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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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MATERIALS RESEARCH TO MEET 21ST-CENTURY DEFENSE NEEDS

Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
×

The National Academies Press
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was conducted under Contract No. MDA972-01-D-001 from the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS RESEARCH FOR DEFENSE AFTER NEXT

HARVEY SCHADLER (Chair),

General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (retired), Schenectady, New York

ALAN LOVELACE (Vice Chair),

General Dynamics Corporation (retired), La Jolla, California

JAMES BASKERVILLE,

Bath Iron Works (General Dynamics), Bath, Maine

FEDERICO CAPASSO,

Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey (until June 2000)

MILLARD FIREBAUGH,

Electric Boat Corporation (General Dynamics), Groton, Connecticut

JOHN GASSNER,

U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Natick, Massachusetts

MICHAEL JAFFE,

New Jersey Center for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Newark

FRANK KARASZ,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

HARRY A. LIPSITT,

Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio

MEYYA MEYYAPPAN,

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

GEORGE PETERSON,

U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (retired), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

JULIA M. PHILLIPS,

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

RICHARD TRESSLER,

Pennsylvania State University (emeritus), University Park

Panel on Structural and Multifunctional Materials

HARRY A. LIPSITT (Chair),

Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio

MILLARD FIREBAUGH (Vice Chair),

Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut

MICHAEL I. BASKES,

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

L. CATHERINE BRINSON,

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

THOMAS W. EAGAR,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

RICHARD J. FARRIS,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

D. DAVID NEWLIN,

General Dynamics Land Systems, Sterling Heights, Michigan

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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GEORGE PETERSON,

U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (retired), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

RICHARD TRESSLER,

Pennsylvania State University, University Park

Panel on Energy and Power Materials

JOHN GASSNER (Co-chair),

U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Natick, Massachusetts

JAMES BASKERVILLE (Co-chair),

Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine

DANIEL H. DOUGHTY,

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

SOSSINA M. HAILE,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

ROBERT N. KATZ,

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts

Panel on Electronic and Photonic Materials

JULIA M. PHILLIPS (Co-chair),

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

MEYYA MEYYAPPAN (Co-chair),

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

HAROLD G. CRAIGHEAD,

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

NARSINGH B. SINGH,

Northrop Grumman Corporation, Linthicum, Maryland

MING C. WU,

University of California, Los Angeles

EDWARD ZELLERS,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Panel on Functional Organic and Hybrid Materials

FRANK KARASZ (Chair),

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

LISA KLEIN,

Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey

VINCENT D. McGINNISS,

Optimer Photonics, Columbus, Ohio

GARY E. WNEK,

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond

LUPING YU,

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
×

Panel on Bioderived and Bioinspired Materials

MICHAEL JAFFE (Chair),

New Jersey Center for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Newark

ILHAN AKSAY,

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

MARK ALPER,

University of California, Berkeley

PAUL CALVERT,

University of Arizona, Tucson

MAURO FERRARI,

Ohio State University, Columbus

ERIK VIIRRE,

University of California, San Diego

National Materials Advisory Board Liaisons

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR.,

Motorola (retired), Glen Ellyn, Illinois

KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg

EDGAR A. STARKE,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville

Government Liaisons

ROBERT POHANKA,

Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia

ROBERT L. RAPSON, U.S.

Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

LEWIS SLOTER,

Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Science and Technology), Washington, D.C.

DENNIS J. VIECHNICKI,

U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

STEVEN WAX,

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Virginia

National Materials Advisory Board Staff

ARUL MOZHI, Study Director

SHARON YEUNG DRESSEN, Program Officer (until July 2002)

JULIUS CHANG, Program Officer (until April 2002)

PAT WILLIAMS, Administrative Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD

JULIA M. PHILLIPS (Chair),

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

JOHN ALLISON,

Ford Research Laboratories, Dearborn, Michigan

FIONA DOYLE,

University of California, Berkeley

THOMAS EAGAR,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

GARY FISCHMAN, Consultant,

Palatine, Illinois

HAMISH L. FRASER,

Ohio State University, Columbus

THOMAS S. HARTWICK,

TRW (retired), Snohomish, Washington

ALLAN J. JACOBSON,

University of Houston, Houston, Texas

SYLVIA M. JOHNSON,

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

FRANK E. KARASZ,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

SHEILA F. KIA,

General Motors, Warren, Michigan

ENRIQUE LAVERNIA,

University of California, Davis

HARRY A. LIPSITT,

Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio

TERRY LOWE,

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

ALAN G. MILLER,

Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR.,

National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, Virginia

HENRY J. RACK,

Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina

KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg

T.S. SUDARSHAN,

Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia

JULIA WEERTMAN,

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

National Materials Advisory Board Staff

TONI MARECHAUX, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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Preface

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) requested that the National Research Council, through the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), conduct a study to identify and prioritize critical materials and processing research and development (R&D) that will be needed to meet 21st-century defense needs. The Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next was established to investigate investments in R&D required to meet long-term (~2020) DoD needs. Its purpose was to explore revolutionary materials concepts that would provide an advantage to U.S. forces in weapons, logistics, deployment, and cost.

The committee was charged to address the following specific tasks:

  • Review DoD planning documents and input from DoD systems development experts to identify long-term technical requirements for weapons system development and support.

  • Develop materials needs and priorities based on DoD requirements.

  • Establish and guide approximately five study panels to investigate identified priority areas and recommend specific research opportunities.

  • Integrate and prioritize the research opportunities recommended by the study panels.

  • Recommend ways to integrate materials and processes advances into new system designs.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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The results of the initial phase, begun in December 1999, were documented in the January 2001 interim report.1 In that initial phase the committee (13 scientists and engineers) met with technical representatives of the military services and DoD agencies, directors of service laboratories, and managers of DoD agencies (see Appendix A for a list of invited speakers). The objective of those meetings was to understand DoD’s vision of current and future weapons, systems, and logistics requirements and its long-term cost targets. Although this aspect of the committee’s study was not exhaustive, learning the status of current R&D supported by DoD, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation provided a context for organizing subsequent meetings. The committee then met with materials experts from industry, academia, and national laboratories to identify research that could be brought to fruition in the 20- to 30-year time frame specified for the study. At a later meeting, the committee analyzed the data gathered and drafted the interim report.

In the next phase of the study, five technical panels were established (see Appendix B for the panel members’ biographies):

  • Structural and Multifunctional Materials,

  • Energy and Power Materials,

  • Electronic and Photonic Materials,

  • Functional Organic and Hybrid Materials, and

  • Bioderived and Bioinspired Materials.

These panels explored in depth the new opportunities in their areas of materials research and related them to DoD needs. Many of the concepts are still in their infancy. The questions the panels addressed were (1) What will be the impact of a successful materials R&D effort on future defense systems? and (2) How can the application of materials R&D be accelerated to meet DoD time constraints?

The organization of the panels by function encouraged technical experts to participate. Each panel was responsible for quantifying the impact of new materials and processes and for identifying technical roadblocks to their development. The technical panels were led by members of the study committee. NMAB liaisons to the study committee also served as

1  

National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs—Interim Report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
×

liaisons to the technical panels. This structure helped to ensure coherence of purpose, continuity of effort, and the rapid exchange of information.

We thank the committee and panel members for their participation in meetings and for their efforts and dedication in the preparation of this final report. We also thank the meeting speakers (listed in Appendix A) and participants and DoD study sponsors and liaisons, including Joseph Wells, Army Research Laboratory (retired), and Julie Christodoulou, Office of Naval Research. We thank the NMAB staff, especially Arul Mozhi, study director; Sharon Yeung Dressen, program officer; Julius Chang, program officer; Richard Chait, former staff director; Kevin Kyle, 2002 spring intern; Alan Lund, 2002 summer intern; Vikram Kaku, 2002 fall intern; and Pat Williams, administrative assistant.

This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

Shaw Chen, University of Rochester;

David Clarke, University of California-Santa Barbara;

David Johnson, Jr., Agere Systems (retired);

David Kaplan, Tufts University;

James McBreen, Brookhaven National Laboratory;

Mark Reed, Yale University;

James Richardson, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies;

David Srolovitz, Princeton University;

Julia Weertman, Northwestern University;

Albert Westwood, Sandia National Laboratories (retired);

Mark Williams, National Energy Technology Laboratory; and

Yang Yang, University of California-Los Angeles.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
×

before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George Dieter, University of Maryland. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Comments and suggestions can be sent via e-mail to NMAB@nas.edu or by fax to (202) 334-3718.

Harvey Schadler, Chair

Alan Lovelace, Vice Chair

Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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Smart Materials,

 

43

   

Composites,

 

46

   

Adhesives and Coatings,

 

49

   

Research and Development Priorities,

 

51

   

Materials Design Assisted by Computation,

 

51

   

Service-Induced Material Changes,

 

52

   

Multifunctional Composite Materials,

 

52

   

Integrating Nondestructive Inspection and Evaluation into Design,

 

53

   

References,

 

54

4

 

ENERGY AND POWER MATERIALS

 

55

   

Chapter Summary,

 

55

   

Introduction,

 

56

   

DoD Needs for Energy and Power Materials,

 

59

   

Specific Areas of Opportunity,

 

60

   

Energy Storage,

 

60

   

Energy Conversion,

 

74

   

Electrical Power Generation and Transmission for Propulsion and Related Systems,

 

83

   

Kinetic Energy Dissipation and Protection,

 

84

   

DoD Reliance on Energy Sources,

 

87

   

Research and Development Priorities,

 

87

   

Nanomaterials Science and Engineering,

 

87

   

Engineered Interfaces and Surfaces in Materials,

 

88

   

Advanced Energy Storage and Conversion Materials,

 

89

   

Tools for Accelerated, Systematic Materials Discovery,

 

89

   

Materials as the Foundation for Systems,

 

90

   

References,

 

91

5

 

ELECTRONIC AND PHOTONIC MATERIALS

 

95

   

Chapter Summary,

 

95

   

Introduction,

 

96

   

DoD Needs for Electronic and Photonic Materials,

 

96

   

Specific Areas of Opportunity,

 

98

   

Electronics,

 

98

   

Optoelectronics and Photonics,

 

106

   

Microsystems,

 

114

   

Research and Development Priorities,

 

128

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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New Synthetic Strategies to Produce High Yields of Selected Polymers with Completely Defined Chemical Structures, Enhanced Homogeneity, and Purity,

 

172

   

Computer Modeling and Simulation, Accessible to Experimentalists, to Optimize Chemical and Structure Selection for Specific Functionalities,

 

173

   

Organic Materials to Provide Robust Defenses Against Laser Threats to Personnel and Equipment,

 

174

   

Catalyst Systems to Provide in Situ Defenses by Neutralizing Chemical and Biological Attack,

 

174

   

References,

 

174

7

 

BIOINSPIRED AND BIODERIVED MATERIALS

 

181

   

Chapter Summary,

 

181

   

Introduction,

 

183

   

DoD Needs for Bioinspired and Bioderived Materials,

 

184

   

Specific Areas of Opportunity,

 

187

   

Structural Materials,

 

187

   

Functional Materials,

 

191

   

Medical Applications,

 

200

   

Research and Development Priorities,

 

206

   

Improving Fundamental Understanding of the Relationships Between Biological Structure, Properties, and Evolution and Materials Design and Synthesis,

 

206

   

Increasing Communication of DoD Material Needs to Biological and Physical Scientists,

 

207

   

Basic Research into Biological Molecules, Structures, Systems, and Processes to Lay the Groundwork for Their Use, or Their Use as Models, in Serving the Materials Needs of DoD,

 

207

   

Identification and Development of Biocompatible Materials to Enable in Vivo Implantable Devices,

 

208

   

Development of Packaging Technologies to Preserve the Biological Function of Biologically Enabled Devices,

 

208

   

References,

 

208

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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Figures and Tables

FIGURES

3-1

 

Schematic of materials and systems interactions through a series of models at various size scales,

 

39

4-1

 

Energy and power materials addressed by panels of the committee,

 

57

4-2

 

Ragone plot comparing nominal performance of batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and dielectric capacitors,

 

64

4-3

 

Schematic of a fuel cell,

 

76

4-4

 

Fossil-fuel-independent power generation in a fuel cell,

 

77

5-1

 

Relationships in the Future Combat System,

 

100

5-2

 

Generalized concept incorporating oscillators, filters, phase shifters, and circulators for a multilayer package with integrated circuits to improve quality and impedance matching,

 

105

5-3

 

Schematic of nanoscopic photonic integrated circuits made of photonic crystals,

 

113

6-1

 

Superconducting organic polymer,

 

142

6-2

 

Potential molecular wire material that takes advantage of σ bonds in polyorganosilane materials,

 

143

6-3

 

Molecular rectifier,

 

144

6-4

 

Representation of a polymer field-effect transistor,

 

146

6-5

 

Photonic devices in the telecommunications industry,

 

149

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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6-6

 

Potential photonic components for incorporation into all- or hybrid-optical computers,

 

150

6-7

 

Basic structures of electro-optic chromophores,

 

151

6-8

 

EO polymer-chromophore waveguide electro-optical modulator or switch,

 

152

6-9

 

Potential military information gathering, analysis, and activation of another system,

 

155

6-10

 

Schematic representation of optical limiting and switching,

 

157

7-1

 

Schematic overview of subject matter and disciplines covered in this chapter,

 

184

7-2

 

Mechanical properties of natural and synthetic materials,

 

189

7-3

 

Calcite crystals grown on self-assembled monolayers on a patterned surface,

 

193

7-4

 

Tactile hairs on a spider leg,

 

197

C-1

 

Price-volume relationship for annual U.S. consumption of structural materials,

 

248

D-1

 

Military systems power requirements often follow a “step function,” so different power sources are needed for different applications,

 

252

D-2

 

Military versus commercial requirements for batteries,

 

253

D-3

 

Power versus energy density for selected mechanisms for electrical energy storage,

 

254

D-4

 

Is there room for improvement for energetic materials? Energy density per unit mass,

 

256

D-5

 

Schematic of a membrane reactor, using the water gas shift reaction as an example,

 

269

E-1

 

Electro-optic chromophore building blocks,

 

286

E-2

 

Typical electro-optic chromophore structures and their first molecular hyperpolarizability values,

 

286

E-3

 

Polymers and molecules used in preparing photorefractive composite films,

 

287

E-4

 

Functional photorefractive polymers,

 

287

E-5

 

Monolithic molecular photorefractive materials,

 

288

E-6

 

Photochromic switch,

 

288

E-7

 

Bead-on-a-thread molecular switch,

 

289

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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E-8

 

The photo-induced electron transfer from a conjugated polymer (MEH-PPV) to C60,

 

290

TABLES

3-1

 

Potential for Achieving Property Improvements of 20 to 25 Percent over Current State of the Art for Various Classes of Materials by 2020,

 

30

3-2

 

Market for Structural Materials,

 

32

3-3

 

Examples of Multifunctional Capabilities of Targeted Structural Materials,

 

44

3-4

 

Examples of Military Applications Likely to Benefit from Revolutionary Advances in Multifunctional Structural Materials,

 

45

4-1

 

Fuel Cell Types and Selected Features,

 

78

4-2

 

Comparison of Initial Performance of Macro Gas Turbines and of a MEMS Microturbine,

 

81

4-3

 

Properties of Armor Ceramics,

 

86

5-1

 

Microsystems for (Bio)chemical Targets,

 

120

6-1

 

Summary of Where Research Is Needed to Develop Practical Molecular Electronics,

 

148

6-2

 

Summary of Where Organic and Polymeric Materials Might Be Used in Military Photonic Devices in 2020,

 

156

7-1

 

Energy Density and Other Properties of Glucose, Compared with Chemicals More Commonly Considered for Producing Power,

 

199

7-2

 

Current Human Enhancements and the Materials Enhancements They Depend On,

 

205

7-3

 

Human Body Functions That Could Potentially Be Enhanced and the Materials Advances Required,

 

205

C-1

 

Typical Costs of a Fabricated Structure Made from Monolithic (Noncomposite) Materials,

 

249

C-2

 

Structural Materials Selection Based on Value of Weight Savings over the Life of a Structure,

 

250

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10631.
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D-1

 

First Synthesis of Chemical Explosives of Military Interest,

 

255

D-2

 

Fuel Cell Types and Selected Features,

 

262

D-3

 

Goals for Future Armor Areal Density,

 

278

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In order to achieve the revolutionary new defense capabilities offered by materials science and engineering, innovative management to reduce the risks associated with translating research results will be needed along with the R&D. While payoff is expected to be high from the promising areas of materials research, many of the benefits are likely to be evolutionary. Nevertheless, failure to invest in more speculative areas of research could lead to undesired technological surprises. Basic research in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science will provide the seeds for potentially revolutionary technologies later in the 21st century.

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