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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
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Index

A

Academic collaboration, 14, 121-122

Academic partnerships, federal agencies to develop, 24, 164

Academic programs, development in federal public health agencies, 160

Academic schools and departments.

See also individual colleges and universities

schools of public health to collaborate with other, 14, 114, 122, 196-197

Accreditation of public health education.

See also Credentialing

moving toward in the post-war years, 235-240

Accredited schools of public health (ASPH), 8, 50

Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration (ACEHSA), 130

Addressing the Nation’s Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists, 164

Administration, courses in, 189

Administrative support workers, 264

Administrators, 262

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 22, 25, 157

to spearhead a new effort in public health systems research, 25, 166

User Liaison Program, 66

Agency for International Development (AID), 252

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 159

Aging population, 5

courses in, 188

Air quality, 11

courses in, 187

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 138

American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC), 65

American Hospital Association, 242

American Medical Association (AMA), 79, 242

hostility to the public health service, 241

American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), 65

American Medication Informatics, 67

American Nursing Association (ANA), 136

Standards for Public Health Nursing Practice, 138

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

American Psychological Association (APA), 79

American Public Health Association (APHA), 23, 79, 99, 106, 163, 206, 231-232, 250

Committee on Professional Education, 44, 235

Public Health Nursing Section, 136

America’s Vital Interest in Global Health, x

Anthrax attacks, 63

Applied research, 88

Assessment, in Essential Public Health Services, 62, 153

Association of Academic Health Centers, 166

Association of Community Health Nurse Educators (ACHNE), 136, 139

Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH), ix-x, 23, 29, 44, 46-47, 52, 57, 66, 106, 127, 130, 163, 166, 200-206, 234, 250-251, 253

Education Committee, 201, 206

Strategic Planning Committee, 201

Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing, 136

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), ix, 23, 137, 151-152, 207-210

Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM), 17, 130, 139

Council of Graduate Programs in Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 130

Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 50-51

Assurance, in Essential Public Health Services, 63, 153

B

Baker, Josephine, 225

Basic research, 88

Behavioral and social science, competency in, 275

Biggs, Hermann, 225, 227-228

Biological science, competency in, 275

Biomedical research, 4-5

funding of public health education in the post-war era, 241-243

Biostatistics, 1, 62, 96

courses in, 56, 187

minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212

Bioterrorism, 95

preparing for, 67

Bodian, David, 247

Boston University, x, 54

Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr), 22, 49, 158

C

Carson, Rachel, 47, 253

Cassel, John, 246

Center for Controlling Malaria in the War Areas, 234

Center for Law and the Public’s Health, 97

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ix, 22-23, 25, 65-66, 89, 97, 106, 117, 143, 152, 157-159, 165-166, 211-215, 254

Centers for Public Health Preparedness, 209

Centers, Institutes, and Offices, 165

Corporate University, 211-212

Graduate Certificate Program, 55

intramural and extramural programs of, 165-166

Office of Workforce Policy and Planning, 22, 57

Public Health Informatics Competencies Working Group, 65

Public Health Training Network, 56, 161

to redirect its extramural research funding toward awards in public health, 25, 166

Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP), 67, 159, 209

Centers, Institutes, and Offices (CIOs), 165

Certification, 8, 55, 106

Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES), 106

Challenges facing public health education, 4-5, 34-39, 201-203, 209-210, 213-214, 217, 220-221

demographic transformations, 38-39

environmental opportunities and threats, 202-203

globalization, 34-35

scientific and medical technology, 35-38

strengths and weaknesses, 202, 213

Chromosomal conditions, 68

Chronic diseases, medical schools to link with public health schools in the prevention and care of, 18, 136

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Clean Air Act, 47

Collaboration

community, 125-126

with non-traditional programs, 115-116

Collaborative control, in decision making and action, skills that foster, 90-91

College curricula, 20.

See also Courses

Columbia University, 227

Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century, 28

Committee on Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, 28, 190

Committee on Medical Research, 241

Committee on Professional Education, 44, 235

Communication, 1, 72-78.

See also Internet

barriers to overcome in public health communication, 75-76

competency in, 272

courses in, 188

future of, 72-78

importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131

public health communication competence, 76-78

public health communication defined, 73-74

strategies to facilitate public health communication, 74-75

technology of, 4, 56

Community and behavioral health

competency in, 277

courses in, 188

Community-based organizations, to work with schools of public health in their planning and teaching, 16, 197

Community-based participatory research (CBPR), 1, 12, 62, 84-93, 119

community research and practice, 87-88

future of, 84-93

importance in M.P.H. programs in, 17, 131

and other approaches, 87-89

possible institutional consequences for university-based researchers, 92-93

and practice, 87-88

rationale for CBPR and practice, 85-87

with schools of public health, 16, 126, 194

skills training in CBPR and practice, 89-92

social determinants of health, 88-89

Community-based public health activities, schools of public health to provide training in, 16, 197

Community collaboration, 15-16, 125-126

Community Health Education (CHE), programs in, 9, 50, 129-130

Community Health/Preventive Medicine (CHPM), programs in, 9, 50, 129-130

Competency-based education, evolution toward, 205-206

Competency-Based Model of Alverno College, 127

Competency sets, 265-277

core, 267

discipline-specific, 270-276

functional areas, 268-270

topical areas, 267-268, 277

Comprehensive exams, schools of public health requiring at the master’s level, 184

Consumer health informatics, 64

Continuing education

in federal public health agencies, 161

local, state, and federal health agencies developing incentives to encourage, 23, 163

Core competencies, 267

“Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals,” 212

Corporate University of the CDC, 211-212

Council of Graduate Programs in Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 130

Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH), 17, 50, 53, 60, 129, 190, 260

Council on Graduate Medical Education, 160

Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice , 10, 53, 57, 65, 80, 110-111, 208-209, 212

Courses in air quality, 187

Courses in community and behavioral health, 188

the aging population, 188

communications, 188

ethical considerations, 188

foundations, 188

health and society, 188

health education, 188

international health, 188

maternal and child health, 188

nutrition sciences, 188

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Courses in environmental and occupational health, 187

air quality, 187

the physical environment, 187

principles, practices, and policy, 187

toxicology, 187

water quality, 187

Courses in health services policy and administration, 189

health care delivery, 189

health care organization, 189

health economics and finance, 189

health law, 189

health policy, 189

quality of health care, 189

Credentialing, of the public health workforce, 206, 214

Crisis in the education of public health professionals, 243-256

federal support for schools of public health, 252

graduate programs in other schools of the university, 255-256

new life in the 1960s, 251-254

in public health schools and departments in the 1950s, 243-251

Cross-cultural sensitivity, 79

Cultural competency, 1, 277

future of, 78-84

importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131

Cultural sensitivity, 78

Current status, of schools of public health, 51-60

D

Decision making and action, skills that foster collaborative control in, 90-91

Demographic transformations

challenge of, 5, 38-39

in student bodies, 203-204

Dentistry, competency in, 275

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 22, 157, 162

Bureau of Health Professions, 49

Office of Minority Health, 79

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW), 47, 253-254

Deterioration in 2002 of state fiscal conditions, concern over, 153-154

Determinants of population health, 31-34.

See also Multiple determinants of health;

Social determinants of health

future of, 6

Dietetics, competency in, 273

Discipline-specific competency sets, 270-276

behavioral and social science, 275

biological science, 275

communications, 272

dentistry, 275

economics, 276

engineering, 272

environment, 271

epidemiology, 270

finance, 276

health education, 272

human resources, 273

informatics, 270-271

laboratory, 273

library and information science, 272-273

medicine, 274

nursing, 274-275

nutrition and dietetics, 273

pharmacy, 275

physical activity, 274

policy analysis, 276

program analysis and evaluation, 276

public health advisor, 275

Disease reemergence.

See also Chronic diseases

future of, 94

Distance learning, 56, 147

by means of the Internet, 56

Diversity, 5, 38-39.

See also Cultural competency

competency in, 277

of practice setting, 203

Doctoral research training in public health, 186

to include multiple determinants of health within the ecological model, 12, 115

Doll, Richard, 131

Duke University, 18

E

Earth Day, 47, 253-254

Ecological model of health, 5-7, 32-34, 168

doctoral research training in public health to include multiple determinants of health within, 12, 115

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

M.P.H. programs to emphasize, 17, 131

nursing schools to teach, 19

primary and secondary schools should integrate education in, 20, 144

schools of public health to develop voluntary certification of competence in, 8

schools of public health to make central, 10, 111

Economics, competency in, 276

Education for More Synergistic Practice of Medicine and Public Health, 132

Education of public health professionals, 109-116, 222-261.

See also Competency-based education

biomedical funding in the post-war era, 241-243

deepening crisis in, 243-256

federal funding for public health education, 231-234

founding of schools of public health, 225-231

the post-war years—moving toward accreditation, 235-240

threatened withdrawal of federal funds, 256-261

in the 20th century, 222-261

the war years, 234-235

Ehman, Marc, vi, x, 191

Eisenhower, President Dwight D., 47, 251

Emergency preparedness, 67

Emergency response, competency in, 267-268

Emerging areas of practice, federal agencies to develop curricula in, 24, 164

Emerson, Haven, 235

Emory University, x, 54

Rollins School of Public Health, 55

Engineering, competency in, 272

Environment, competency in, 271

Environmental health, 1, 62

courses in, 187

minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212

Environmental opportunities and threats, 202-203

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 47, 162, 254

Epidemiology, 1, 62, 96

competency in, 270

courses in, 56, 186

minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212

Essential Public Health Services, 22-23, 146, 152-153, 162-163, 220

assessment, 153

assurance, 153

policy development, 153

serving all functions, 153

Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) issues, 71-72

Ethics in public health, 2

courses in, 188

future of, 98-105

tensions in, 102

Evolution toward competency-based education, 205-206

Expert linkage approach, 81

F

Faculties for schools of public health, 16-17, 126-128

development in federal public health agencies, 160

Faculty exchanges, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148-149

Farrand, Livingston, 233-234

Federal funding for public health education, 231-234, 252

threatened withdrawal of, 256-261

Federal public health agencies, 157-162.

See also Recommendations for federal agencies;

Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies

continuing education, 161

development of academic programs, 160

development of faculty, 160

modeling, 162

research, 159

support for students, 160-161

technology development, 161

Fee, Elizabeth, ix, 222-261

Field placements, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148

Finance, competency in, 276

First National Conference on Public Health Training, 46, 251

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Flexner, Abraham, 42, 226-227

Fogarty, Representative John E., 251

Food and Drug Administration, ix-x, 44, 46-47, 52, 57, 66, 106, 127, 130, 163, 166, 234, 250-251, 253

Foundations of public health, courses in, 188

Framingham study, 84

Freeman, Allen, 231

Functional area competency sets, 268-270

leadership, 268-269

management, 269

secretary and support, 269-270

The Future of Public Health, x, 28-29, 50-51, 53-54, 56-57, 62, 121, 151, 190, 222, 259

Future of public health education, 5-8, 61-107

communication, 72-78

community-based participatory research, 84-93

cultural competency, 78-84

ethics, 98-105

factors contributing to disease reemergence, 94

genomics, 68-72

global health, 93-95

guide to the determinants of population health, 6

informatics, 62-68

policy and law, 95-98

Future role of schools of public health in educating public health professionals for the 21st century, 108-127

academic collaboration, 121-122

access to life-long learning, 122-125

collaboration with non-traditional programs, 115-116

community collaboration, 125-126

educating leaders in public health practice, 112-114

educating public health researchers, 114-115

education, 109-116

faculties for schools of public health, 126-128

policy, 120-121

transdisciplinary research, 117-120

G

Galdston, Iago, 239

Gebbie, Kristine, v, 191, 222, 283

Genomics, 1, 4

competency in, 268

future of, 68-72

importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131

Genomics-based drugs, developments in, 36

Geographic Information System (GIS) applications, 56, 92

Global and National Implementation Plan for Public Health Workforce Development, 65, 214

Global health, 2

future of, 93-95

importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131

Globalization, challenge of, 34-35

Gordon, John E., 239

Gorgas, William, 131

Graduate Certificate Program (GCP), 55

Graduate nursing education, 139-140

and the job market, 140-141

Graduate programs

in accredited schools of public health, 183

in other schools of the university, 255-256

in public health, 17, 129-131

Grayston, J. Thomas, 48, 257

Guttmacher, Alan E., v, 165n, 286

H

Harvard University, x, 46, 54

Health.

See also Multiple determinants of health

social determinants of, 88-89

Health and Behavior: the Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences, x

Health and society

courses in, 188

threats in modern world, 1

Health care delivery, courses in, 189

Health care organization, courses in, 189

Health economics and finance, courses in, 189

Health education

competency in, 272

courses in, 188

Health Education & Behavior (journal), 87

Health law, courses in, 189

Health literacy, 20, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 133

Health policy, courses in, 189

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 22, 50, 124, 140, 157-159, 209

Public Health Training Centers, 209

Health services administration, 1, 62

minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212

Health services policy, courses in, 189

Healthy People 2010, 61, 72, 80, 208, 220

Hernandez, Lyla M., vi, x, 191

Higher Education for Public Health, 48, 257

Hill, Senator Lister, 46, 251

Hill-Burton Program, 45, 242

Hill-Rhodes bill, 46, 246, 251

Hiring, of persons with a public health education, 200, 207, 211-212, 216, 219

History of public health education

from 1914-1939, 41-42

from 1935 to the present, 43-50

HIV/AIDS, 69, 93, 143, 150, 259

competency in, 277

Hospital Survey and Construction Act, 242

Human Genome Project, 36

Human resources, competency in, 273

Hume, John C., 256

I

Incentives, for public health training for LHD professionals, 147-148

Informatics, 1, 4

competency in, 270-271

consumer health, 64

future of, 62-68

importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131

public health, 63-64

Information science, competency in, 272-273

Input. See Organizational input

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), 103

Insurance, discrimination in, 36

International health, courses in, 188

Internet

distance learning by means of, 56, 261

rapid exchange of information on, 37

Intervention-oriented research, 12, 119

J

Johns Hopkins University, x, 46, 54, 228, 230-231

School of Hygiene and Public Health, 42, 52, 55-56, 60, 229, 231, 256

Johnson, President Lyndon B., 47, 253

Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 132

K

Kass, Nancy, 101-102

Kellogg Foundation, 238

Knowledge required. See Minimum knowledge expected from persons with a public health education;

New knowledge for public health professionals

Knutson, John W., 250

Korstad, Robert, 244

L

Laboratory, competency in, 273

Lasker, Mary, 241

Law, competency in, 268

Leadership, competency in, 268-269

Leathers, Waller S., 231

Leavell, Hugh, 46, 250

Library science, competency in, 272-273

Life-long learning, access to, 14-15, 122-125, 196-197

Linking Research and Public Health Practice: A Review of CDC’s Program of Centers for Research and Demonstration of Health Promotion and Disease, x

Local public health agencies (or local health departments—LHDs), 21, 145-151.

See also Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies

activities and responsibilities, 145-146

field placements with, 148

incentives for public health training for professionals in, 147-148

local public health leadership, 149-151

as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148-149

research opportunities with, 149

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

staff and faculty exchanges with, 148-149

training and education in, 146-147

Local staff, program staff at state level working with, 155

Longnecker, Herbert, 256

Luginbuhl, Martha, 235

M

Mad cow disease, 95

Mahoney, Florence, 241

Maintenance workers, 264

Management, competency in, 269

Masters of Public Health (M.P.H.) programs, 9, 43, 48, 83, 90-91, 107, 109, 111, 113, 129-131

admission requirements for, 11, 114

to emphasize the ecological model, 17, 131

offered by schools of public health, 185

Maternal and child health (MCH)

competency in, 277

courses in, 188

McCollum, Elmer, 247

McGavran, Edward, 245-246

Medical schools, 17-18, 131-136.

See also Recommendations for medical schools

schools of public health to embrace public-health-related programs in, 14

Medical students. See Recommendations for medical students

Medical technology, challenge of, 35-38

Medicare and Medicaid, 152, 154

legislation establishing, 47, 252

Medicine

competency in, 274

traditional distinctions from public health, 133

Milbank Commission Report, 255, 259

Milbank Memorial Fund, 48, 257

Minimum knowledge expected from persons with a public health education , 200-201, 207-208, 212, 216, 219

biostatistics, 212

environmental health sciences, 212

epidemiology, 212

health services administration, 212

social and behavioral sciences, 212

Modeling, in federal public health agencies, 162

Multiple determinants of health

doctoral research training in public health to include, 12, 115

interactions among, 32

N

National Association of Social Workers (NASW), 79

National Associations of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), ix-x, 21, 23, 106, 163, 216-218

National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics, 70

National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC), 106

National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), 153

National Environmental Health Association, 106

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 86

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) , 85-87

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 47, 166, 254

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 22, 25, 45, 97, 150, 157, 166, 209, 241, 254

to launch faculty development awards for population health, 25, 166

mentoring programs in the sciences, 83

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 85-87

policy on ethnic minority research, 81

National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, Inc., 138

National Library of Medicine, 66

National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculty (NONPF), 19, 139, 141

National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS), 21, 147-148, 156-157

Nelson, Russell, 256

New Horizons in Health, 125

New knowledge for public health

professionals, 203-204, 210, 214-215, 217-218, 221

changing fundamentals of practice, 205

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

credentialing of the public health workforce, 206, 214

demographic changes in student bodies, 203-204

diversity of practice setting, 203

evolution to competency-based education, 205-206

more interdisciplinary and interpersonal context for public health work, 204

Nixon, President Richard M., 48, 256

Non-traditional programs, collaboration with, 115-116

Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, 124

Nursing, competency in, 274-275

Nursing schools, 18-20, 136-142.

See also Recommendations for nursing schools

continuing role for, 141-142

graduate education, 139-140

graduate nursing education and the job market, 140-141

National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculty, 19

schools of public health to embrace public-health-related programs in, 14

undergraduate education, 138-139

Nursing student clinical training, the public health community to emphasize, 19, 141

Nutrition

competency in, 273

courses in, 188

O

Occupational classifications, 262-264

administrative support, 264

administrators, 262

paraprofessionals, 264

professionals, 262-263

protective service, 263

service and maintenance, 264

skilled craft workers, 264

technicians, 263

volunteers, 264

Occupational health, courses in, 187

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 47, 162, 254

Office of Equal Opportunity (OEO), 47, 253

Office of Minority Health, 79

Office of Workforce Policy and Planning (OWPP), 22, 57, 159

Ohio State University, x, 54

Organizational climate, 151-152

Organizational input, 199-221

Association of Schools of Public Health, 200-206

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 207-210

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 211-215

challenges facing public health education, 201-203, 209-210, 213-214, 217, 220-221

hiring persons with a public health education, 200, 207, 211-212, 216, 219

minimum knowledge expected from persons with a public health education, 200-201, 207-208, 212, 216, 219

most important areas for education for public health professionals, 201, 208-209, 212-213, 216-217, 219-220

National Associations of County and City Health Officials, 216-218

new knowledge public health professionals will require in the future, 203-204, 210, 214-215, 217-218, 221

Public Health Foundation, 219-221

P

Pan American Health Organization, 243

Paraprofessionals, 264

Parran, Thomas, 45, 231, 233, 240-243

Participatory research, 88, 119

Penicillin, 241

Pharmacy, competency in, 275

Philanthropic foundations, to fund new initiatives and experiments in public health education, 16, 128

Physical activity training, competency in, 274

Physical environment, courses in, 187

Planning, community-based organizations to work with schools of public health in their, 16, 197

Policy, 120-121.

See also Health policy

activities involving academics, 14, 121, 196-197

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

competency in analysis, 276

engagement in, 13

importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131

and law, future of, 1-2, 95-98

in schools of public health, 12-14

Policy development

for Essential Public Health Services, 62-63, 153

and implementation, 13, 121, 191-193

Policy-related activities, schools of public health to recognize and reward, 13, 121

Population-level health.

See also Ecological model of health

determinants of, 6

importance of focusing on, 1

the NIH to launch faculty development awards for, 25, 166

public health professionals focusing on, 29

Practice.

See also Supervised practice opportunities

changing fundamentals of, 205

diversity of settings, 203

federal agencies to develop partnerships in, 24, 164

placing greater emphasis on, 127

Prevention, 99n

Primary schools, to integrate education in an ecologically oriented view of health, 20, 144

Program analysis and evaluation, competency in, 276

Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research, x

Protective service workers, 263

The public, schools of public health to spread scientific findings and knowledge to, 14, 121, 196-197

Public health.

See also Determinants of population health

ethical tensions within, 102

founding of schools of, 225-231

mandates and powers, 102

medical students to receive joint classes and clinical training in, 18, 135

medical students to receive training in the ecological approach to, 18, 135

principles of the ethical practice of, 100

a redirection of CDC extramural research funding toward awards in, 25, 166

traditional distinctions from medicine, 133

Public health advising, competency in, 275

Public health agencies, 20-25.

See also Schools of public health;

individual agency listings

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 22, 25

American Public Health Association, 23

Association of Schools of Public Health, 23

Association of State and Territorial Health Officers, 23

Bureau of Health Professions, 22

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22-23, 25

Department of Health and Human Services, 22

Essential Public Health Services, 22-23, 153

federal, 157-162

Health Resources and Services Administration, 22

local health departments, 21, 145-151

National Associations of County and City Health Officials, 21, 23

National Institutes of Health, 22, 25

National Public Health Performance Standards, 21

Office of Workforce Planning and Policy, 22

Public Health Practice Program Office, 22

Public Health Workforce Collaborative, 22

recommendations, 5-25, 162-168, 191-197

state, 151-157

state public health departments, 153

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 22

their roles in educating public health professionals, 145-167

Public Health Code of Ethics, 102

Public health communication

barriers to overcome in, 75-76

competency in, 76-78

defined, 73-74

strategies to facilitate, 74-75

Public health community, needing to emphasize nursing student clinical training, 19, 141

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Public Health Data Standards Consortium (PHDSC), 67

Public health education

broadening the scope of, 57-58

deepening crisis in, 243-256

expansion of supervised practice opportunities and of sites for, 11, 113

federal funding for, 231-234

future of, 5-8, 61-107

granting all undergraduates access to, 20, 141, 144, 195-196

local, state, and federal health agencies to develop plans assuring needs are met, 23, 163

medical students to receive basic, 18, 135

minimum knowledge expected from persons with, 200-201, 207-208, 212, 216, 219

need for in programs and schools, 129-144

philanthropic foundations to fund new initiatives and experiments in, 16, 128

programs for, 23, 163

Public health ethics, importance in M.P.H. programs , 17, 131

Public Health Faculty/Agency Forum, 52

Public health fellowship programs, federal agencies to fund, 24, 164

Public Health Foundation (PHF), x, 219-221

Public Health Informatics Competencies Working Group, 65

Public health informatics (PHI), 63-65

Public Health Nursing Section, 136

Public health practice

educating leaders in, 112-114

schools of public health to aim at preparing students for senior positions in, 10, 110

strengthening the link with, 52-54

Public Health Practice Program Office (PHPPO), 22, 158

Public Health Workforce Collaborative, 158

Public health professionals, 1-2, 29-30, 262-263

crisis in the education of, 243-256

defined, 1, 4, 169

educating in the 20th century, 222-261

federal agencies to support continued education and training of, 24, 165

focusing on population-level health, 29

local, state, and federal health agencies to ensure that public health leaders and managers are, 23, 163

most important areas for education for, 201, 208-209, 212-213, 216-217, 219-220

Public health programs

medical schools to partner with accredited, 18, 195-196

nursing schools to partner with accredited, 19, 142, 195-196

Public health research, a significant increase in support needed, 24-25, 166

Public health researchers, educating, 114-115

Public health schools, in the 1950s, 243-251

Public health students, federal agencies to improve practice experiences for, 24, 165

Public health system

the AHRQ to spearhead a new effort in researching, 25, 166

review of progress, 153

Public Health Training Centers, 209

Public Health Training Network (PHTN), 56, 161

Public health workforce

credentialing of, 206, 214

more interdisciplinary and interpersonal context for, 204

Public Health Workforce Development Collaborative , 22, 158, 209

Public meetings held, 278-282

Q

Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations, 136

Quality of health care, courses in, 189

R

Racial and Ethnic Approach to Community Health (REACH) program, 88

Ramsey, Frank C., 257

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Reagan, President Ronald, 48

Recommendations, 162-167, 191-197

for the AHRQ to spearhead a new effort in public health systems research, 25, 166

for all undergraduates to have access to public health education, 20, 141, 144, 195-196

for community-based organizations to work with schools of public health in their planning and teaching, 16, 197

for doctoral research training in public health to include multiple determinants of health within the ecological model, 12, 115

for expansion of supervised practice opportunities and of sites for public health education, 11, 113

for M.P.H. programs to institute curricular changes, 17, 131

for the NIH to launch faculty development awards for population health, 25, 166

for philanthropic foundations to fund new initiatives and experiments in public health education, 16, 128

for primary and secondary schools to integrate education in an ecologically oriented view of health, 20, 144

for the public health community to emphasize nursing student clinical training, 19, 141

for a redirection of CDC extramural research funding toward awards in public health, 25, 166

for a significant increase in public health research support, 24-25, 166

Recommendations for federal agencies

to develop academic and practice partnerships, 24, 164

to develop competencies and curricula in emerging areas of practice, 24, 164

to fund public health fellowship programs, 24, 164

to improve practice experiences for public health students, 24, 165

to support continued education and training of public health professionals, 24, 165

Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies

to assess public health workforce development needs, 23, 163

to create faculty and staff exchanges with public health education programs, 23, 163

to develop incentives to encourage continuing education, 23, 163

to develop plans assuring public health education and training needs are met, 23, 163

to ensure that public health leaders and managers are public health professionals, 23, 163

Recommendations for medical schools

to link with public health schools in the prevention and care of chronic diseases, 18, 136

to partner with accredited public health programs, 18, 195-196

Recommendations for medical students

to receive basic public health training, 18, 135

to receive joint classes and clinical training in public health, 18, 135

to receive training in the ecological approach to public health, 18, 135

Recommendations for nursing schools

to partner with accredited public health programs, 19, 142, 195-196

to teach the ecological model of health, 19

Recommendations for schools of public health

to aim at preparing students for senior positions in public health practice, 10, 110

to collaborate with other academic schools and departments, 14, 114, 122, 196-197

to collaborate with other academic units in transdisciplinary activities, 16, 126, 194-195

to develop voluntary certification of competence in the ecological approach to public health, 8

to embrace public-health-related programs in medical and nursing schools, 14

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

to enhance faculty involvement in policy development and implementation, 13, 121, 191-193

to implement reforms based on transdisciplinary research, 12, 120

to lead public policy discussions about the U.S. health care system and its future, 13, 121, 194

to make the ecological approach central, 10, 111

to participate in community-based research and service, 16, 126, 194

to participate in policy activities involving academics, 14, 121, 196-197

to provide access to life long learning opportunities for various health professionals, 15, 125, 196-197

to provide training in community-based public health activities, 16, 197

to recognize and reward policy-related activities, 13, 121

to reward faculty based on teaching excellence, 16, 127

to spread scientific findings and knowledge to the public, 14, 121, 196-197

Research.

See also Community-based participatory research

basic, applied, and participatory, 88

in federal public health agencies, 159

intervention-oriented, 12, 119

in schools of public health, 12

transdisciplinary, 11-12, 117-120

Research findings. See Organizational input

Research opportunities, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 149

Rhodes, Representative George M., 46, 251

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), ix, 27, 166, 190

Rockefeller Foundation, 42, 225, 227-228, 230-231

Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, 41, 226

Rose, Geoffrey, 142

Rose, Wickliffe, 42, 226-230

Rosenau, Milton, 245

Rosenstock, Linda, v, 191, 283

Ryle, John, 239

S

Saint Louis University, x, 54

San Diego University, x, 54

Scheele, Leonard, 242

Scholarly contributions, assessing, 127

School of Public Health Survey Instrument, 190-198

on all undergraduates having access to public health education, 195-196

on community-based organizations working with schools of public health in their planning and teaching, 197

on medical schools partnering with accredited public health programs, 195-196

on nursing schools partnering with accredited public health programs, 195-196

on schools of public health collaborating with other academic schools and departments, 196-197

on schools of public health collaborating with other academic units in transdisciplinary activities, 194-195

on schools of public health enhancing faculty involvement in policy development and implementation, 191-193

on schools of public health leading public policy discussions about the U.S. health care system and its future, 194

on schools of public health participating in community-based research and service, 194

on schools of public health participating in policy activities involving academics, 196-197

on schools of public health providing access to life long learning opportunities for various health professionals, 196-197

on schools of public health providing training in community-based public health activities, 197

on schools of public health spreading scientific findings and knowledge to the public, 196-197

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Schools of public health (SPH), 8-17, 51-60, 183-189, 201.

See also Federal funding for public health education;

Public health education;

Recommendations for schools of public health

academic collaboration, 14

access to life-long learning, 14-15

accredited, 8

broadening the scope of public health education, 57-58

community collaboration, 15-16

current status of, 51-60

education, 9-12

faculties for schools of public health, 16-17

federal support for, 252

graduate degrees available from accredited schools of public health, 183

international health programs of, 82

LHDs as partners with, 148-149

links with other departments and schools, 56-57

most offered courses among accredited schools in biostatistics, 187

most offered courses among accredited schools in community and behavioral health, 188

most offered courses among accredited schools in environmental and occupational health, 187

most offered courses among accredited schools in epidemiology, 186

most offered courses among accredited schools in health services policy and administration, 189

new training opportunities, 54-56

policy, 12-14

progress in, 51-60

research, 12, 57

schools by doctor’s degree, 186

schools by master’s degree, 185

schools requiring comprehensive exams at the master level, 184

strengthening the link with public health practice, 52-54

survey responses identifying challenges and opportunities, 58-60

Scientific technology, challenge of, 35-38

Secondary schools, to integrate education in an ecologically oriented view of health, 20, 144

Secretarial functions, competency in, 269-270

Service and maintenance workers, 264

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), competency in, 277

Shannon, James, 241

Shepard, William, 235

Sheps, Cecil, 256, 258

Silent Spring, 47, 253

Skilled craft workers, 264

Skills training in CBPR and practice, 89-92

skills that foster collaborative control in decision making and action, 90-91

technical competencies research and evaluation, 91-92

Smillie, W.G., 231, 233-234

Social and behavioral sciences, 1, 5, 62

minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212

Social determinants of health (SDOH), 88-89

Social Medicine: Its Derivations and Objectives, 239

Social protective factors (SPF), 89

Social Security Act of 1935, 43, 231, 233

Staff exchanges, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148-149

Standards for Public Health Nursing Practice, 138

State fiscal conditions, concern for deterioration in 2002 of, 153-154

State public health agencies, 151-157.

See also Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies

National Public Health Performance Standards Program, 156-157

organizational climate, 151-152

responsibilities of state public health departments, 152-155

a window of opportunity, 155-156

State public health departments, 21

continuum of workforce development assessment activity, 154-155

Essential Public Health Services, 153

program staff at state level working with local staff, 155

responsibilities of, 152-155

review of the public health system’s progress, 153

State University of New York at Albany, 183

Stebbins, Ernest L., 46, 248, 250

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

Strategic Plan for Public Health Workforce Development, 159, 212, 214

Student bodies, demographic changes in, 203-204

Students.

See also Nursing student clinical training;

Public health students;

Recommendations for medical students;

Undergraduate students

support from federal public health agencies, 160-161

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 22, 157

Successful Models of Community-Based Participatory Research, 87

Supervised practice opportunities, for public health education, expansion of, 11, 113

Support for students, from federal public health agencies, 160-161

Support functions, competency in, 269-270

Survey responses, identifying challenges and opportunities, 58-60

T

Teaching

community-based organizations to work with schools of public health in, 16, 197

schools of public health to reward faculty based on excellence in, 16, 127

Teaching Cultural Competence in Health Care, 79

Technical competencies, research and evaluation, 91-92

Technicians, 263

Technology development.

See also Communication

in federal public health agencies, 161

Texas A&M University, x, 54

Topical area competency sets, 267-268, 277

community-based health, 277

cultural diversity, 277

emergency response, 267-268

genomics, 268

law, 268

maternal and child health, 277

STDs and HIV, 277

Toxicology, courses in, 187

Training and education, in local health departments, 146-147

Transdisciplinary research, 11-12, 117-120, 128

schools of public health to collaborate with other academic units in, 16, 126, 194-195

schools of public health to implement reforms based on, 12, 120

Tulane University, x, 54

School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 55

Twentieth century, education of public health professionals in, 222-261

Twenty-first century, future role of schools of public health in educating public health professionals for, 108-127

U

Undergraduate students, to have access to public health education, 20, 141, 144, 195-196

Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, x

United States health care system, schools of public health to lead public policy discussions about its future, 13, 121, 194

United States public health education, 3

history and current status of, 41-60

United States Public Health Service, 43, 47, 227, 236, 241, 245, 253

United States Supreme Court, 143

University of Alabama, Birmingham, x, 54

University of Albany (SUNY), x, 54

University of California, Berkeley, x, 54, 134-135

University of California, Los Angeles, x, 54

School of Public Health, 83

University of California, San Francisco, 18, 134-135

University of Colorado, 140

University of Illinois, 140

University of Iowa, x, 54

University of Massachusetts, x, 54

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, x, 54

University of Michigan, x, 54

University of Minnesota, x, 54

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, x, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
×

University of Oklahoma, x, 54

University of Pittsburgh, x, 54

University of South Carolina, x, 54

University of Southern California, 135

University of Texas, Houston, x, 54

University of Washington, x, 48, 54

Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, 124

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, 56

University of Wyoming, 140

Urban planning field, 144

User Liaison Program (ULP), 66

V

Veterans Administration, 242

Volunteers, 14, 264

organizations of, 30

W

Wahl, Patricia W., v, 288

Wald, Lillian, 137

War on Poverty, 47

War years, public health education during, 234-235

Water quality, courses in, 187

Welch, William Henry, 228-229

West Nile virus, 112

Williams, Huntington, 231

Winslow, Charles-Edward A., 227, 240

Wolman, Abel, 249

Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, 88

Workforce development

continuum of assessment activity, 154-155

local, state, and federal health agencies to assess needs in public health, 23, 163

World Health Organization, 31

World Trade Center, terrorist attack on, 63

Y

Yale University, x, 45, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10542.
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Bioterrorism, drug—resistant disease, transmission of disease by global travel . . . there's no shortage of challenges facing America's public health officials. Men and women preparing to enter the field require state-of-the-art training to meet these increasing threats to the public health. But are the programs they rely on provide the high caliber professional training they require?

Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? provides an overview of the past, present, and future of public health education, assessing its readiness to provide the training and education needed to prepare men and women to face 21st century challenges. Advocating an ecological approach to public health, the Institute of Medicine examines the role of public health schools and degree—granting programs, medical schools, nursing schools, and government agencies, as well as other institutions that foster public health education and leadership. Specific recommendations address the content of public health education, qualifications for faculty, availability of supervised practice, opportunities for cross—disciplinary research and education, cooperation with government agencies, and government funding for education.

Eight areas of critical importance to public health education in the 21st century are examined in depth: informatics, genomics, communication, cultural competence, community-based participatory research, global health, policy and law, and public health ethics. The book also includes a discussion of the policy implications of its ecological framework.

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