Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?
Committee on Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century
Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Lyla Hernandez, Editor
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
Support for this project was provided by Contract/Grant No. 042024 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The views presented in this report are those of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century and are not necessarily those of the funding agencies.
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The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Michael Eriksen, Sc.D., Professor and Director, Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University
William C.Livingood, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Health, Policy & Evaluation Research, Duval County Health Department
Sheila M.Smythe, M.S., Executive Vice President and Dean, School of Public Health, New York Medical College
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
The input of many individuals contributed greatly to the planning, conduct, and implementation of the workshop that this report summarizes. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWFJ) sponsored the meeting and provided important suggestions for its implementation, in particular, Pamela Williams Russo, M.D., M.P.H. Suggestions for issues and questions that should be considered during the workshop were offered by numerous individuals, with special thanks extended to: Elaine Auld, M.P.H.; Palmer Beasley, M.D., M.S.; Ron Bialek, M.P.P.; Patrick Libbey; Maureen Lichtveld, M.D., M.P.H.; William Livingood, Ph.D.; Harrison Spencer, M.D., M.P.H.; Tim Stephens, Michael R.Fraser, Ph.D.; and Kathy Vincent.
We wish to express appreciation to the workshop presenters, Kristine Gebbie, Dr.P.H., R.N., J.Michael McGinnis, M.D., and Linda Rosenstock, M.D., M.P.H., for providing an excellent overview of: the recommendations of the report Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21stCentury; the importance of public health professional education, and for a discussion of the issues and questions surrounding the implementation of those recommendations. Finally, our thanks go to all those who took time from their busy schedules to attend the workshop and contribute to the discussion.