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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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AIR EMISSIONS From Animal Feeding Operations

Current Knowledge, Future Needs

Ad Hoc Committee on Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. 68-D-01-69 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Grant No. 59-0790-2-106 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsib-ility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

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AD HOC COMMITTEE ON AIR EMISSIONS FROM ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN (Chair),

Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts

ROBERT G. FLOCCHINI (Vice Chair),

University of California, Davis, California

JOHN C. BAILAR III,

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

CANDIS CLAIBORN,

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

RUSSELL R. DICKERSON,

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

JAMES N. GALLOWAY,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

PRASAD KASIBHATLA,

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

RICHARD A. KOHN,

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

MICHAEL P. LACY,

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia

CALVIN B. PARNELL, JR.,

Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

ROBBI H. PRITCHARD,

South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota

WAYNE P. ROBARGE,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

DANIEL A. WUBAH,

James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia

KELLY D. ZERING,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

RUIHONG ZHANG,

University of California, Davis, California

Consultant

MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER,

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

Staff

JAMIE JONKER, Study Director

CHAD TOLMAN, Program Officer

TANJA PILZAK, Research Assistant

JOE ESPARZA, Project Assistant

STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Project Assistant

BRYAN SHIPLEY, Project Assistant

PETER RODGERS, Intern

FLORENCE POILLON, Contract Editor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION

GARY L. CROMWELL (Chair),

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky

C. ROSELINA ANGEL,

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

JESSE P. GOFF,

United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa

RONALD W. HARDY,

University of Idaho, Hagerman, Idaho

KRISTEN A. JOHNSON,

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

BRIAN W. MCBRIDE,

University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

KEITH E. RINEHART,

Perdue Farms Incorporated, Salisbury, Maryland

L. LEE SOUTHERN,

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

DONALD R. TOPLIFF,

West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas

Staff

JAMIE JONKER, Program Officer

JOE ESPARZA, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

HARLEY W. MOON (Chair),

Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

SANDRA BARTHOLMEY,

Quaker Oats Company, Barrington, Illinois

DEBORAH BLUM,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

ROBERT B. FRIDLEY,

University of California, Davis, California

BARBARA GLENN,

Federation of Animal Science Societies, Bethesda, Maryland

LINDA GOLODNER,

National Consumers League, Washington, D.C.

W.R. (REG) GOMES,

University of California, Oakland, California

PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN,

Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts

CALESTOUS JUMA,

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

JANET C. KING,

University of California, Davis, California

WHITNEY MACMILLAN,

Cargill, Incorporated, Minneapolis, Minnesota

PAMELA A. MATSON,

Stanford University, Stanford, California

TERRY MEDLEY,

DuPont Biosolutions Enterprise, Wilmington, Delaware

ALICE PELL,

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

SHARRON S. QUISENBERRY,

Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana

NANCY J. RACHMAN,

Novigen Sciences, Incorporated, Washington, D.C.

SONYA SALAMON,

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

G. EDWARD SCHUH,

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota

BRIAN STASKAWICZ,

University of California, Berkeley, California

JACK WARD THOMAS,

University of Montana, Missoula, Montana

JAMES TUMLINSON,

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Gainesville, Florida

B.L. TURNER,

Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts

Staff

CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director

STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Senior Project Assistant

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

GORDON ORIANS (Chair),

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair),

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Missouri

DAVID ALLEN,

University of Texas, Austin, Texas

THOMAS BURKE,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

JUDITH C. CHOW,

Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada

CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

WILLIAM H. GLAZE,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

SHERRI W. GOODMAN,

Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, Virginia

DANIEL S. GREENBAUM,

Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts

ROGENE HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CAROL HENRY,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

ROBERT HUGGETT,

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

BARRY L. JOHNSON,

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

JAMES H. JOHNSON,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

JAMES A. MACMAHON,

Utah State University, Logan, Utah

PATRICK V. O’BRIEN,

Chevron Research and Technology, Richmond, California

DOROTHY E. PATTON,

International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, D.C.

ANN POWERS,

Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York

LOUISE M. RYAN,

Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

JONATHAN M. SAMET,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

KIRK SMITH,

University of California, Berkeley, California

LISA SPEER,

Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York

G. DAVID TILMAN,

University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota

CHRIS G. WHIPPLE,

Environ Incorporated, Emeryville, California

LAUREN A. ZEISE,

California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California

Staff

JAMES J. REISA, Director

RAY WASSEL, Program Director

MIMI ANDERSON, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Acknowledgments

This report represents the integrated efforts of many individuals. The committee thanks all those who shared their insights and knowledge to bring the document to fruition. We also thank all those who provided information at our public meetings and who participated in our public sessions.

During the course of its deliberations, the committee sought assistance from several people who gave generously of their time to provide advice and information that were considered in its deliberations. Special thanks are due the following:

JOHN ALBERTSON, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

C. RICHARD AMERMAN, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland

BOB BOTTCHER (Deceased), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

GARTH BOYD, Murphy-Brown LLC, Warsaw, North Carolina

LEONARD BULL, Animal and Poultry Waste Center, Raleigh, North Carolina

TOM CHRISTENSEN, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland

JOHN D. CRENSHAW, Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

TONY DELANY, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

RALPH ERNST, University of California, Davis, California

MICHAEL FITZGIBBON, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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ERIC GONDER, Goldsboro Milling Company, Goldsboro, North Carolina

ALEX GUENTHER, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

ELLEN HANKES, Environmental Management Solutions, LLC, Des Moines, Iowa

LOWRY HARPER, United States Department of Agriculture, Watkinsville, Georgia

BRUCE HARRIS, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

TOM HORST, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

DONALD JOHNSON, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

RENEE JOHNSON, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

RAY KNIGHTON, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland

GARY MARGHEIM, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

JOHN H. MARTIN, JR., Hall Associates, Dover, Delaware

F. ROBERT MCGREGOR, Water and Waste Engineering, Incorporated, Denver, Colorado

DEANNE MEYER, University of California, Davis, California

BOB MOSER, ConAgra Beef, Kersey, Colorado

DANIEL MURPHY, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado

BRENT NEWELL, California Rural Legal Assistance Foundation, Sacramento, California

ROY OOMMEN, Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

JOSEPH RUDEK, Environmental Defense, Raleigh, North Carolina

GARY SAUNDERS, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, North Carolina

SUSAN SCHIFFMAN, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

SALLY SHAVER, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

MARK SOBSEY, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

JOHN SWEETEN, Texas A&M University, Amarillo, Texas

DAVID TOWNSEND, Premium Standard Farms Research and Development, Kansas City, Missouri

RANDY WAITE, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

JOHN T. WALKER, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
×

The committee is grateful to members of the National Research Council staff who worked diligently to maintain progress and quality in its work.

The report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

DAVID T. ALLEN, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas

WILLIAM BATTYE, EC/R Incorporated, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

VAN C. BOWERSOX, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, Illinois

ELLIS B. COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

DANNY G. FOX, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

ROGENE HENDERSON, National Environmental Respiratory Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico

KRISTEN A. JOHNSON, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

DEANNE MEYER, University of California, Davis, California

GEORGE MOUNT, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

ROGER A. PIELKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

WENDY J. POWERS, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

JOSEPH RUDEK, Environmental Defense, Raleigh, North Carolina

MARGOT RUDSTROM, University of Minnesota, Morris, Minnesota

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Bob Frosch, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Albert Heber, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Preface

The increasing concentration of food production—meat, eggs, milk—from animals in very large feeding operations has focused public attention on associated environmental issues. These include the effects of air emissions, especially those that come from the large quantities of manure produced by the animals. While concern has mounted, research to provide the basic information needed for effective regulation and management of these emissions has languished.

This report, prepared by a committee appointed by the National Research Council, proposes two major ways to improve information and the nation’s ability to deal with the effects of these emissions. One is to change the way in which the rates and fate of air emissions are estimated and tracked. The proposal would replace the current “emission factor” approach with a “process-based modeling” approach. This can, if pursued vigorously, enhance both regulation and management of air emissions in the next two to five years.

The other proposal is for a research program that views air emissions as one part of the overall system of producing food from animal feeding operations with the goal of eliminating the release of unwanted emissions into the environment. This “systems-based” proposal, if also pursued vigorously, would lead to fundamentally changed practices at animal feeding operations. The net result would be continued food production with greatly reduced adverse environmental effects.

The 16-person committee that produced this report and an earlier interim report worked hard and well. The time allowed for producing the two reports was short, but committee members found time in their schedules to address what each sees as an important issue that needs attention. The project staff at the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Jamie Jonker, study director, and Tanja Pilzak, research assistant, and the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicol-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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ogy, Chad Tolman, program officer, deserve special thanks for their long hours of very effective work. An informal editorial subcommittee that handled reviewer comments and provided enormous help throughout also deserves special thanks. The members were Chair Perry Hagenstein, Vice Chair Bob Flocchini, Jim Galloway, Rick Kohn, and, for the interim report, Wayne Robarge.

Perry Hagenstein, Chair

Robert Flocchini, Vice Chair

Committee on Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Tables, Figures, and Boxes

TABLES

ES-1

 

Committee’s Scientific Evaluation of the Potential Importance of AFO Emissions at Different Spatial Scales,

 

5

1-1

 

Substances in AFO Emissions That the Committee Was Tasked to Address and Their Respective Classifications,

 

16

2-1

 

U.S. Per Capita Consumption of Meat, Dairy Products, and Eggs in 2001,

 

28

2-2

 

Leading Livestock Production States by Animal Sector,

 

33

2-3

 

Number of Animals per EPA Animal Unit,

 

34

3-1

 

Annual Anthropogenic Emissions of Constituents of Concern, 1990,

 

51

3-2

 

Measured Emission Fluxes of Ammonia from Primary Anaerobic Swine Lagoons as a Function of Measurement Method and Period,

 

58

3-3

 

Relationship of Management Practices on 4 percent Fat Corrected Milk and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency,

 

62

3-4

 

Typical Lifetimes in the Planetary Boundary Layer for Pollutants Emitted from Animal Feeding Operations,

 

64

3-5

 

Short-Term Exposure to Ammonia,

 

66

3-6

 

Long-Term Exposure to Ammonia,

 

67

3-7

 

Committee’s Scientific Evaluation of the Potential Importance of AFO Emissions at Different Spatial Scales,

 

72

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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5-1

 

Maximum Methane Production Potential of Animal Manure as Affected by Different Diets,

 

120

6-1

 

Overview of Federal Statutes and Their Provisions,

 

131

8-1

 

Committee’s Scientific Evaluation of the Potential Importance of AFO Emissions at Different Spatial Scales,

 

170

D-1

 

Typical Nitrogen and Sulfur Content of Animal Products,

 

208

D-2

 

Nitrogen and Sulfur Content of Animal Live Weight Gain,

 

210

D-3

 

Sample Excretion Predictions Directly from Different Types of Food Production Animals,

 

211

L-1

 

Odor Emission Rates from Animal Housing as Reported in the Literature,

 

254

FIGURES

1-1

 

Mass flows (teragrams of nitrogen per year) of new reactive nitrogen in U.S. agriculture in 1997,

 

21

3-1

 

Relative excretion rate of nitrogen versus day in the life cycle of a grow-finish hog at a commercial swine production facility in the southeastern United States,

 

60

3-2

 

Nitrogen cascade,

 

70

4-1

 

Ammonia concentrations (averaged over a 68-m path) measured near a dairy wastewater lagoon,

 

76

4-2

 

Schematic illustrating the essential elements associated with measurement of emissions from agricultural sources that can be characterized as low-level point sources such as cotton gins, feed mills, grain elevators, and oil mills,

 

87

4-3

 

Schematic illustrating the essential elements associated with measurement of emissions from agricultural sources that can be characterized as ground-level area sources such as dairies, cattle feed yards, field operation, and agricultural burning,

 

88

4-4

 

Schematic illustrating the essential element associated with regulation of emissions from agricultural sources that can be characterized as low-level point sources such as tunnel-ventilated AFOs,

 

89

4-5

 

Schematic illustrating the essential element associated with regulation of emissions from agricultural sources that can be characterized as low-level point sources such as naturally ventilated AFOs,

 

91

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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5-1

 

A schematic representation of a process-based model of emissions from an animal production system,

 

104

7-1

 

Animal feeding operations system (animal plus associated cropland),

 

162

D-1

 

Change in body protein percentage as cattle mature,

 

209

K-1

 

Distribution of milk cows in 1997,

 

235

K-2

 

Distribution of cattle fattened on grain and concentrates and sold in 1997,

 

236

K-3

 

Distribution of hogs and pigs sold in 1997,

 

237

K-4

 

Distribution of broilers and other meat-type chickens sold in 1997,

 

238

K-5

 

Distribution of turkeys sold in 1997,

 

239

K-6

 

Distribution of layers and pullets, 13 weeks old and older in 1997,

 

240

BOXES

ES-1

 

Findings from the Interim Report,

 

3

1-1

 

Findings and Discussion from the Interim Report,

 

18

2-1

 

Poultry Production in the United States,

 

33

5-1

 

Sample Calculations of Whole-Farm Nitrogen Balance,

 

116

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10586.
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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs discusses the need for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to implement a new method for estimating the amount of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, and other pollutants emitted from livestock and poultry farms, and for determining how these emissions are dispersed in the atmosphere. The committee calls for the EPA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to establish a joint council to coordinate and oversee short - and long-term research to estimate emissions from animal feeding operations accurately and to develop mitigation strategies. Their recommendation was for the joint council to focus its efforts first on those pollutants that pose the greatest risk to the environment and public health.

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