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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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International Perspectives

THE FUTURE OF NONHUMAN PRIMATE RESOURCES

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP HELD APRIL 17–19, 2002

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. RR11611 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health. Other contributions were from GlaxoSmithKline, Association of Primate Veterinarians, and Pfizer. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: THE FUTURE OF NONHUMAN PRIMATE RESOURCES PROGRAM COMMITTEE

John L VandeBerg, PhD (Chair),

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Christian R. Abee, DVM,

University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama

Janet C. Gonder, DVM, PhD, Consultant,

Pinehurst, North Carolina

Hilton J. Klein, VMD,

Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania

William R. Morton, VMD,

Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Emilie F. Rissman, PhD,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

William S. Stokes, DVM,

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

John G. Vandenbergh, PhD,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

Staff

Joanne Zurlo, PhD, Director,

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research

Charlotte Kirk Baer, MS, Director,

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Marsha Barrett, Project Assistant

Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant

Jennifer Obernier, Program Officer

Susan Vaupel, Editor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

Peter A. Ward (Chair),

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Stephen W. Barthold,

Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, California

Rosemary W. Elliott,

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York

Michael F. Festing,

MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Janet C. Gonder,

Pinehurst, North Carolina

Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen,

Central Animal Laboratories, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands

Jay R. Kaplan,

Department of Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Hilton J. Klein,

Department of Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania

William Morton,

Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Randall J. Nelson,

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee

Emilie F. Rissman,

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

Lilly-Marlene Russow,

Department of Philosophy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

William S. Stokes,

Animal and Alternative Resources, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Michael K. Stoskopf,

College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

Thomas Wolfle,

Cambridge, Maryland

Staff

Joanne Zurlo, Director

Marsha Barrett, Senior Project Assistant

Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant

Ralph Dell, Associate Director

Jennifer Obernier, Study Director

Susan Vaupel, Managing Editor,

ILAR Journal

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Preface

Nonhuman primates (NHP) continue to play an important role in the research of many human diseases such as malaria and AIDS. As long as NHP are needed for biomedical research, it is essential that suppliers, users and transporters of these animals work together to establish the best standards of characterization and maintenance to ensure that they are treated humanely, used efficiently and that data obtained from experiments on NHP are scientifically useful. Indeed, the harmonization of standards for NHP should allow for effective reproducibility among laboratories throughout the world. In addition, since NHP resources are limited, it is necessary to ensure that adequate conservation practices are considered, and that the quality of the animals used for research is high.

Characterization of the genetics of NHP promises to provide valuable information that may impact the potential use of some species for certain types of studies. For example, with the escalating use of rhesus macaques for AIDS research, it has become important to further characterize the genetic basis of lentiviral infections. In addition, since NHP are used as models for human diseases, knowledge of the genetics will assist researchers in recognizing homology between NHP and human genes as well as give insights into how interindividual variability can contribute to prediction of risk for certain diseases.

The microbiological status of NHP is also critical to research outcomes in these animals as well as to the occupational health and safety of those who work with them. Increased efforts have been initiated to create

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

specific pathogen-free (SPF) macaque research colonies that have been selectively screened for important simian viruses. In addition to SPF colonies, international standardization of assays utilized for virological assessment of NHP must be addressed.

Finally, there is a crisis with regard to transportation of NHP. Most national and international airline carriers now refuse to transport NHP and, consequently, research and breeding institutions in the United States have had to rely on one of the Chinese carriers for this purpose. In addition to the dearth of transportation sources, there are duplications of national and international regulations for international transport of research animals that must be addressed with the expectations that recommendations for consolidation will be sought.

All of these issues concern scientists, veterinarians and funding authorities from countries that are major users of nonhuman primates for research as well as those from countries that produce and supply these animals. Many of those in the scientific community who direct or support NHP resources or who use these animals for research had expressed a need for addressing these issues on an international level. The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, within the National Academies, took advantage of its unique position as a focal point for laboratory animal research issues both in the United States and internationally to organize and host a much needed and important workshop. Participants from all over the world gathered in Washington, DC, to discuss critical issues concerning NHP resources. The proceedings from this workshop are reported in the pages of this publication.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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The future of nonhuman primate (NHP) resources is a concern of scientists, veterinarians, and funding authorities. An April 2002 workshop brought participants from all over the world to discuss various aspects of the issue such as current shortfalls and excesses in NHP breeding and exportation programs, the status of breeding and conservation programs internationally, the development of specific pathogen-free colonies, difficulties in transporting NHP, and challenges in the management of NHP colonies.

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