Panel and Staff Biographies
BARRY BLOOM, Ph.D., is Dean of the Faculty and Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health. He received his B.A. degree, and an honorary S.D., from Amherst College, his M.A. from Harvard University, and his Ph.D. from the Rockefeller University. Dr. Bloom chairs the WHO-UNAIDS Vaccine Advisory Committee and serves on the National AIDS Vaccine Research Committee. He recently received a major grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for an AIDS prevention initiative in Nigeria. He was a member of both the National Advisory Council of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. National Vaccine Advisory Committee. He currently serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Advisory Board of the Fogarty International Center at the NIH. Dr. Bloom is chairman of the Board of Trustees of the International Vaccine Institute. He was co-chair of the Board on Global Health of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bloom is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the National Academy of Sciences.
JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is a Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was co-chair of the
previous Institute of Medicine study (1990–1992) on Emerging Infections. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine. He is currently a member of other NRC panels, the National Research Council Committee on Biological Threats to Agricultural Plants and Animals, the National Academy of Science Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the Defense Science Board, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Threat Reduction Advisory Committee.
RONALD ATLAS, Ph.D., is a professor of biology and graduate dean at the University of Louisville. He received a B.S. degree from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1968, an M.S. from Rutgers University in 1970, and a Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1972. He then served for a year as a National Research Council Research Associate at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He is a member of the American Academy of Microbiology and was the recipient of the American Society for Microbiology award in Applied and Environmental Sciences.
RUTH BERKELMAN, M.D., is currently a professor of epidemiology and international health at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University. A former Assistant Surgeon General, she has served as a Senior Adviser to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and as deputy director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases. She led CDC’s efforts to respond to the threat of emerging infectious diseases, and is currently a member of the American Society of Microbiology’s Policy and Scientific Affairs Board. She has also been active with the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Epidemiological Society. A graduate of Harvard Medical School, she is board certified in internal medicine and pediatrics. She serves on the Board of Trustees at Princeton University.
GAIL CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President of Infectious Disease Research, Drug Discovery Research & Clinical Investigation, Eli Lilly and Company, Lily Corporate Center. She has received a number of awards for her research in infectious diseases and is a recent past President of the American Society of Microbiology. She has been active in national and international policy deliberations, including those of NIH and the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. She was also a member of the International Science and Technology Center Science Advisory Committee and a member of the steering committee of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. She is the recent chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a past member of the NIAID, NIH Advisory Council, and the NIH Director’s Advisory Committee.
THOMAS CECH, Ph.D., is President of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is also a Distinguished Professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He received his B.A. degree in chemistry from Grinnell College and his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. His postdoctoral work in biology was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a member of the National Academy of Science and of the Institute of Medicine. Among the many honors he has received are the Lasker Award, the National Medal of Science, and the 1989 Nobel Prize in chemistry.
DAVID FRANZ, D.V.M., Ph.D., is currently Vice President of Chemical & Biological Defense Division at Southern Research Institute. He has served in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command for 23 of his 27 years on active duty. Dr. Franz has served as both Deputy Commander and then Commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and as Deputy Commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Dr. Franz served as Chief Inspector on three United Nations Special Commission biological warfare inspection missions to Iraq, and as technical advisor on long-term monitoring. He also served as a member of the first two US/UK teams that visited Russia in support of the Trilateral Joint Statement on Biological Weapons, and as a member of the Trilateral Experts’ Committee for biological weapons negotiations. Dr. Franz was Technical Editor for the Textbook of Military Medicine on Chemical and Biological Defense released in 1997. He has been an invited speaker at many nationally and internationally recognized organizations. Dr. Franz currently serves on the National Research Council’s Committee on Biological Threats to Agricultural Plants and Animals. Dr. Franz holds a D.V.M. from Kansas State University and a Ph.D. in Physiology from Baylor College of Medicine.
CLAIRE FRASER, Ph.D., is the President of the Institute for Genomic Research. She served previously as the Director of the Department of Microbial Genomics and Vice-President for Research. As leader of the teams that sequenced the genomes of several microbial organisms, Dr. Fraser has helped initiate the era of comparative genomics. Her research interests include whole genome sequence analysis of microbial genomes and the use of genomic-based approaches to elucidate differences in gene expression. She earned her B.S. from Rensselear Polytechnic Institute and her Ph.D. from The State University of New York at Buffalo.
DAVID GALAS, Ph.D., is Vice President, Chief Academic Officer, and Norris Professor of Applied Life Science at Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences (KGI), Claremont, California. Before coming to help found and develop KGI, a new research and educational institution in the applied life sciences, Dr.
Galas served as president and chief scientific officer of Seattle-based Chiroscience R&D Inc., a genomics and drug discovery company. This company was formed through the acquisition of Darwin Molecular Corporation, which Dr. Galas helped start in 1993, and he served as vice president of research and development. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Davis-Livermore. He received his undergraduate degree in physics from the University of California, Berkeley. He has also held positions at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and the University of California’s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.
CDR SHAUN JONES, M.D., USN, currently advises senior advanced technology and concepts groups throughout the national security community. Prior to the current assignment, he completed a distinguished 6-year term at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). DARPA is the primary research and development arm of the Office of the Secretary of Defense and is widely known for many of the revolutionary technological advancements to include those enabling Internet and Stealth technology. Dr. Jones is an internationally recognized expert in the diverse disciplines of advanced medical and surgical technologies and biological warfare defense and is a regularly invited consultant to a variety of DoD strategic panels. His extensive military operational experience includes Naval Undersea and Surface Warfare, as well as Special Operations. At the request of the national security community, Dr. Jones now leads a select effort studying the impact of biomedical technology on the future of national security. Dr. Jones is currently an active duty Captain (sel) in the United States Navy and an Assistant Professor of Surgery at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. He earned his medical degree at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. He completed a residency in Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the National Naval Medical Center and was a resident research fellow in the Divisions of Cytokine Biology and Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
ROBERT LAMB, Ph.D., Sc.D., is an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and also John Evans Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology at Northwestern University and a Professor of Microbiology-Immunology at Northwestern University Medical School. He received his undergraduate degree reading Biochemistry at the University of Birmingham, England, and his Ph.D. and Sc.D. from the University of Cambridge. Dr. Lamb came to the United States in 1974 to do postdoctoral work with Purnell Choppin at the Rockefeller University, where he later became a faculty member. In 1983, Dr. Lamb joined the faculty at Northwestern University. Dr. Lamb is an expert on the replication of influenza virus and paramyxo viruses and his interests include the mechanism of assembly of the viruses, the mechanisms of entry of these viruses into cells and the interactions of these viruses with the host cell. Dr. Lamb is an Associate Editor of the
standard textbook Fields Virology and serves as Editor-in-Chief of Virology. Dr. Lamb has been awarded two consecutive merit awards from the National Institutes of Health for his work on influenza virus, and the Wallace Row Award for Excellence in virologic research from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Dr. Lamb is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences. For 2001–2002, Dr. Lamb is President of the American Society of Virology.
SIMON LEVIN, Ph.D., is the George M. Moffett Professor of Biology in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, and Associate Faculty Member in the Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics at Princeton University, where he was also the Founding Director of the Princeton Environmental Institute. He is also an Affiliated Faculty Member of the Princeton Environmental Institute and a Faculty Fellow of the Princeton Society of Fellows in Liberal Arts. He retains an Adjunct Professorship at Cornell University, where previously he was the Charles A. Alexander Professor of Biological Sciences, Chair of the Section of Ecology and Systematics, Director of the Ecosystems Research Center, and Director of the Center for Environmental Research. Professor Levin has also served as President of the Ecological Society of America and of the Society for Mathematical Biology. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was the founding Editor of the journal Ecological Applications, and has edited numerous journals and book series, including the Journal of Mathematical Biology and the SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics. His recent book, Fragile Dominion, develops an understanding of ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems, and lays out lessons for managing our environment. He also edited the five-volume Encyclopedia of Biodiversity.
JOHN MEKALANOS, Ph.D., is the Adele H. Lehman Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School. He received his B.A. and Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Amongst various awards during his career, Dr. Mekalanos has been the recipient of the Harvard University Ledlie Prize, and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1998.
TOM MONATH, M.D., is Vice President of Research and Medical Affairs at Acambis, Inc. He has been engaged in programs of WHO and the National Vaccines Advisory Committee. He was formerly director of the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, and Chief of Virology, USAMRIID. His research has included work on arboviruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, bubonic plague, and other zoonotic diseases. He has served on various committees dealing with biological weapons (BW) issues.
RANDALL MURCH, Ph.D., is the Deputy Assistant Director, Laboratory Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in biology from the University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, in 1974. He earned a Master of Science Degree in Botanical Sciences from the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, in 1976. He completed a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Plant Pathology at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, in 1979. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Forensic Sciences, and the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors. Dr. Murch regularly works with the Departments of Defense, Energy, Agriculture, and Health and Human Services to plan and develop the nation’s response to, and resolution of, biological, chemical, and nuclear terrorism. Dr. Murch has a diverse array of investigative, operational, forensic, applied science and engineering, management, and program development assignments and experiences throughout his 22-year FBI career. Further, he served in the Defense Threat Reduction Agency as the director of its advanced studies group. There, he led the design and execution of many intellectually aggressive studies on new approaches to reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction. He currently serves as the head of the FBI’s national program for applied engineering and technical operation support.
EDWARD PENHOET, Ph.D., is dean of the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley. Prior to his appointment as dean in 1998, Dr. Penhoet was president and chief executive officer of Chiron Corporation in Emeryville, California. He also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1971 to 1998. Dr. Penhoet received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Washington in 1968 and was a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Penhoet is active in state and national service organizations including the California Healthcare Institute and the California Governor’s Biotechnology Council. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.
DAVID RELMAN, M.D., is Associate Professor of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University. He received his B.S. in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Dr. Relman also serves as a Staff Physician at the Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care System. Among the many awards and honors he has received are the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Disease from the Ellison Medical Foundation, and the Squibb Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Dr. Relman is a member of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Bioterrorism, NIAID, NIH.
PETER ROSEN, M.D., is a Professor of Clinical Medicine and Surgery and Director of Education in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Univer-
sity of California, San Diego. He is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Emergency Medicine and a consulting editor to Emergindex Microindex. Dr. Rosen is a fellow in the American College of Surgeons, a senior board member and consultant with the American Board of Emergency Medicine, and a member of the Institute of Medicine. He has been awarded the Burroughs Wellcome Education Award, and an award for Outstanding Contribution to Emergency Medicine. Dr. Rosen received his undergraduate degree from the University of Chicago and his M.D. from Washington University Medical School.
LUIS SEQUEIRA, Ph.D., is the J.C. Walker Professor Emeritus in the Departments of Bacteriology and Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin. He attended Harvard University, where he was awarded bachelor’s (1949), master’s (1950), and Ph.D. (1952) degrees in biology. Following graduation, he spent a year as a fellow at Harvard University and Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dr. Sequeira was director of the Office of International Programs of the American Phytopathology Society; a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Banana Improvement Program of the World Bank; and a member of the Board of Visitors of the Organization for Tropical Studies. He has served as editor-in-chief of Phytopathology, Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, associate editor of Plant Physiology and is on editorial boards of several other publications. He is a former president of the American Phytopathological Society and former chairman of the Agricultural Sciences Section of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Sequeira received the Distinguished Achievement Award from the Phytopathological Society of Colombia in 1981, the E. C. Stakman Award from the University of Minnesota in 1992, and the Award of Distinction from the American Phytopathological Society in 1994. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (member of the Council, 1999-2000) and the American Academy of Microbiology. Dr. Sequeira is currently a member of the National Science Board.
JEFFERY TAUBENBERGER M.D., Ph.D., serves as Chief of the Division of Molecular Pathology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, D.C., a position he has held since 1994. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from the Medical College of Virginia and did a residency in Anatomic Pathology at the National Cancer Institute. His clinical activities involve diagnostic molecular genetic pathology. He is board certified in Anatomic Pathology and Molecular Genetic Pathology. His clinical interests are chiefly in the development and implementation of molecular diagnostic assays for neoplasia and infectious diseases. His research interests include 1) influenza virus biology and surveillance, including characterization of the 1918 influenza virus that killed 40 million people; 2) biology and surveillance of other virus diseases including marine mammal morbilliviruses; 3) genetic changes in breast cancer; and 4) functional genomics of lymphocyte differentiation.
DEAN WILKENING, Ph.D., is director of the Science Program at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation since 1995. After receiving his Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University in 1982, he spent two years studying defense policy on a Ford Foundation fellowship at the Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. In 1983 he joined the staff of the RAND Corporation, where he held several management positions as a senior researcher in the Engineering and Applied Sciences and International Policy departments. In addition, from 1985– 1994 Dr. Wilkening taught courses on nuclear weapons policy at the University of California, Los Angeles. His major research interests include nuclear strategy, ballistic missile defense, chemical and biological weapons proliferation, and arms control. His most recent work involves an analysis of national and theater ballistic missile defense.
CATHERINE WOTEKI, PH.D., R.D., is Dean of the College of Agriculture at Iowa Sate University. Previously, she served as a professor of human nutrition and food science at the University of Nebraska and a senior research scientist at the University of Maryland, the Under Secretary for Food Safety for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Acting Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics, the Deputy to the Associate Director of Science of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and from 1990 to 1994, she was Director of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. She received her undergraduate degree from Mary Washington College in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and pursued graduate studies in human nutrition at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, and received a Ph.D. in human nutrition. Dr. Woteki received the Elijah White Award from the National Center for Health Statistics, the Special Recognition Award from the U.S. Public Health Service, and the Staff Achievement Award from the Institute of Medicine. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine.
LIAISONS FROM THE COMMITTEE TO THE PANEL
MARGARET HAMBURG, M.D., is Vice President for Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, whose mission is to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Before her current position, she was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Prior to this, Dr. Hamburg served for almost six years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York, and one of her many accomplishments included the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the Ameri-
can Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
P. ROY VAGELOS, M.D., is retired Chairman and CEO of Merck and Company, Inc., having served as chief executive officer for nine years, from 1985 to 1994. He was first elected to the Board of Directors in 1984 and served as its chairman from 1986 to 1994. He was previously executive vice president of the worldwide health products company and before that president of its research division. Earlier, he served as chairman of the Department of Biological Chemistry of the School of Medicine at Washington University in St. Louis and as founding director of the university’s Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences. He had previously held senior positions in cellular physiology and biochemistry at the National Heart Institute. Dr. Vagelos is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He received his M.D. degree from Columbia University in 1954. In 1995, he received the National Academy of Science Award for Chemistry in Service to Society.
NATIONAL ACADEMIES STAFF
ANDREW POPE, Ph.D., is Director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine. With expertise in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope’s previous research activities focused on the neuroendocrine and reproductive effects of various environmental substances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academy of Sciences and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous reports; topics that include injury control, disability prevention, biologic markers, neurotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the enhancement of environmental and occupational health content in medical and nursing school curricula. Most recently, Dr. Pope has directed studies on NIH priority-setting processes, fluid resuscitation practices in combat casualties, and organ procurement and transplantation.
KATHI E. HANNA, M.S., Ph.D., is a science and health policy consultant, writer, and editor specializing in biomedical research policy and bioethics. She has served as Research Director and Senior Editorial Consultant to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission and as Senior Advisor to the President’s Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans Illnesses. In the 1980s and early 1990s Dr. Hanna was a Senior Analyst at the now defunct congressional Office of Technology Assessment, contributing to numerous science policy studies requested by
committees of the House and Senate on science education, research funding, biotechnology, women’s health, human genetics, bioethics, and reproductive technologies. In the past decade, she has served as an analyst and editorial consultant to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and several charitable foundations. Before coming to Washington, she was the Genetics Coordinator at Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago, where she directed clinical counseling and coordinated an international research program investigating prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Dr. Hanna received her A.B. in Biology from Lafayette College, M.S. in Human Genetics from Sarah Lawrence College, and a Ph.D. from the School of Business and Public Management, George Washington University.
JENNIFER KUZMA, Ph.D., is a Senior Program Officer, Program Director, and Study Director, Board on Life Sciences. Dr. Kuzma joined the NRC in January 1999. She served as study director for the NRC report, Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants (2000), and currently serves as program director for the standing Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health and the Environment and study director for the Committee on Biological Threats to Agricultural Plants and Animals and the Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens. She obtained her Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Colorado at Boulder where she worked on the purification and cloning of a newly discovered plant enzyme which catalyzes the formation of the gaseous molecule, isoprene. During this time, she also discovered that bacteria produce isoprene and holds a patent for optimizing this production as a biogenic isoprene source for rubber synthesis. Following her graduate work, she was a Research Fellow at the Rockefeller University where she was part of a team that identified a novel signal transduction intermediate, cyclic ADP-ribose, as a trigger for plant responses to cold, drought, and salinity. Her career in science policy began in 1997 when she was awarded an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Risk Assessment Science Policy Fellowship. During her fellowship at the USDA, she worked on several risk assessment projects concerning biological hazards in the food supply, such as BSE and E. coli 0157:H7. Dr. Kuzma has a strong interest in risk assessment for the use of genetically engineered organisms in food or the environment.
CATHY T. LIVERMAN, M.L.S., is a Senior Program Officer at the Institute of Medicine. In 10 years at IOM, she has worked on projects addressing a number of topics including veterans’ health, drug abuse, and injury prevention. She is currently the study director for an IOM study reviewing the literature on the health effects of exposure to pesticides and solvents. Her background is in medical library science with previous jobs at the National Agricultural Library and the
Naval War College Library. She received her B.A. from Wake Forest University and her M.L.S. from the University of Maryland.
ALDEN CHANG is the Administrative Assistant for the Board on Health Sciences Policy. He earned a B.A. in international affairs with a minor in Russian language and literature from the Elliot School of International Affairs, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.
JUDY ESTEP is a Senior Program Assistant at the Institute of Medicine. She has been with the National Academy of Sciences since 1987 and has provided administrative support for over 30 published reports.