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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
×

Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies

Committee on Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies

Air Force Science and Technology Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. F49620-01-1-0438 between the National Academy of Sciences and United States Air Force. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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COMMITTEE ON IMPLICATIONS OF EMERGING MICROAND NANOTECHNOLOGIES

STEVEN R.J. BRUECK, Chair,

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

S. THOMAS PICRAUX, Vice Chair,

Arizona State University, Tempe

JOHN H. BELK,

The Boeing Company, St. Louis, Missouri

ROBERT J. CELOTTA,

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland

WILLIAM C. HOLTON,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh

SIEGFRIED W. JANSON,

The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles

WAY KUO,

Texas A&M University, College Station

DAVID J. NAGEL,

George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

P. ANDREW PENZ,

Science Applications International Corporation, Richardson, Texas

ALBERT P. PISANO,

University of California, Berkeley

ROSEMARY L. SMITH,

University of California, Davis

PETER J. STANG,

University of Utah, Salt Lake City

GEORGE W. SUTTON,

SPARTA, Arlington, Virginia

WILLIAM M. TOLLES, Consultant,

Alexandria, Virginia

ROBERT J. TREW,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg

MARY H. YOUNG,

HRL Laboratories, Malibu, California

Liaison

Air Force Science and Technology Board

ALAN H. EPSTEIN,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Staff

JAMES C. GARCIA, Study Director

JAMES E. KILLIAN, Study Director

JAMES MYSKA, Research Associate

PAMELA A. LEWIS, Senior Project Assistant

LINDA D. VOSS, Technical Writer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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AIR FORCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD

ROBERT A. FUHRMAN, Chair,

Lockheed Corporation (retired), Pebble Beach, California

R. NOEL LONGUEMARE, Vice Chair, Private Consultant,

Ellicott City, Maryland

LYNN CONWAY,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

WILLIAM H. CRABTREE, Consultant,

Cincinnati, Ohio

LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, President, CEO, and Chairman of the Board,

Areté Associates, Arlington, Virginia

STEVEN D. DORFMAN,

Hughes Electronics (retired), Los Angeles, California

EARL H. DOWELL, Mechanical Engineering,

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

ALAN H. EPSTEIN,

Gas Turbine Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

DELORES M. ETTER, Professor,

U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland

ALFRED B. GSCHWENDTNER,

Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts

BRADFORD W. PARKINSON,

Stanford University, Stanford, California

RICHARD R. PAUL, Vice President,

Strategic Development, Phantom Works, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington

ROBERT F. RAGGIO, Executive Vice President,

Dayton Aerospace, Inc., Dayton, Ohio

ELI RESHOTKO, Professor Emeritus,

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA, Professor,

Materials Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park

EUGENE L. TATTINI, Deputy Director,

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

Staff

BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director

MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Associate Director

WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Officer

CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate

DEANNA P. SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant

DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, Research Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
×

Preface

Biology long ago adopted the micro- and nanoscales. The machinery of genomics is based on nanoscale interactions, and mosquitoes, ants, termites, and other insects are exquisite examples of autonomous, intelligent micromachines that engage in both independent and cooperative (swarm) behavior. While mankind’s deliberate use of nanotechnology goes back at least as far as the firing of Venetian glass during the Renaissance, only today are we developing the scientific base—theory, fabrication science, materials sophistication, and measurement capabilities—for a full-scale assault on nanotechnology.

Technology has been steadily moving into the micro- and nanoscale realms for some time. Fabrication technologies for integrated circuits are at the edge of the nanoscale, with gate lengths less than 100 nm in the most advanced microprocessors. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices are integrating mechanical motion (and other properties) on the microscale with electronics and generating new approaches to applications and even new industries.

The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering requested that the Committee on Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies, established by the National Research Council, assess the implications of emerging micro- and nanotechnologies for the Air Force. The committee was asked to characterize the state of the art in micro- and nanotechnologies, review the adequacy of military investment strategies for micro-and nanotechnologies, and recommend research areas to accelerate the opportunities for exploiting these technologies in Air Force mission capabilities and systems.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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The committee received briefings from experts in varied aspects of micro-and nanotechnologies from within and outside the Air Force. Four implications of these evolving technologies are clear: ever-increasing information capabilities, a relentless drive toward miniaturization, new materials with new functionality based on nanoscale structuring, and higher-level systems integration, with increased functionality leading ultimately to autonomous systems. Some of the challenges are as large as the opportunities, including translating the unique properties of micro- and nanostructures into macro effects and manufacturing micro- and nanomaterials and components inexpensively on a large scale.

Suffice it to say, micro- and nanotechnologies are an important area of research opportunity at a productive stage of development. The impacts, while not entirely predictable, can be characterized in general terms and will clearly be significant. The Air Force should harness the power of these technologies for its missions.

The scope of this study was daunting, covering many orders of magnitude in spatial scale and many decades of future progress. The committee is indebted to the experts, both within and outside the Air Force, who took the time to share their insights. The committee greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members James Garcia, James Killian, Pamela Lewis, and James Myska and consultant Linda Voss in the development and production of this report.

Steven R.J. Brueck, Chair

S. Thomas Picraux, Vice Chair

Committee on Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Larry R. Dalton, University of Washington, Seattle

Elsa Reichmanis, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey

Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, University of Maryland, College Park

Henry I. Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

T.S. Sudarshan, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia

Richard Taylor, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Bristol, United Kingdom

George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Royce W. Murray, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
×

responsible for making certain than an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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Communications,

 

64

   

Signal and Information Processing and Data Fusion,

 

74

   

Findings and Recommendations,

 

78

   

Sensors,

 

80

   

Introduction,

 

80

   

Discrete Versus Distributed Sensors,

 

81

   

Projected Impact,

 

81

   

Sensors for Chemical and Biological Agents,

 

89

   

Self-Sensing,

 

91

   

Distributed Sensor Systems,

 

95

   

Findings and Recommendations,

 

98

   

Biologically Inspired Materials and Systems,

 

99

   

Biomimetics for Improved Sensing, Communications, and Signal Processing,

 

100

   

Enhanced Human Performance—The Machine as Part of the Man,

 

102

   

Findings and Recommendations,

 

103

   

Structural Materials,

 

103

   

Introduction,

 

103

   

Lightweight Materials,

 

105

   

Improved Coatings,

 

107

   

Multifunctional Structures,

 

108

   

Materials for MEMS,

 

110

   

Technical Issues and Areas for Development,

 

111

   

Findings and Recommendations,

 

112

   

Aerodynamics, Propulsion, and Power,

 

113

   

Flight Vehicle Aerodynamics,

 

114

   

Air-Breathing Vehicle Propulsion and Power,

 

116

   

Launch Vehicle Propulsion,

 

121

   

Spacecraft Propulsion,

 

123

   

Space Power Generation,

 

129

   

Findings and Recommendations,

 

131

   

References and Notes,

 

131

4

 

ENABLING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

 

143

   

Fabrication (Patterning) Approaches,

 

143

   

Lithography and Pattern Transfer,

 

145

   

Self-Assembly,

 

152

   

Integration of Traditional Lithographic and Self-Assembly Patterning Approaches,

 

154

   

Integration of Nanodevices with Mainstream Silicon Technology,

 

157

   

Assembly,

 

158

   

Directed Assembly,

 

158

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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DNA-Assisted Assembly,

 

160

   

Packaging,

 

163

   

Reliability and Manufacturability,

 

165

   

New Techniques for Reliability Improvement,

 

166

   

Manufacturing Yield and Reliability,

 

166

   

Commercialization,

 

167

   

Identification of Products Manufactured in the New Technology,

 

168

   

Wide Access to the Technical Details of the New Technology,

 

168

   

Enlightened Corporate Management,

 

169

   

Sufficient Reduction in Product Cost,

 

169

   

Government Role in Providing Wide Access to New Technology,

 

169

   

Effect of Manufacturing Complexity on Commercialization,

 

172

   

Case Study: Texas Instruments and the Digital Mirror Device,

 

173

   

Findings and Recommendations,

 

176

   

References,

 

178

5

 

AIR FORCE MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS AND OPPORTUNITIES

 

182

   

Impacts of Micro- and Nanotechnologies on Air Force Missions,

 

182

   

Current Investments by the Air Force in Micro- and Nanotechnologies,

 

183

   

AFRL Research Portfolio in Micro- and Nanotechnologies,

 

184

   

AFOSR Basic Research Programs in Nanotechnology,

 

184

   

Trends in DoD and Air Force Research Funding,

 

190

   

Air Force Investment Strategy and Challenges,

 

195

   

Findings and Recommendations,

 

197

   

References,

 

199

6

 

OPPORTUNITIES IN MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES

 

200

   

Overarching Themes,

 

200

   

Increased Information Capabilities,

 

200

   

Miniaturization,

 

201

   

New Engineered Materials,

 

202

   

Increased Autonomy and Functionality,

 

202

   

Air Force Missions as Drivers for Micro- and Nanotechnologies,

 

203

   

Areas of Opportunity,

 

204

   

Space Vehicles and Systems,

 

205

   

Weapon Systems,

 

211

   

Air Vehicles and Systems,

 

212

   

Finding and Recommendation,

 

215

   

References,

 

215

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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Figures, Tables, and Boxes

FIGURES

1-1

 

Model of a MEMS safety switch,

 

23

1-2

 

Atomic force microscopic image of InAs quantum dots,

 

24

1-1-1

 

Dimensional scale,

 

25

1-2-1

 

The SNAP-1 nanosatellite,

 

28

2-1

 

Integrated circuit growth,

 

31

2-2

 

Lithography half-pitch feature size versus time,

 

31

2-3

 

Possible roadmap,

 

34

2-4

 

Worldwide government R&D spending on nanotechnology,

 

39

3-1

 

Power versus frequency for high-frequency microwave devices,

 

51

3-2

 

Yearly radiation dose in silicon,

 

54

3-3

 

Radiation environment for circular equatorial orbits,

 

55

3-4

 

Diode laser thresholds,

 

66

3-5

 

InAs quantum dashes grown on InP,

 

68

3-6

 

Optical MEMS examples,

 

71

3-7

 

RF MEMS capacitors,

 

73

3-8

 

Schematic of a situational awareness system,

 

75

3-9

 

Paradigm shifts in software,

 

77

3-10

 

Micromachined Sun sensor,

 

88

3-11

 

Boeing/Endevco pressure belt,

 

92

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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3-12

 

A typical pressure-sensitive paint result for a wind tunnel model of a transonic transport airplane,

 

93

3-13

 

The Very Large Array,

 

95

3-14

 

Micromachined gas turbine engine,

 

118

3-15

 

Silicon turbine from the micromachined gas turbine engine,

 

119

3-16

 

Planar glass layers for a batch-producible cold gas propulsion module,

 

124

3-17

 

Spacecraft power for INTELSAT satellites,

 

126

3-18

 

Use of a momentum-exchange tether to perform an orbit transfer,

 

128

3-1-1

 

Carbon nanotube structures,

 

47

3-2-1

 

Swarm of nanosatellites,

 

97

4-1

 

Communities needed for the production, maintenance, and use of military hardware,

 

144

4-2

 

Lithography examples,

 

146

4-3

 

The sequential steps in LIGA,

 

148

4-4

 

Schematic of the structures used in LISC,

 

149

4-5

 

Integrated circuit production,

 

151

4-6

 

Cross-sectional photograph of a silicon wafer processed by deep reactive ion etching,

 

152

4-7

 

Rotapod MEMS device,

 

160

4-8

 

Principle of DNA-assisted pick and place,

 

162

4-9

 

DNA-assisted microassembly,

 

163

4-10

 

Lenslet array fabricated using hydrophobic/hydrophilic selectivity,

 

164

4-11

 

Cumulative user accounts for the MEMS exchange,

 

171

4-12

 

Cut-away of the digital mirror device structural model,

 

174

4-13

 

Photomicrograph of the digital mirror device,

 

174

4-1-1

 

Two-dimensional active pixel sensor array,

 

170

5-1

 

Air Force nanotechnology research,

 

186

5-2

 

Trends in federal R&D funding, FY 1990–2003,

 

191

5-3

 

Funding of basic research by DoD,

 

191

5-4

 

Science and technology funding levels by Service,

 

192

5-5

 

Integrated circuit sales,

 

194

6-1-1

 

DARPA/Aerospace Corp. picosatellites,

 

208

6-2-1

 

The AeroVironment Black Widow micro air vehicle,

 

213

6-2-2

 

Subsystem layout, size, and mass of the Black Widow,

 

214

A-1

 

A computerized manufacturing procedure for nanoproducts,

 

231

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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TABLES

ES-1

 

Recommended Air Force Roles in Micro- and Nanotechnology Research,

 

7

ES-2

 

Taxonomy of Micro- and Nanotechnology Research Areas and Their Relevance to the Air Force,

 

8

ES-3

 

Selected Mission and Platform Opportunity Areas,

 

14

2-1

 

Predictions of 2001 ITRS for Selected Parameters,

 

33

3-1

 

Approximate Radiation Hardness Levels for Semiconductor Devices,

 

53

4-1

 

Reliability Paradigm for Nanoproducts,

 

167

4-2

 

High Complexity of the Digital Mirror Device,

 

175

5-1

 

Challenges and Impact Areas,

 

185

5-2

 

Air Force Nanotechnology Research,

 

186

5-3

 

AFOSR-Managed DURINT Programs,

 

189

5-4

 

Nanotechnology MURIs in FY 2001,

 

189

5-5

 

AFOSR Technology Grants in FY 2001,

 

190

6-1

 

Selected Mission and Platform Opportunity Areas,

 

206

BOXES

1-1

 

A Matter of Scale,

 

25

1-2

 

Small Satellites: How Small Can We Go?,

 

28

3-1

 

The Ubiquitous Carbon Nanotube,

 

47

3-2

 

Emergent Behavior of Swarms of Microplatforms,

 

97

4-1

 

MOSIS,

 

170

5-1

 

Expected Impacts of Research Supported by the Air Force Nanotechnology Program,

 

184

5-2

 

Initial DoD Focus in Nanotechnology,

 

188

5-3

 

Air Force Nanotechnology Program,

 

188

6-1

 

Nano- and Picosatellites,

 

208

6-2

 

The Black Widow Micro Air Vehicle,

 

213

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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Acronyms


AFM

atomic force microscope

AFOSR

Air Force Office of Scientific Research

AFRL

Air Force Research Laboratory

AFSTB

Air Force Science and Technology Board

APD

avalanche photo diode

ASIC

application-specific integrated circuit

ASIM

application-specific integrated microinstrument


BARC

Bead Array Counter


CA

cellular automata

CAD

computer-aided design

CAM

computer-aided manufacturing

CAPP

computer-aided process planning

CBM

condition-based maintenance

CMOS

complementary metal oxide semiconductor

CNT

carbon nanotube

CONOPS

concept of operations

CPU

central processing unit


DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DDR&E

Director of Defense Research and Engineering

DMD

digital mirror device

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
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DoD

Department of Defense

DRAM

dynamic random-access memory

DSP

digital signal processor

DURINT

Defense University research in nanotechnology

DURIP

Defense University Research Instrumentation Program


ECL

emitter-coupled logic

EDAC

error detection and control

ELINT

electronic intelligence

ELO

epitaxial lateral overgrowth

EPROM

erasable programmable read-only memory

EUV

extreme ultraviolet


FEL

free-electron laser

FY

fiscal year


GEO

geosynchronous orbit

GLOW

gross liftoff weight

GMR

giant magnetoresistive

GPS

Global Positioning System

GTO

geosynchronous transfer orbit


HEMT

high-electron-mobility transistor


IC

integrated circuit

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IMU

inertial measurement unit

IR

infrared

IT

information technology

ITRS

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors


JSEP

Joint Service Electronics Program

JSTARS

Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System


LANL

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

LCE

life-cycle engineering

LEO

low Earth orbit

LIGA

Lithographie, Galvanoformung, und Abformung

LISA

lithographically induced self-assembly

LISC

lithographically induced self-construction


MAC

MEMS-based active aerodynamic flight control vehicle

MACSAT

multiple access communications satellite

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
×

MAV

micro air vehicle

MBE

molecular beam epitaxy

MCM

multichip modules

MEMS

microelectromechanical systems

MEU

multiple-event upset

MOEMS

microoptoelectromechanical system

MOSFET

metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor

MPG

micropower generator

MRAM

magnetic random-access memory

MURI

Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative


NDR

negative differential resistance

NEMS

nanoelectromechanical system

NIL

nanoimprint lithography

nm

nanometer

NNI

National Nanotechnology Initiative

NRC

National Research Council


PHM

condition-based and prognostics health monitoring

pico

prefix for 10−12

PMMA

polymethylmethacrylate


QDCA

quantum-dot cellular automata


R&D

research and development

RDT&E

research, development, testing, and evaluation

RF

radio frequency

RTD

resonant tunneling diode


S&T

science and technology

SEM

scanning electron microscope

SEU

single-event upset

Si

silicon

SIA

Semiconductor Industry Association

SOC

system-on-a-chip

SPENVIS

Space Environment Information System

SRAM

static random-access memory

SRMU

solid rocket motor unit

STTL

Shottky transistor-transistor logic

SWNT

single-wall carbon nanotube


TFSOI

thin-film silicon-on-insulator

TTL

transistor-transistor logic

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10582.
×

UAV

unmanned air vehicle

UCAV

unmanned combat air vehicle

URI

University Research Initiative


VCSEL

vertical cavity surface-emitting laser

VLA

Very Large Array


WDM

wavelength division multiplexing

WLR

wafer-level reliability

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Expansion of micro-technology applications and rapid advances in nano-science have generated considerable interest by the Air Force in how these developments will affect the nature of warfare and how it could exploit these trends. The report notes four principal themes emerging from the current technological trends: increased information capability, miniaturization, new materials, and increased functionality. Recommendations about Air Force roles in micro- and nanotechnology research are presented including those areas in which the Air Force should take the lead. The report also provides a number of technical and policy findings and recommendations that are critical for effective development of the Air Force’s micro- and nano-science and technology program

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