National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
×

The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond

A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics

Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee

Committee on Solar and Space Physics

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 96013 and NASW 01001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Purchase Order No. 40-AA-NR-111308, National Science Foundation Grant No. ATM-0109283, Office of Naval Research Grant No. N00014-01-1-0753, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Purchase Order No. FQ8671-0101168. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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International Standard Book Number 0-309-50800-2 (PDF)

Library of Congress Control Number 2003101592

Cover: The background photo is of the aurora borealis as viewed from the vicinity of Fairbanks, Alaska. The three figures in the inset show the magnetically structured plasma of the Sun’s million-degree corona (left); the plasmasphere, a cloud of low-energy plasma that surrounds Earth and co-rotates with it (top right); and an artist’s conception of Jupiter’s inner magnetosphere, with the Io plasma torus and the magnetic flux tubes that couple the planet’s upper atmosphere with the magnetosphere. Ground-based aurora photo courtesy of Jan Curtis; coronal image courtesy of the Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research and NASA; plasmasphere image courtesy of the IMAGE EUV team and NASA; rendering of the jovian magnetosphere courtesy of J.R. Spencer (Lowell Observatory).

Copies of this report are available from the
National Academies Press,
500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055, (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 in the Washington metropolitan area. Internet, http://www.nap.edu

Copies of this report are available free of charge from:

Space Studies Board

National Research Council

500 Fifth Street, NW

Washington, DC 20001

Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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RECENT REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD

Satellite Observations of the Earth’s Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003)

Assessment of the Usefulness and Availability of NASA’s Earth and Space Mission Data (2002)

Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (prepublication) (2002)

Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology (prepublication) (2002)

New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (prepublication) (2002)

Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002)

“Review of the Redesigned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)” (2002)

Safe on Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Martian Surface (2002)

Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002)

Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government: Information for Management and Decision Making (prepublication) (2002)

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities (prepublication) (2001)

The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2001)

The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples (prepublication) (2001)

Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001)

“Scientific Assessment of the Descoped Mission Concept for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)” (2001)

Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (prepublication) (2001)

Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001)

U.S. Astronomy and Astrophysics: Managing an Integrated Program (2001)

Copies of these reports are available free of charge from:

Space Studies Board

The National Academies

500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001

(202) 334-3477

ssb@nas.edu

www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html

   

NOTE: Listed according to year of approval for release.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
×

SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS SURVEY COMMITTEE

LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI,

Lucent Technologies,

Chair

ROGER L. ARNOLDY,

University of New Hampshire

FRAN BAGENAL,

University of Colorado at Boulder

DANIEL N. BAKER,

University of Colorado at Boulder

JAMES L. BURCH,

Southwest Research Institute

JOHN C. FOSTER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PHILIP R. GOODE,

Big Bear Solar Observatory

RODERICK A. HEELIS,

University of Texas, Dallas

MARGARET G. KIVELSON,

University of California, Los Angeles

WILLIAM H. MATTHAEUS,

University of Delaware

FRANK B. McDONALD,

University of Maryland

EUGENE N. PARKER,

University of Chicago,

Professor Emeritus

GEORGE C. REID,

University of Colorado at Boulder

ROBERT W. SCHUNK,

Utah State University

ALAN M. TITLE,

Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center

ARTHUR CHARO, Study Director

WILLIAM S. LEWIS,1 Consultant

THERESA M. FISHER, Senior Program Assistant

1  

On temporary assignment from Southwest Research Institute.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
×

PANEL ON THE SUN AND HELIOSPHERIC PHYSICS

JOHN T. GOSLING,

Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Chair

ALAN M. TITLE,

Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center,

Vice Chair

TIMOTHY S. BASTIAN,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

EDWARD W. CLIVER,

Air Force Research Laboratory

JUDITH T. KARPEN,

Naval Research Laboratory

JEFFREY R. KUHN,

University of Hawaii

MARTIN A. LEE,

University of New Hampshire

RICHARD A. MEWALDT,

California Institute of Technology

VICTOR PIZZO,

NOAA Space Environment Center

JURI TOOMRE,

University of Colorado at Boulder

THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN,

University of Michigan

PANEL ON SOLAR WIND AND MAGNETOSPHERE INTERACTIONS

CHRISTOPHER T. RUSSELL,

University of California, Los Angeles,

Chair

JOACHIM BIRN,

Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Vice Chair

BRIAN J. ANDERSON,

Johns Hopkins University

JAMES L. BURCH,

Southwest Research Institute

JOSEPH F. FENNELL,

Aerospace Corporation

STEPHEN A. FUSELIER,

Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center

MICHAEL HESSE,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

WILLIAM S. KURTH,

University of Iowa

JANET G. LUHMANN,

University of California, Berkeley

MARK MOLDWIN,

University of California, Los Angeles

HARLAN E. SPENCE,

Boston University

MICHELLE F. THOMSEN,

Los Alamos National Laboratory

PANEL ON ATMOSPHERE-IONOSPHERE-MAGNETOSPHERE INTERACTIONS

MICHAEL C. KELLEY,

Cornell University,

Chair

MARY K. HUDSON,

Dartmouth College,

Vice Chair

DANIEL N. BAKER,

University of Colorado at Boulder

THOMAS E. CRAVENS,

University of Kansas

TIMOTHY J. FULLER-ROWELL,

University of Colorado at Boulder

MAURA E. HAGAN,

National Center for Atmospheric Research

UMRAN S. INAN,

Stanford University

TIMOTHY L. KILLEEN,

National Center for Atmospheric Research

CRAIG KLETZING,

University of Iowa

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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JANET U. KOZYRA,

University of Michigan

ROBERT LYSAK,

University of Minnesota

GEORGE C. REID,

University of Colorado at Boulder

HOWARD J. SINGER,

NOAA Space Environment Center

ROGER W. SMITH,

University of Alaska

PANEL ON THEORY, MODELING, AND DATA EXPLORATION

GARY P. ZANK,

University of California, Riverside,

Chair

DAVID G. SIBECK,1

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,

Vice Chair

SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS,

Naval Research Laboratory

RICHARD S. BOGART,

Stanford University

JAMES F. DRAKE, JR.,

University of Maryland

ROBERT E. ERGUN,

University of Colorado at Boulder

JACK R. JOKIPII,

University of Arizona

JON A. LINKER,

Science Applications International Corporation

WILLIAM LOTKO,

Dartmouth College

JOACHIM RAEDER,

University of California, Los Angeles

ROBERT W. SCHUNK,

Utah State University

PANEL ON EDUCATION AND SOCIETY

RAMON E. LOPEZ,

University of Texas, El Paso,

Chair

MARK ENGEBRETSON,

Augsburg College,

Vice Chair

FRAN BAGENAL,

University of Colorado

CRAIG DEFOREST,

Southwest Research Institute

PRISCILLA FRISCH,

University of Chicago

DALE E. GARY,

New Jersey Institute of Technology

MAUREEN HARRIGAN,

Agilent Technologies

ROBERTA M. JOHNSON,

National Center for Atmospheric Research

STEPHEN P. MARAN,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

TERRANCE ONSAGER,

NOAA Space Environment Center

1  

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory until summer 2002.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS

JAMES L. BURCH,

Southwest Research Institute,

Chair

JAMES F. DRAKE,

University of Maryland

STEPHEN A. FUSELIER,

Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center

MARY K. HUDSON,

Dartmouth College

MARGARET G. KIVELSON,

University of California, Los Angeles

CRAIG KLETZING,

University of Iowa

FRANK B. McDONALD,

University of Maryland

EUGENE N. PARKER,

University of Chicago, Professor Emeritus

ROBERT W. SCHUNK,

Utah State University

GARY P. ZANK,

University of California, Riverside

ARTHUR CHARO, Study Director

THERESA M. FISHER, Senior Program Assistant

   

NOTE: Members listed are those who served during the survey study period in 2001-2002.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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SPACE STUDIES BOARD

JOHN H. McELROY,

University of Texas at Arlington (retired),

Chair

ROGER P. ANGEL,

University of Arizona

JAMES P. BAGIAN,

Veterans Health Administration’s National Center for Patient Safety

ANA P. BARROS,

Harvard University

RETA F. BEEBE,

New Mexico State University

ROGER D. BLANDFORD,

California Institute of Technology

JAMES L. BURCH,

Southwest Research Institute

RADFORD BYERLY, JR.,

University of Colorado at Boulder

ROBERT E. CLELAND,

University of Washington

HOWARD M. EINSPAHR,

Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute

STEVEN H. FLAJSER,

Loral Space and Communications Ltd.

MICHAEL FREILICH,

Oregon State University

DON P. GIDDENS,

Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University

RALPH H. JACOBSON,

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired)

MARGARET G. KIVELSON,

University of California, Los Angeles

CONWAY LEOVY,

University of Washington

BRUCE D. MARCUS,

TRW, Inc. (retired)

HARRY Y. McSWEEN, JR.,

University of Tennessee

GEORGE A. PAULIKAS,

The Aerospace Corporation (retired)

ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH,

Portland State University

ROALD S. SAGDEEV,

University of Maryland

CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER,

Lockheed Martin

ROBERT J. SERAFIN,

National Center for Atmospheric Research

MITCHELL SOGIN,

Marine Biological Laboratory

C. MEGAN URRY,

Yale University

PETER VOORHEES,

Northwestern University

J. CRAIG WHEELER,

University of Texas at Austin

JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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Preface

The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics is the product of an 18-month effort that began in December 2000, when the National Research Council (NRC) approved a study to assess the current status and future directions of U.S. ground- and space-based programs in solar and space physics research. The NRC’s Space Studies Board and its Committee on Solar and Space Physics organized the study, which was carried out by five ad hoc study panels and the 15-member Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, chaired by Louis J. Lanzerotti, Lucent Technologies. The work of the panels and the committee was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond is the report of the Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee. It draws on the findings and recommendations of the five study panels, as well as on the committee’s own deliberations and on previous relevant NRC reports. The report identifies broad scientific challenges that define the focus and thrust of solar and space physics research for the decade 2003 through 2013, and it presents a prioritized set of missions, facilities, and programs designed to address those challenges.

In preparing this report, the committee has considered the technologies needed to support the research program that it recommends as well as the policy and programmatic issues that influence the conduct of solar and space physics research. The committee has also paid particular attention to the applied aspects of solar and space physics—to the important role that these fields play in a society whose increasing dependence on space-based technologies renders it ever more vulnerable to “space weather.” The report discusses each of these important topics—technology needs, applications, and policy—in some detail. The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond also

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
×

discusses the role of solar and space physics research in education and examines the productive cross-fertilization that has occurred between solar and space physics and related fields, in particular astrophysics and laboratory plasma physics.

Each of the five study panels was charged with surveying its assigned subject area and with preparing a report on its findings. The first three panels focused on the important scientific goals within their respective disciplines and on the missions, facilities, programs, technologies, and policies needed to achieve them. In contrast, the Panel on Theory, Modeling, and Data Exploration addressed basic issues that transcend disciplinary boundaries and that are relevant to all of the subdisciplines of solar and space physics. The Panel on Education and Society examined a variety of issues related to both formal and informal education, including the incorporation of solar and space physics content in science instruction at all levels, the training of solar and space physicists at colleges and universities, and public outreach. The reports of the panels are published in a separate volume titled The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003, in press).

In addition to the input from the five study panels, the committee also received information at a 2-day workshop convened in August 2001 to examine in detail issues relating to the transition from research models to operational models. Participants in the workshop included members of the committee and representatives from the Air Force, the Navy, NOAA, NSF, NASA, the U.S. Space Command, academia, and the private sector.

The committee undertook its work intending to provide a community assessment of the present state and future directions of solar and space physics research. To this end, the committee and the panels engaged in a number of efforts to ensure the broad involvement of all segments of the solar and space physics communities. These efforts included town-meeting-like events held at the May 2001 joint meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the American Astronomical Society’s (AAS’s) Solar Physics Division1 and at spring and summer 2001 workshops of the following programs: International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP), Solar, Heliospheric, and Interplanetary Environment (SHINE), Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR), and Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM). Each of these outreach events was well attended

1  

The AGU and the Solar Physics Division of the AAS are the two principal scientific organizations representing the solar and space physics community.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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and provided the committee and panels with valuable guidance, suggestions, and insights into the concerns of the solar and space physics community. Additional community input came from presentations on science themes, missions, and programs at panel meetings, from direct communication with individual panel and committee members by phone and e-mail, and through Web sites and Web-based bulletin boards established by two of the panels. Reports in the electronic newsletters of the AGU’s Space Physics and Aeronomy section and of the AAS’s Solar Physics Division kept those communities informed of the progress of the study and encouraged their continued involvement in the study process.

Each of the study panels met at least twice during the spring and summer of 2001. The Panel on the Sun and Heliospheric Physics and the Panel on Education and Society met three times. The committee met five times, three times in 2001 and twice in 2002. The panel chairs and vice chairs participated in two of those meetings, during which they presented their panels’ recommendations and received comments and suggestions from the committee. The final set of scientific and mission, facility, and program priorities and other recommendations was established by consensus at the committee’s last meeting, in May 2002.

The committee’s final set of priorities and recommendations does not include all of the recommendations made by the study panels, although it is consistent with them.2 Each panel worked diligently to identify the compelling scientific questions in its subject area and to set program priorities to address these questions. All of the recommendations offered by the panels merit support; however, the committee took as its charge the provision of a strategy for a strong, balanced national program in solar and space physics for the next decade that could be carried out within what is currently thought to be a realistic resource envelope. Difficult choices were inevitable, but the recommendations presented in this report reflect the committee’s best judgment, informed by the work of the panels and discussions with the scientific community, about which programs are most important for developing and sustaining the solar and space physics enterprise.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and

2  

The recommendations of each panel can be found in the companion volume to this report, The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: Panel Reports, 2003, in press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Claudia Alexander, California Institute of Technology,

Lewis Allen, California Institute of Technology (retired),

George Field, Harvard University,

Peter Gilman, National Center for Atmospheric Research,

Gerhard Haerendel, International University, Bremen, Germany,

Thomas Hill, Rice University,

W. Jeffrey Hughes, Boston University,

Ralph Jacobson, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired),

Robert Lin, University of California, Berkeley,

Nelson Maynard, Mission Research Corporation,

Atsuhiro Nishida, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science,

William Radasky, Metatech Corporation, and

Donald Williams, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University, and Lennard Fisk, University of Michigan. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Louis J. Lanzerotti, Chair

Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. The Sun to the Earth -- and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10477.
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The sun is the source of energy for life on earth and is the strongest modulator of the human physical environment. In fact, the Sun’s influence extends throughout the solar system, both through photons, which provide heat, light, and ionization, and through the continuous outflow of a magnetized, supersonic ionized gas known as the solar wind.

While the accomplishments of the past decade have answered important questions about the physics of the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies, they have also highlighted other questions, some of which are long-standing and fundamental. The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond organizes these questions in terms of five challenges that are expected to be the focus of scientific investigations in solar and space physics during the coming decade and beyond.

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