­192 112­113, 124, 127, 178­179, 192, perception of police fairness, 2­3, 8, 15, 193 300­301 Protest demonstrations, 65­66, 70­71, 208­ police force composition, 79, 81­82 209 political factors in police behavior and Public education, 73 policy, 199, 200 in community policing, 89 proactive policing and, 61 Public opinion and understanding racial threat hypothesis, 194 community policing conceptualization recruitment trends, 132, 147, 312­314 of, 86 research recommendations, 125­126 community policing effects on fear of research trends, 22, 25 crime, 234­235 search and seizure practices and, 265, complaints filed against police, 161­162, 267 195 use of force by police and, 25, 123, 260, determinants of, 47, 299 300­301 discretionary authority of individual use of lethal force by police and, 66, officers and, 2­3, 15 123, 259­260 expectations for police performance, 1, Racial profiling, 3, 6, 18, 25, 72, 124, 240­ 12, 217, 292 241, 318­320 lawfulness of police behavior, 5­6, 19, accountability measures, 323­324 115 data collection on police practice, 319­ models of social regulation, 294­297 323, 324, 325­326 of organizational structure of police federal response, 324­325 agencies, 171 origins of, 317­318 police corruption risk and, 273 police agency self-assessments, 286­287 police-public interactions, 62 public perception, 319 of racial profiling, 319, 325, 326 research recommendations, 323, 326 research recommendations, 8, 107­108, research trends, 13, 15 326, 328, 329 strategies for eliminating, 287 research trends and topics, 18, 23 Random patrols, 5, 17, 226 size of police agency and, 171 Randomized experiments, 219, 221 See also Legitimacy of police Recruitment and training of officers, 139 civil disturbance management training, 208 Q for community policing, 105­106, 143, 144 Quasi-experimental research, 27­28, 219­ demographic trends, 79, 132, 147, 312­ 220 314 as determinant of officer performance, R 141­147, 153­154 early warning systems, 285 Race and ethnicity educational attainment considerations, arrest behavior of police and, 64, 191­ 139­141, 329 192, 316 Federal Bureau of Investigation National legal regulation of police procedure, Academy, 208­209 253­254 federal role, 54

INDEX 411 female officers, 79­81 on lawfulness of police behavior, 6, 7­8, innovative approaches, 83 18­19, 290, 326, 328 limitations of current research, 3­4, 14­ methodologies, 14, 27­29, 34, 67, 111­ 15, 16 113, 219­223 minority employees, 79, 81­82 national coordination of, 10, 330­331 organizational environment and, 144 on nonenforcement service activities in political context, 225 policing, 165 predictors of training success, 138 on officer characteristics, 3­4 reform strategy, 128­129 on officer training, 146­147 research needs, 146 on organizational factors, 4, 23, 175, research recommendations, 8, 147, 329 214­216 screening for corruption risk, 271­272 outcome evaluations, 34­35 specialization, 77­78, 176­179 on personnel practices, 8, 16, 329 state government role, 54­55 on police-public interaction, 62­63 trends, 142 police receptiveness to, 6­7, 13, 24, 35 use of force and, 63­64 potential effects of government Repeat Call Policing, 238 sponsorship, 34­35 Repeat offenders, 236, 240­243 on problem-oriented policing, 9, 33­34, Research 166, 330 advocacy and, 24 on public experiences and perceptions, 8, on antiterrorist efforts, 9­10, 330 18, 23, 107­108, 292, 299, 328, 329 benefits of, 35 on race factors, 125­126 on citizen review boards, 204 scale of, 21­22, 34 on community policing, 9, 14, 24, 25, scholarly journals on policing, 21­22 33­34, 330 scope of subject matter, 22­27, 36­46 on CompStat program, 188­189 on social class variables, 121 on crime control effectiveness, 4­5, 19, as source of innovation, 100 23­24 on specialization, 177, 178 on crime prevention, 30 terrorist incident preparedness, 212­214 on determinants of police behavior, 3, on traffic enforcement, 3, 15 15­16, 22­23, 111­113, 152­154 trends in, 13­14, 20­27, 34­35 on discretionary authority of individual on use of force by police, 7­8, 13, 24­ officers, 22­23, 24 25, 67 on distribution of police resources, 316­ See also Data collection for research 317 Response time, 5, 17, 226­227 on effectiveness of policing, 218­223, Restorative policing, 305­307 247­251 evaluating research quality, 25, 29, 33 on extent of community liaison S activities, 166 Safe Streets Act, 327 on fairness of police behavior, 7­8, 13­ 14, 19, 252­253 SARA, 91 federal mandates for, 1­2, 11­12, 30 School policing, 50­51 SEADOC, 208 funding of, 10, 29­30, 31, 34, 53­54 future prospects, 19, 327 Searches and seizures, 6, 54 generalizability, 221­222 data collection, 267 legal environment, 262­263, 280 goals, 1­2, 11­12, 30­31, 34­35 on hierarchical structuring, 180 police compliance with law, 207, 263­ on information technologies and 267 pretextual, 318 practices, 167, 168 on innovation in policing, 9, 12, 96, 99, racial context, 265, 267 106­108, 329­330 stop and frisk procedures, 266­267

412 INDEX suspect profiling and, 317­318 Suspect characteristics, 3, 16 in traffic stops, 72 age, 116­117 warrant practices, 265­266 demeanor toward police, 117­120, 124 Self-defense, 56 as determinant of police behavior, 116­ Serious Habitual Offender/Drug Involved 128 Program, 87 effectiveness of arrest policies related to, Service activities in policing, 71, 164­165 242­243 neighborhood factors in delivery of, 191 employment, 242 research recommendations, 165 gender, 121­122 Sheriff's departments, 49­50 mental capacity, 126­128 Situational factors in policing national data collection, 76­77 arrest decisions, 64 perceptions of police legitimacy, 292­ circumstances of unlawful searches, 265 293 complainant behavior and race, 64, 122­126 characteristics, 119 social class, 120­121 crime prevention strategies in community SWAT teams, 77­78 policing, 87­88 Systematic social observation, 27 legal factors, 115­117 neighborhood vs. city-level factors, 4, 16­17 T research goals, 115 scope of, 3, 15, 110, 114 Tailored responses to crime and disorder, 5, 18, 95­96 significance of, in determining police behavior, 114 Team policing, 176­177, 181, 182­183 suspect behavior and characteristics, Tennessee v. Garner, 67, 259 Terrorist threat, 75, 156, 326 116­128 use of lethal force by police, 66­67, 260 coordination of policing against, 52­53 Size of police force, 5, 168­173, 215 information collection and processing activities, 166­168 adoption of innovation and, 104 community policing movement, 169­170 interorganizational coordination in consolidation movement, 169, 170, 173 response to, 210, 211 local context of policing and, 2 current profile, 49, 169 effectiveness and, 171­173, 224­225 police preparedness, 209­214 patrol mobilization and, 170­171 research needs, 212­214 research recommendations, 9­10, 330 public perception, 171 Social class, 120­121 Terry v. Ohio, 266, 267 local distribution of police resources Thurman v. Connecticut, 310 Traffic enforcement, 3, 15, 72 and, 315 neighborhood characteristics, 189­191 citations issued, 160­161 police behavior in urban environments, court outcomes and, 204­205 data sources, 160­161 193­195 Specialization in policing, 77­78, 176­179, drunk-driving enforcement, 172, 310 215­216, 310­311 effects on general crime rate, 231 outcomes of traffic stops, 72 terrorist incident response, 209­210 State government, 54­55, 205­206 percentage of police-public interactions commissions to investigate police in, 62 pretextual traffic stops, 318 behavior, 289­290 State law enforcement, 50 as proactive strategy, 60­61 Sting operations, 241­242 race as factor in arrest decision, 123 racial profiling in, 72, 124, 286­287 Stun guns, 69 Suburban areas, 317 Transportation system policing, 50­51

INDEX 413 U predisposing personality, 130 racial context, 25, 123, 192, 260, 300­ Undercover work, 75 301 Uniform Crime Reports, 159, 160, 163­ in range of police responses, 63­64 164, 215 research recommendations, 7­8, 262, Uniformed patrols, 57­62, 63 328 community policing approach, 88 research trends, 13, 24­25 distribution of activities, 71 situational determinants of police female officers, 79­80 behavior, 115 foot patrols, 233, 234 suspect characteristics as factor in, 118­ geo-focused policing, 181­182, 216 119 as percentage of local force, 170­171 techniques, 68­69 random preventive patrol, 5, 17, 226 See also Lethal force Unions, police, 55 United Kingdom, 53 Urban areas, 193­195, 216 V distribution of police resources, 316, 317 See also Municipal police force Victim characteristics, 122 Urban Institute, 31­32, 103, 104 Violence and the Police, 21 U.S. v. Calandra, 263 Violence and violent crime U.S. v. Leon, 265­266 demographic features, 49 Use of force by police, 6 domestic conflict, 64­65 circumstances and outcomes, 67­68 research spending on crime prevention civil liability of officers for, 275­276, per life lost, 30 278­280 youth firearms violence prevention, 32 community policing conceptualization, See also Use of force by police 86­87 Violent Crime Control and Law complainant characteristics as factor in, Enforcement Act (1994), 1, 11, 30­ 119 34, 53, 75, 104, 105, 280­281 criminal liability of officers for, 275­278 data collection, 7­8, 67, 259­260, 261­ 262 W definition, 261­262 Warrant searches, 265­266 federal standards, 277, 280­281 See also Searches and seizures by female officers, 151­152 Whren v. United States, 318 frequency, 64, 67­69 influence of administrative policies, 282­ 285 Y in managing protest demonstrations, 208 neighborhood characteristics and, 192, Youth 193 as factor in decision to arrest, 116­117 nonlethal technologies, 69 firearms violence prevention, 32 officer attitudes and, 135 preventive interventions in community officer educational attainment and, 140­ policing, 87, 88 141 officer training, 63­64 organizational data, 158­159 Z police compliance with law in, 259, Zero tolerance policing, 60, 61, 228­230 260­261

Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence Get This Book
×
 Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence
Buy Paperback | $54.95 Buy Ebook | $43.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Because police are the most visible face of government power for most citizens, they are expected to deal effectively with crime and disorder and to be impartial. Producing justice through the fair, and restrained use of their authority. The standards by which the public judges police success have become more exacting and challenging.

Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing explores police work in the new century. It replaces myths with research findings and provides recommendations for updated policy and practices to guide it. The book provides answers to the most basic questions: What do police do? It reviews how police work is organized, explores the expanding responsibilities of police, examines the increasing diversity among police employees, and discusses the complex interactions between officers and citizens. It also addresses such topics as community policing, use of force, racial profiling, and evaluates the success of common police techniques, such as focusing on crime "hot spots." It goes on to look at the issue of legitimacy—how the public gets information about police work, and how police are viewed by different groups, and how police can gain community trust.

Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing will be important to anyone concerned about police work: policy makers, administrators, educators, police supervisors and officers, journalists, and interested citizens.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!