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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Session 1
Conservation and Supply, Part 1

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Sustainable Utilization of Kenyan Nonhuman Primates for Biomedical and Conservation Research

Jason M. Mwenda, PhD

The Institute of Primate Research (IPR) is a nonprofit institute that was established by the Kenyan government in 1960 to conduct biomedical and conservation research using the East African nonhuman primates. IPR is a designated World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating center for research in reproductive health and tropical diseases and a member of the European Union (EU)-supported Primate Vaccine Evaluation Network. IPR is the only multidisciplinary primate center in Africa.

The Institute of Internal Scientific, Ethics, and Review Committee and Animal Care and Use Committee review all proposals and study protocols before initiation. These committees ensure that during the conduct of the biomedical research, the welfare of nonhuman primates is not compromised and the study protocols conform to the international guidelines on biomedical research using nonhuman primates (NHPs).

IPR is currently involved in research in the following areas: reproductive health, tropical diseases, primate medicine (zoonotic infections, natural and experimental aging processes including Alzheimer’s disease), primate behavior, ecology, and conservation. Thus, IPR is involved in research that promotes better health for humans and animals, and especially the NHPs. In this endeavor, the Institute encourages networking with other scientists with mutual research interests and that enhances

Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Kenya

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

local capacity building and promotes regional and international collaboration.

Some notable achievements of the Institute include:

  1. Development of the vervet monkey model for cutaneous leishmaniasis. This model has now been accepted by WHO as an appropriate model for testing for vaccines and drugs against leishmaniasis.

  2. Identification (for the first time) of malaria-like parasites in monkeys and investigation of monkeys potentially transmitting malaria to humans.

  3. Development of the baboon as an ideal model for schistosomiasis research. This model is being used to test the efficacy of candidate vaccines. IPR scientists have shown the highest protection level in schistosomiasis Mansoni using radiation-attenuated vaccine in the baboon model (85% protection level).

  4. Development of the rotavirus diarrhea monkey model, which will be valuable for testing rotavirus vaccines to prevent severe diarrhea in children and elucidating the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection/disease.

  5. Establishment of diagnostic tests for screening pregnant baboons and women for immunological causes of infertility (caused by presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and endometriosis (characterized by severe pelvic pain).

  6. Development toward a new class of birth control methods (antifertility vaccines) for use by both men and women. Available results of testing of these vaccines show anti-CG contraceptive vaccines did not result in adverse effects in female baboons. Similarly, anti-LDH-C4 vaccine for men showed effective fertility control in baboons with no evident side effects. These immunological contraceptives offer advantages over other fertility control methods in terms of efficacy, reversibility, and safety and may be more acceptable in the African cultural setting.

  7. Development of vervet monkey and baboon models for testing AIDS drug and vaccines before clinical trials in humans.

  8. Recognition of IPR as a center of excellence for biomedical research using primates (monkeys) and specialized training (undergraduate, M.Sc., Ph.D., postdoctoral) and international scientific exchange.

  9. Development of effective strategies for conservation of endangered nonhuman primates (monkeys), including De Brazza monkeys, Tana River colobus monkey, and crested mangabey.

Twelve Old World monkey species are found in Kenya. IPR has facilities for maintaining 400 monkeys, which represent nine species.

In Kenya, there is an increasing demand on land for urbanization and agriculture/farming activities, mineral resources, and the establishment

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

of timber industries. These activities have increasingly reduced the areas available to wild primates. Thus, NHPs are commonly regarded as pests, and farmers often kill the baboons and vervets for crop-raiding. In addition, due to increased community need for forest resources and farming, land pressure on the remaining forest patches has led to the genuine concern for developing effective conservation strategies for the endangered primate species found in Kenya.

IPR, in collaboration with Kenya Wildlife Service and the relevant government departments, has coordinated efforts for conservation of the following endangered and threatened NHPs: De Brazza monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus), Angolan black and white colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis), eastern black and white colobus (Colobus guereza), Tana River red colobus (Procolobus badius), and Trana River crested mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus).

In Kenya, the threatened De Brazza monkeys are confined to the Kakamega Forests and the Trans Nzioa plain, which lies east of Mt. Elgon and west of the Cherangani Hills. The endangered Tana River red colobus and crested mangabey are both endemic to forest patches along the lower Tana River.

In recognition of the need to conserve these two primate species and their unique habitat, the Kenyan Government gazetted 171 km2 in 1976 and established the Tana River Primate Reserve (TRPNR). Ongoing conservation studies by IPR scientists in TRPNR are focused on (1) carrying out primate census and determination of distribution of primates, (2) evaluating changes in forest sizes in relation to populations of red colobus and crested mangabey, (3) assessing human and natural impacts in forests along the lower Tana River, and (4) developing management and conservation strategies for the endangered red colobus and their habitat along the lower Tana River.

Overall, the Kenyan government and IPR encourage primate conservation programs that encompass community participation, primate translocation, and conservation of biodiversity that is geared toward sustainable utilization of natural resources.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Supply and Use of Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: A South African Perspective

Jürgen Seier, PhD, MSc

GENERAL

There are six indigenous nonhuman primate (NHP) species in South Africa, of which two are used in biomedical research: the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and the vervet—or African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). This presentation concentrates on these two species.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

Baboons occur in most parts of South Africa and across the entire country, with the exception of the driest areas, and they can be found near major centers such as Cape Town. Vervet monkeys are much less widespread than baboons and are mainly confined to the eastern parts of South Africa, with pockets in a few other locations. Vervet monkeys also occur in and near major centers such as Durban. Both species occur in all neighboring countries including Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and Mozambique.

CONSERVATION

The general conservation status of chacma baboons and vervet monkeys is “low risk” (Rowe 1996), and neither species is considered threat

Primate Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

ened in South Africa, with the exception of certain local populations (e.g., Cape Peninsula baboons). Although both species are considered “common” in many areas where they occur, a lack of national census does not allow any firm conclusions. A proposal for a national census is currently being produced. Vervet monkeys and baboons are protected in conservation areas, but the protection and status outside these areas, particularly in view of agricultural problems, vary in different provinces.

The controlling bodies for wild and captive populations, importing and exporting (CITES), and even moving across provincial borders are the nature conservation departments. To provide some perspective, the populations in 1981 were estimated to be approximately 20,000 to 25,000 vervet monkeys and 3,600 baboons in all protected areas of Kwa Zulu Natal (Bourquin 1981), one of nine provinces in South Africa. However, apart from being dated, such figures are misleading since many NHPs live outside protected areas, and in some provinces, baboons occur in considerably larger numbers.

CONFLICTS AND THREATS

As in many other countries with wild populations, in South Africa, NHPs raid agricultural crops and may vandalize gardens and homes, where human development has encroached on their territory. Farmers destroy primates that become agricultural pests, and where the territory of NHPs is close to urban areas, a number fall victim to car accidents every year.

As an example, the baboons of the Cape Peninsula, which are an isolated population of about 350, are a major tourist attraction. The peninsula baboons frequently forage on the shore and supplement their diet with seafood. Residential and other human development has encroached on their territory to an extent that in certain areas, baboons have taken to raiding gardens and homes regularly. Presently the mortality rate outstrips the birth rate. In some scenic spots, visitors have been regularly feeding baboons, resulting in the baboons being habituated to people, who exacerbate the problem of large, wild primates near residential/ urban areas.

USE OF NONHUMAN PRIMATES IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH IN SOUTH AFRICA OVER THE LAST 3 YEARS

Although baboons are used mainly, both baboons and vervets are utilized in all research fields requiring primate models. Of the few primates used in biomedical research, approximately 210 baboons and 120 vervet monkeys have been utilized annually in 17 facilities nationwide. In

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

the last 21 years, there has been a 81% decline in the use of baboons and a 88% decline in the use of vervet monkeys.

SUPPLY OF NONHUMAN PRIMATES

Over the last 3 years, about 3% of baboons and 60% of vervets were captive bred, and the rest were caught from the wild. Presently only one facility systematically breeds African NHPs (vervet monkeys) for research. Local nature conservation authorities must issue permits for trapping NHPs, and proof of agricultural damage by such primates must be provided in some provinces. Only authorized trappers receive permits.

Research facilities maintaining NHPs are inspected annually by nature conservation authorities and must apply every year for holding permits, even in the case of captive-bred primates. In some provinces, nature conservation authorities require an ethically approved study protocol and proof of agricultural damage before permits for capture are issued. Over the last few years, there has been an increased reluctance by the nature conservation authorities to issue capture permits. However, due to the small number of primates used locally, there are usually no major supply problems from local sources.

Although there may have been sporadic transfers of small numbers, there is no provision to other countries and South Africa is not an exporter of NHPs. Moreover, it would be very difficult and costly, if not impossible, to move NHPs from South Africa since all airlines that operate transcontinentally from South Africa do not transport primates destined for biomedical research.

PRIMATE FACILITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA

Local facilities, which are designed for small numbers of wild-caught primates and not for breeding or long-term maintenance, concentrate on rodents. However, if funding became available, the potential of establishing breeding centers does exist, and there is generally an excellent research infrastructure and expertise.

There are no national or regional centers, and the largest South Africa facility maintains 250 to 300 vervet monkeys, with the capacity to produce 100/annum. This facility has the infrastructure for long-term maintenance and has been breeding vervet monkeys for about 25 years, which has progressed to the second and third generation.

Other facilities typically maintain between 20 and 60 NHPs, mainly baboons. There are no primate centers in neighboring countries and little, if any, use of primates in biomedical research.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

CONCLUSIONS

  • Vervet monkeys and chacma baboons occur in many parts of South Africa and across the entire Southern African region.

  • Like NHPs in other source countries, vervets and baboons face a variety of threats and are in conflict with some human activities in South Africa, but these factors are unlikely to endanger the entire population.

  • Some of these threats are highly localized (e.g., the Cape Peninsula baboons).

  • Although mostly wild-caught primates are used in biomedical research in South Africa, the numbers are small and the effect on wild populations is minimal if any.

  • Most research centers have no facilities for long-term maintenance and breeding of nonhuman primates, although the potential to establish such centers exists.

  • South Africa has not been exporting NHPs with the possible exception of some sporadic transfers of small numbers.

REFERENCES

Bourquin 1981. Wild primates and their availability for research purposes. In: de Klerk W.A., ed. The Role and Utilization of Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research in South Africa. SAALAS Workshop Proc 48-54.


Rowe N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. New York: Pogonia Press.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Sustainable Primate Resources Through SPF Breeding Programs in Indonesia

Joko Pamungkas, DVM, MS, and Dondin Sajuthi

In response to conservation concerns, both nationally and abroad, over the status of Indonesia’s naturally occurring primate populations, the Indonesia Department of Forestry enacted a regulation in 1994 that restricts the export of nonhuman primates to progeny from captive/man-aged breeding facilities. The Forestry Department also applied a law governing the quota of wild-caught primates that can be used as breeder replacements or for research to be conducted in country.

Along with these government policies, the Primate Research Center at Bogor Agricultural University, in Bogor, Indonesia, in collaborations with several national and international institutions (e.g., Washington National Primate Research Center) has established two breeding facilities in Indonesia. An island natural habitat breeding facility supporting an introduced population of simian retrovirus (SRV)-free Macaca fascicularis was initiated in 1987 on Tinjil Island located off the south coast of West Java, and an SRV-free M. nemestrina captive-breeding facility in Bogor was initiated in 1992. Progeny from these two breeding facilities have been utilized in biomedical research programs in Indonesia and worldwide.

Primate Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Use of Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research in India: Current Status and Future Prospects

A. J. Rao, PhD

India is known for its floral and faunal diversity. This diversity is best represented by the nonhuman primate (NHP) population found in the country. Of the more than 30 genera and 130 species of NHPs known throughout the world, as many as eight genera having 10 species and 38 subspecies are known from India alone (Parthasarathy 1995). Of these species, seven are exclusively Indian in their distribution: Ananthana ellioti, Tupaia nicobarica, Macaca assamensis, Macaca radiata, Macaca silenus, Semnopithecus johni, and Semnopithecus geei. An additional five species are restricted to the tropical, dry, and moist deciduous evergreen forests of peninsular India: a shrew-like prosimian, a slender loris, two macaques, and a langur. Indian monkeys belong to one family, Cercopithecidae, with two subfamilies, Cercopithecinae (the macaques) and Colobinae (the langurs).

None of the human-like great apes are found in India. The only tribe of apes inhabiting India is the gibbons, of which a single species, the hoolock, is found in the forests of Assam and Chittagong. The total population estimate of Hylobates hoolock is approximately 170,000 (Mackinnon and Mackinnon 1987). Macaca silenus (lion-tail macaque) is found in the evergreen forests of Western Ghats in India. This species is endangered

Primate Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

and its numbers are declining fast. The estimate is less than 2500 as of 2000 (World Conservation Union 2000). It is suggested that this species seems to be unable to adapt to human settlement.

Another endangered species in the Nilgiris (the Blue Mountains) is the langur, Semnopithecus johni, which is also found in the dense evergreen forests of Western Ghats in India. The golden langur, Semnopithecus geei, and the capped langur/leaf monkey, Semnopithecus pileatus, are found in the dense forests of Assam. It is reported that there are approximately 950 km2 of suitable habitation (decreased from about 1500 km2 in the early 1970s) available for the golden langur in India, with an estimated population of less than 2000 (Choudhury 2001).

The two species of loris monkeys found in India are the slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, and the slender loris, Loris tardigradis. The slow loris is found in the forests of Assam, and the slender loris is restricted to South India (Prater 1980). Despite the fact that several genera and species of NHPs are found in India, detailed studies on the numbers in the wild and some aspects of biology are available for only three macaques: Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), Macaca radiata (bonnet monkey), and Semnopithecus entellus (the common langur or hanuman monkey). Of these three, the bonnet monkey is restricted to the southern states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and the rhesus is found in North India and also in some parts of Andhra Pradesh, a southern state. However, the common langur is distributed all over India from the Himalayas to Cape Comarin. Of these three macaques, the most widely used species for biomedical research throughout the world and in India is the rhesus. Estimates of the numbers in the wild range from 300,000 to 500,000 (Malik 1999; Prater 1980), and they are distributed all over North India and some parts of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

Demographic studies suggest that rhesus monkeys in India are increasing (Imam and Yahya 2001; Sally Walker, Zoo’s Outreach Organization, personal communication, Chennai, India, 2002). The increase is obvious from the fact that in several cities in North India, they have become a menace, threatening children and the elderly and snatching food. They are known to damage crops and property (Imam and Yahya 2001), for which they are trapped, hunted, and even subjected to government-sponsored extermination campaigns. However, the main reason for these animals to invade urban, populated areas is the loss of their natural habitat owing to population explosion and subsequent spread of agriculture and teak, coffee, and tea plantations. As a consequence, there is severe competition for food, and these animals have invaded human settlements where they sense availability of food.

Orthodox Hindus consider monkeys as sacred animals to be revered and protected, and quite often they feed these animals near temples. How

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

ever, if this trend continues, their numbers will increase in the populated areas, and the subsequent decrease in their natural habitat will eventually result in a situation involving steps to reduce their numbers. All of this calls for a comprehensive management plan for these commensals. Another undesirable fallout of this urbanization problem is that these monkeys, due to close human contact, have become susceptible to diseases, parasitic infection, and so forth and are therefore unsuitable for research studies unless they have been certified to be free of diseases (Malik 1999). In view of this situation, there is an urgent need to restore their natural habitat, at least in certain densely populated areas.

The other macaque that is widely distributed in South India is the bonnet monkey, Macaca radiata. Although the rhesus monkey was the animal of choice for research, thanks to the efforts of Prof. Moudgal and his colleagues during the last 40 years, the bonnet monkey is now being used in several laboratories in India. Over the years, considerable information on the biology, hormonal profiles, and breeding husbandry of bonnets has become available (Rao and others 1998.). An official estimate of the bonnets in the wild was provided by Kurup and colleagues (RCSRUP 1981). In this study, the estimate of bonnets, rhesus, and langurs in South India was found to be 310,000 (bonnets: 170,000; rhesus: 50,000; langurs: 90,000). Although this estimate is almost 20 years old, regional demographic studies indicate that the number of bonnets is also on the increase. Estimates in 2002 are more than 100,000 for rhesus and approximately 200,000 for bonnets (Sally Walker, personal communication, 2002). A study of population parameters revealed that the bonnets are well adapted to commensal life around human settlements. They are better tolerated because they are less aggressive than rhesus.

As regards the hanuman langur, demographic parameters indicate a low reproductive profile (RCSRUP 1981). The population of langurs appears to be declining. The current estimates range around 29,000, which is roughly one third the 1981 estimate (Sally Walker, personal communication, 2002). One possible reason is that these monkeys are not highly adaptable and are generally shy and withdrawn, living away from human settlements. With loss of natural habitat, they must compete for the limited habitat and food, unlike rhesus and bonnets, which have adapted to life in human settlements.

Of the three species of monkeys that have been used for biomedical research in India, a large breeding colony of rhesus was maintained at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, in 1980, where animals were used for studies on reproductive biology and toxicology. Currently, however, no breeding is undertaken there. The other places where rhesus are maintained are at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi; Post Graduate Institute of

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Medical Education, Chandigarh; National Institute of Virology, Pune; and National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad. The animals are used mostly for reproductive biology studies, contraceptive testing, vaccine development, and immunology.

The total number of rhesus monkeys currently under experimentation in various laboratories in India does not exceed 300. Procurement is only from the wild, and no captive breeding is undertaken in any of the laboratories mentioned above. The only place langurs are maintained is in the Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan; and even there, the animals are used for establishing the normal reproductive parameters such as testosterone levels, sperm counts, menstrual cyclicity, hormonal profile, and some reproductive biology studies such as contraceptive testing. It is reported that it has not been possible to breed langurs in captivity, and the total number of animals maintained in laboratories does not exceed 50.

The largest colony of bonnets is at the Primate Research Laboratory at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. When financial support was maximal, more than 500 animals (both wild caught and colony born) were maintained there. However, the total number of animals maintained at present is only around 200, of which 50% have been colony born. Over the last 20 years, an average of 20 births per year has been recorded (Table 1). As in the case of other centers, the animals are mostly used for reproductive biology studies. The other laboratories where bonnets are maintained are the Institute for Research in Reproduction, Bombay, and the National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi. At both of these places, animals are merely maintained, and no captive breeding is undertaken. The total number of bonnets at these two places does not exceed 150.

Thus, the total number of monkeys used in various laboratories is approximately 700 (rhesus: ≈ 300; bonnets: ≈ 350; langurs: ≈ 50). In addition, a small number of animals (not exceeding 5-10) are maintained for behavioral studies. Relative to the availability of NHPs for biomedical research, the main problems are the restrictions imposed by the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals, the government body that supervises animal research. Demographic data and projected mortality rates for NHPs (particularly for rhesus and bonnets in the wild) indicate they can be trapped and used for research without endangering their survival.

It should be noted that demographic studies indicate replenishment of breeding population at a rate of 31% for bonnets and 36% for the rhesus monkeys in Southern India. In the case of rhesus, it is also reported that the net annual population turnover could be tentatively placed at 17%. On extrapolating this figure to bonnet monkeys, it is felt that a rate of one third the breeding population replenishment can be considered a safe

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

TABLE 1 Fertility Status of Female Bonnet Monkeys in the Controlled Breeding Program, Primate Research Laboratory, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

 

No. That Became Pregnant After Exposure to Male (%)

 

Year

No. Mated

1st

2nd

3rd

Total Pregnancy (%)

No. of Deliveries

1981-1982

17

10 (58.8)

4 (23.5)

82.3

14

1982-1983

45

27 (60.0)

7 (15.5)

3 (6.6)

82.1

37

1983-1984

28

18 (64.3)

4 (14.3)

1 (3.5)

82.1

23

1984-1985

35

20 (57.1)

8 (22.8)

1 (2.8)

82.7

29

1985-1986

27

16 (59.2)

5 (18.5)

81.4

21

1986-1987

52

31 (59.6)

9 (17.3)

2 (3.8)

80.7

42

1987-1988

47

27 (57.4)

8 (17.0)

3 (6.3)

88.8

38

1988-1989

38

23 (60.5)

4 (10.5)

3 (7.8)

78.9

30

1989-1990

30

18 (60.0)

6 (20.0)

80.0

24

1990-1991

28

17 (60.7)

6 (21.4)

82.1

23

1991-1992

45

27 (60.0)

5 (11.1)

4 (8.8)

79.9

36

1992-1993

17

11 (64.7)

3 (17.6)

82.3

14

1993-1994

28

18 (64.2)

4 (14.2)

1 (3.5)

81.9

23

1994-1995

35

20 (57.1)

8 (22.8)

1 (2.8)

82.7

29

1995-1996

07

03 (42.8)

2 (28.5)

71.4

05

1996-1997

12

05 (41.6)

2 (16.1)

2 (16.1)

74.9

09

1997-1998

05

02 (40.0)

1 (20.0)

60.0

03

1998-1999

08

04 (50.0)

2 (25.0)

75.0

06

1999-2000

20

12 (60.0)

3 (15.0)

2 (10.0)

85.0

17

2000-2001

17

08 (47.0)

3 (17.6)

2 (11.7)

76.4

13

2001-2002

06

03 (50.0)

1 (16.6)

66.6

04

 

440

NOTE: 440 births in 21 years = 20.95/year.

harvesting level, allowing for likely adult mortality. This replenishment would be 10% for bonnets and 12% for rhesus populations. In view of these rates, an annual quota of 5000 for bonnets and 2000 for rhesus in South India, and definitely a much higher number for rhesus in North India, can be considered safe for trapping from the wild. However, government restrictions do not permit captures from the wild, and legal regulations stipulate that NHPs procured from government-recognized breeding centers can be used only for biomedical research. Paradoxically, there are no recognized NHP breeding centers, which essentially means that no NHPs are legally available for research. In addition, even if such a center were started right away, it would be at least 5 to 10 years before an animal

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

would become available for research. Thus, although sufficient numbers are present in the wild, they are not made legally available for use and no animals are available from captive breeding. Finally, even if these restrictions are lifted, there is an urgent need for an organized procurement center for trapping NHPs in the wild, which ensures minimum mortality and safe transport without disturbing the ecological numbers in the wild.

Currently, transportation of monkeys takes place in a rather unscientific manner. There are no cages designed for transport with minimum inconvenience, in terms of freedom of movement. The animals are usually transported in lightweight cages made of iron or bamboo sticks in trucks during the night to avoid heat. Our own experience has been that of transporting monkeys in cages with metal rods, one animal per cage in trucks that reach their destination by overnight journey. During transport, animals are provided with pelleted feed and fruits in addition to cucumber, which serves as a source of water. However, lack of data on the pedigree, age, and disease burden of these wild-caught animals is a problem that must still be faced and solved. One point to be considered seriously is that even if the animals become available from the wild, it is desirable to have national primate centers as in the United States, where captive breeding can be undertaken. Such breeding would ensure that animals are of known pedigrees instead of the often unreliable wildcaught animals.

Considering the scenario described above, no NHP animals are currently exported to any country from India, although before 1977, a total of 500,000 NHPs (including rhesus [80%], bonnets [15%], and hanuman langurs [5%]) were exported from India (Report of Zoological Survey of India 2002). The controlling authority for export of NHPs is the Ministry of Commerce, which makes decisions in consultation with the CPCSEA and wildlife authorities. Under the circumstances, the only way for making the NHPs available for research is to permit their initial capture from the wild, both for research and for starting breeding centers at selected national primate centers. In time, the numbers caught from the wild can be reduced as sufficient numbers from the captive breeding become available. This strategy is essential due to the fact that with an increase in the number of NHPs in human settlements, they are also more prone to infections, thus enhancing the threat of transmission of potential diseases because of increased contact with humans. They are therefore not very suitable for biomedical research. It is pertinent to note that in one study screening of more than 2000 rhesus monkeys captured in Himalayan foot-hills, more than 40% tested positive for at least one potentially harmful disease (Malik 1999). These data are very alarming given the fact that the animals originally were forest dwelling, with limited contact with humans.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

In view of the situation described above, the possibility of monkeys in close contact with human settlements testing positive for several human diseases is quite high. One way to overcome this problem is to relocate these monkeys in batches, where forest cover is available, or in sanctuaries, where deforestation is prohibited. However, it has been suggested that these monkeys should be relocated only in complete or social groups (Malik 1999). Another way to overcome this problem is to increase their numbers by captive breeding. Earlier experience has revealed that both bonnets and rhesus can be very successfully bred in captivity, and attempts should be made to obtain more information on the husbandry of the hanuman monkey.

Available census data clearly indicate that both rhesus and bonnets procured from urban settlements can be used after appropriate quarantining and hence can be made available for biomedical research. If this approach is not implemented soon, there will be disastrous consequences. In this connection, it is pertinent to quote one of the famous conservation biologists in India, Iqbal Malik (1999):

In India, three primate species in particular are strongly commensals, namely the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), the hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) and, of course, the rhesus (Macaca mulatta). Despite the damage they are capable of causing, monkeys have benefited from India’s tradition of veneration for them. Nevertheless, in India, as elsewhere, the damage caused by them can put human endurance to the severest test. This will be particularly true in the years to come given that the country’s human population will double in a mere 35 years. Perhaps the species that will be most affected by increasing public disaffection will be the rhesus, since most of them live in sites located near or even within human settlements. Besides, the traditional veneration of monkeys could be lost forever. The rhesus could soon be regarded as intolerable and labeled vermin to be destroyed. It is also possible that public disaffection for rhesus could spread to some of the other primate species. In this worst-case scenario, public support for all conservation projects involving monkeys, commensal and non-commensal alike, could suffer (p 27-29).

In conclusion, effective management is a task that demands flexible planning by the national agencies/government bodies and much public support.

ACKNOWLEGMENTS

The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the following individuals: Miss S. Rama, (in preparation of this report); Prof. Mewa Singh, University of Mysore, Mysore; Prof. Mohnot, Primate Research

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Center, Jodhpur; and Dr. Sally Walker, Zoo’s Outreach Organization (for making available valuable information on the census of monkeys).

REFERENCES

Choudhury A. 2001. Golden langur, Trachypithecus geei, threatened by habitat fragmentation. Zoo’s Print J 17:699-703.


Imam E., and H.A.S. Yahya. 2001. Management of monkey problem in Aligarh Muslim University Campus, Uttar Pradesh. Zoo’s Print J 17:685-687.


Mackinnon J., and K. Mackinnon. 1987. Conservation status of the primates of the Indo-Chinese sub-region. Primate Cons 8:187-191.

Malik I. 1999. Life and nature: Monkey business. Down to Earth Mag 8:(7).


Parthasarathy M.D. 1995. In: Ecology and sociobiology of Indian primates. Bangadore: Dynaram Publications.

Prater S.H. 1980. Apes, monkeys, lemurs. In: Book of Indian Animals. Bombay: National History Society, Mumbai. pp 23-45.


Rao A.J., V. Ramesh, S.G. Ramachandra, H.N. Krishnamurthy, N. Ravindranath, and N.R. Moudgal. 1998. Growth and reproductive parameters of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Primates (Jpn) 39:97-107.

Report of Zoological Survey of India. 2002. Calcutta.

Report on the Census Surveys of Rural and Urban Populations of Nonhuman Primates of South India, 1981. Man and Biosphere Programme, Project No. 124. Zoological Survey of India, Western Ghat Regional Station. Calcutta.


The World Conservation Union, IUCN. 2000. (Web-site: <www.IUCN2000>).

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Initiative for Primate Resources, Biomedical Research, and Conservation in Nepal

Mukesh K. Chalise, PhD, MSc

The Natural History Society of Nepal (NAHSON) is a scientific and professional organization registered under the rules of the Nepali government and working for the conservation and management of biodiversity of Nepal. NAHSON has a number of different subgroups working in various fields of flora and fauna in Nepal. It also consists of a primate study group headed by the author and working for the conservation and management of wild populations of nonhuman primates in Nepal.

Beginning in 1997, NAHSON and the Washington National Primate Research Center at the University of Washington (WaNPRC) established a collaborative relationship through frequent discussions with and subsequent visits by Dr. Randall C. Kyes, Head of the Division of International Programs of the WaNPRC. This initial relationship developed into a formal collaborative program with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by both parties on July 2001. This Collaborative International Program in Primatology is expected to result in the establishment of the Nepal Primate Research Center (NPRC).

PRIMATOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN NEPAL

Among the more than 200 known nonhuman primate species worldwide, three species of monkeys are reported from Nepal. Rhesus mon

General Secretary, Natural History Society of Nepal, Head, Primate Program of Nepal— Natural History Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

keys (Macaca mulatta) are found freely ranging in the wild as well as in urban religious places. Langur monkeys (Semnopithecus entellus, formally Presbytis entellus) are found freely ranging in the forest and wild marginal areas. The ecological and social behavioral research on the langur monkeys of highland Nepal was conducted during the mid-1970s (Bishop 1979), and the langur monkeys of the subtropical Sal (Shorea robusta) forest were studied around 1990 (Chalise 1995). These two species are common and widely distributed from tropical (Terai) to subalpine (high mountains to 4000 m) regions of Nepal (Bishop 1979; Chalise 1995; Southwick and others 1982). The third primate species, the Assamese monkey (Macaca assamensis), is reported to range from the midhills to the high-mountain forests of Nepal (Chalise 1999, 2000; Jackson 1990). The data on major behavioral patterns and habitat description of Assamese monkeys of the Makalu-Barun area are available (Chalise 1997, 1998); however, ecological and behavioral details of this species are limited. Ecological and behavioral research of rhesus monkeys in Nepal began during the 1970s in Kathmandu Valley at religious spots (Southwick and others 1982). More recently, preliminary data on the population status of these three primate species of Nepal have been published (Chalise and Ghimire 1998).

MONKEYS AND MOUNTAIN PEOPLE IN NEPAL

The rhesus monkey, found widely in wild and urban areas, is considered a “common” species in Nepal. As a result of decreasing habitat and increasing human population, the rhesus has become a nuisance in the urban areas and is considered an agricultural pest in the mountain regions of Nepal (Chalise 2000, 2001a; Ghimire 2000-2001). Due to the heavy crop raiding habit of this species in the midhills and around the highland protected areas, local farmers have tried repeatedly to wipe out the rhesus populations in these locations (e.g., Mankha and Bhadaure VDC, LNP). For example, Upreti (1985) reported that wild animals in Langtang and Rara National Park raid buckwheat and barley. Jackson (1990) also recorded damage to crops by monkeys in the southern boundary of the Makalu-Barun area.

Crop loss from monkeys is a common occurrence and has a very acute impact on the food supply of the hill people. Several times, local people have attempted to launch mass killing programs to get rid of those “pest” species. The villagers of Mankha and Sindhupalchowk are thought to have killed approximately 500 monkeys in their forest areas in April 1998. They formed a monkey killing squad armed with local knives, clubs, and shotguns to chase monkeys from their surrounding forest. Their complaint was extensive crop losses due to an excessive monkey population.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Similarly, the people of Bhorle VDC (Bhadaure, Rasuwa in LNP 2000) organized a joint effort to chase the monkeys from their area in September 2000. They sought support from other VDCs such as Dhaibung, Laharepauwa, Tupche, Gerkhu, and Bidur Municipality in chasing the monkeys up to a protected forest of Kathmandu (Chalise 2001b).

In light of the increasing conflict between the humans and monkeys, especially rhesus, it is essential that efforts be made to ease this problem. The people of Nepal should be supported to protect their crop field while the wild monkeys should be managed in a sustainable way with the appropriate conservation of their habitat. The conflict between the human interests and primate activities can be managed through the conservation and sustainable use of primate resources of mountain areas. Such an outcome can be achieved in Nepal, as declared by the International Year of the Mountains 2002, through the collaborative primate program between NAHSON and the WaNPRC. The program, outlined below, will not only help to reduce the problems faced by the mountain people but will also allow us to utilize this “common” species, in a conservationally sound manner, to improve the welfare of human beings through biomedical research.

COLLABORATIVE INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM IN PRIMATOLOGY

As noted above, NAHSON and the WaNPRC completed a formal MOU in July 2001 to establish a long-term collaborative international program in primatology in Nepal that will lead to the development of the NPRC. The goals of the collaborative program are:

  1. To effect the sustainable development of Nepalese primate resources;

  2. To develop the capability of utilizing primates for increasing biomedical research pertinent to human health problems of Nepal;

  3. To establish a core group of experts in primatology in Nepal; and

  4. To ensure the conservation of naturally occurring primate populations and other biodiversity in Nepal.

The program goals are further outlined in the objectives described below.

Primate resources. To establish breeding facilities in Nepal to provide rhesus macaque progeny (M. mulatta) for use in biomedical research at the NPRC-NAHSON, the WaNPRC, and other collaborating Nepali

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

institutions (e.g., Nepal’s Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, [DNPWC] and Tribhuvan University [TU]).

Research. To facilitate an active program of collaborative research with faculty, students, and staff from the NAHSON, the WaNPRC, and other collaborating Nepalese institutions (e.g., TU and DNPWC).

Training. To provide educational and training opportunities in primatology for faculty, students, and staff from the NAHSON, the WaNPRC, and other collaborating Nepalese institutions (e.g., TU and DNPWC).

Conservation. To assist with efforts to manage and conserve naturally occurring primate populations and other biodiversity throughout Nepal.

The program will operate within specific parameters for administration, funding support, primate resources, research, training, and conservation. The principles of the operation are described below.

ADMINISTRATION

The NAHSON will serve as the central organization under which all program-related activities in Nepal will be based. The NAHSON is a nongovernmental organization established in the Kingdom of Nepal to promote the conservation of Nepal’s biodiversity. Matters such as administrative office space will be selected/provided by NAHSON in consultation with WaNPRC. The WaNPRC is a National Primate Research Center supported through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and located at and administered through the University of Washington. All program-related activities in Nepal (including administration and finance, breeding, research, education and training, and conservation) will be under the direction of Dr. Mukesh Kumar Chalise, Head of the Primatology Program in Nepal-NAHSON.

PRIMATE RESOURCES

A breeding colony of rhesus macaques (M. mulatta) will be established in Nepal at a site selected by the NAHSON in consultation with the WaNPRC and the DNPWC of His Majesty’s Government of Nepal. Support facilities including quarantine, veterinary facilities, and microbiology laboratory (virology, bacteriology, and parasitology) also will be established to support colony screening and clinical care. Progeny born in the colony will be available for biomedical research in Nepal and will be sent to the WaNPRC for advanced biomedical research as needed. The transport (both domestic and foreign) of animal tissue and/or live ani

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

mals as part of this collaborative program is subject to the prevailing rules and regulations of the respective governments. Treatment of the animals will be consistent with the principles expressed in the most recent Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 1996).

TRAINING

Educational and training opportunities in primatology will be made available to faculty, students, and staff from the NAHSON, the WaNPRC, and other collaborating Nepalese institutions as funds allow. Special emphasis will be given to funding support for Nepali students and researchers to participate in continuing education and scientist exchanges at the University of Washington. Field training programs and short courses also will be developed in Nepal to facilitate education and training in, for example, primate behavior and biology, population management and conservation, primate veterinary medicine, genomics, virology, and microbiology. Both the NAHSON and the WaNPRC will select all trainees and training activities with agreement.

FUNDING SUPPORT

Funding for the collaborative program may come from both private and government agency funds originating from either country. Funding secured by the WaNPRC, either private or governmental (e.g., from the NIH), will be administered and disbursed directly by the WaNPRC for use in the development and support of the Nepal breeding facility and associated research, training, and conservation activities as described below.

RESEARCH

The NAHSON, the WaNPRC, and other collaborating Nepali institutions will engage in collaborative research in areas such as infectious disease (e.g., AIDS and hepatitis C), genomics, behavioral biology and ecology, and conservation biology as funds allow. The collaborative research process should facilitate the development of the scientific infrastructure in Nepal (e.g., via research experience and equipment donation) and transfer of knowledge.

CONSERVATION

The NAHSON and the WaNPRC will conduct and support such activities as primate populations surveys, conservation and management

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

programs, outreach programs for local citizens, and conservation activities benefiting other biodiversity throughout Nepal as funds allow.

NEPALI GOVERNMENT APPROVAL

To proceed with this collaborative International Program in Primatology (and the establishment of the NPRC), NAHSON and WaNPRC submitted a formal program proposal to the Nepali government in December 2001 for approval to conduct the program-related activities outlined above. The Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation has reviewed the proposal, and formal government approval is expected shortly.

PROGRAM ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE

  • July 29, 2001—NAHSON and WaNPRC sign an MOU to establish a collaborative International Program in Primatology.

  • August 2001-January 2002—Dr. Mukesh Chalise travels to the WaNPRC as a Visiting Scientist and Fulbright Scholar.

  • December 3, 2001—Formal program proposal submitted to the Nepal Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation for government approval.

  • January-March 2002—Dr. Randall Kyes travels to the NAHSON (and Tribhuvan University) as a Visiting Scientist and Fulbright Scholar.

  • February 2002—Drs. Kyes and Chalise, in collaboration with staff from the DNPWC, conduct the first annual field training program (and wildlife survey) in Conservation Biology at Langtang National Park, Nepal. More than a dozen park rangers from around Nepal participate in the training program.

  • April 2002—NAHSON and the Nepal Field Study Program (at the University of Washington, UW) sign an MOU to establish educational field training opportunities for UW students in Nepal and exchange opportunities for Nepali students at UW.

REFERENCES

Bishop N. 1979. Himalayan langurs: Temperate colobines. J Hum Evol 8:251-281.


Chalise M.K. 1995. List of food plants used as food by Ramnagar langur. Natural History Society of Nepal, NAHSON Bull 3-4:26-28.

Chalise M.K. 1997. Survey of Primates in Makalu-Barun Conservation Area (lower part of Apsuwa, Isuwa and Sankhuwa river). A research report submitted to Makalu-Barun Conservation Area Project, Kathmandu, and aid by The Mountain Institute, USA.

Chalise M.K. 1998. Study of Macaca assamensis (Assamese Monkey) in Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. A research report submitted to Conservation International, USA.

Chalise M.K. 1999. Some behavioral and ecological aspects of Assamese monkeys (Macaca assamensis) in Makalu-Barun Area, Nepal. Nepal J Sci Technol, RONAST 1:85-90.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Chalise M.K. 2000. Report on the Assamese monkeys (Macaca assamensis) of Nepal. Asian Primates 7:7-11.

Chalise M.K. 2001a. Crop raiding by wildlife, specially primates and indigenous knowledge of food conservation. Asian Primates 7:4-9.

Chalise M.K. 2001b. Possibility of income generation by monkey species. Khulla Bazar Monthly Magazine 6:46-2058.

Chalise M.K. and M.K. Ghimire. 1998. Non-human primate census in different parts of Nepal. Natural History Society of Nepal, NAHSON Bull 8:11-15.

Ghimire S. 2000-2001. A glimpse of crop raiding by rhesus monkeys in Bandipokhara, Palpa, Nepal. Natural History Society of Nepal, NAHSON, Bull 10-11:12-13.


Jackson R. 1990. Threatened wildlife, crop and livestock depredation and grazing in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. MBCA Project, DNPWC, Report no. 12.


NRC [National Research Council]. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Southwick C.H., J. Teas, T. Richie, and H. Taylor. 1982. Ecology and behavior of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in Nepal. National Geographic Society, Research Rep 14:619-630.


Upreti B.N. 1985. The Park-People Interface in Nepal: Problems and New Directions. Report of International Workshop on Management of National Parks and Protected Areas of Hindukush Himalayas, Kathmandu, p. 19-24.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Chinese Primate Status and Primate Captive Breeding for Biomedical Research in China

Zhiyong Fan, MS,* and Yanling Song

Nineteen species of primates are distributed in China, including three families and six genera (Table 1). There are perhaps 21 species of Taiwan macaque (Macaca cyclopis, only distributed in Taiwan with 7000 individuals) and douc langur (Pygathrix nemaeus, only recorded in Hainan in 1892) are counted. Loris (Nycticebus spp.) and gibbons (Hylobates spp.) mainly range in Yunnan, with some in Guangxi and Hainan. Langurs (Presbytis spp. and Trachypithecus spp.) are mainly in Southwest China and Guangxi. Snub-nosed monkeys (Pygathrix spp.) are in Southwest China, with some in Gansu, Shaanxi, and Hubei. The species of macaques have wide distribution in China and range mostly south of Yellow River. The stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides) is in Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, and Fujian; the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Tibet; the pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) in Yunnan; the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is endemic to China and in Southwest and Middle China, southern parts of Gansu, and Shaanxi, Guangxi, Fujian, and Zhejiang; and the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) has the widest distribution in China and is mostly in the areas to the south of Yellow River but mainly in the southern part of China.

*  

The Endangered Species Importation & Exportation Management Office of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China

  

Zoological Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

All species of primates in China are protected by the Wildlife Protection Law of China and are listed in the China Red Data Book. Only three species of macaques (M. arctoides, M. thibetana, and M. mulatta) are the second class protected wildlife of national importance, and the rest are all first class, which are strictly forbidden for hunting and killing. Four species of macaques are vulnerable, and the rest are endangered according to the China Red Data Book. These species are also in the 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Table 1). Clearly, it is difficult to be optimistic about the status of Chinese primates. There are more than 10,000 individuals in these five species, and only limited numbers of stumptail macaque and rhesus macaque are allowed to be caught for commercial purposes in China. The main threats to primates are loss of habitat, habitat fragmentation, human-caused mortality, lack of knowledge about population numbers and status on which to base sound management decisions, and lack of management to limit mortality to sustainable levels and to conserve necessary habitat.

Almost all primate species in China inhabit forests or areas with forests (especially natural forests). China’s long exploitation history is mostly in forest areas, which were once suitable for agriculture but are now gone forever. The forests have decreased to 14%, with much damaged or young secondary growth. At least 70% of the primate habitats have been lost in the last 50 years with population growth, logging, reclamation, settlements, and so forth. Habitats have become fragmented and smaller, and some geographical populations have disappeared. Some primate species were once used for local traditional medicines (e.g., Presbytis francoisi), pelt animals (e.g., Pygathrix bieti), pests (e.g., M. thibetana), or as pets (M. mulatta). Such human-caused mortality has resulted in their endangered status in China.

China has paid great attention to wildlife protection in past 20 years, with the development of international biodiversity conservation. The key to wildlife conservation is to protect its habitat. To complement the Wildlife Protection Law, there are 1276 nature reserves covering a of total 123 million ha and occupying 12.44% of the total territory of China. One fourth of these reserves are related to primate conservation. Some of the 1050 forest parks occupy 9.8 million ha, and the primates’ habitats, which also play an important role in their protection. All of these natural areas protect a majority of endangered and rare wild fauna and flora species and their habitats, protecting 20 million ha natural forests, which occupy 14.6% of the total areas of forest. Since 2000, the Chinese government has banned any logging on natural forests in the National 10th Five-year Social and Economic Development Plant. The State Forestry Administration has implemented the National Natural Forest Protection Project and has begun the National Wildlife Conservation and Natural Reserves Construc

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

TABLE 1 Wild Primates in China

Common Name

Scientific Name

Distribution

Slow loris

Nycticebus coucang

West, Southwest, and South Yunnan, Southwest Guangxi

Intermediate slow loris

Nycticebus intermedium

South Yunnan

Lesser slow loris

Nycticebus pygmaeus

South Yunnan

Stumptail macaque

Macaca arctoides

Yunnan, South Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi, Guizhou, Guangxi, and Guangdong

Assamese macaque

Macaca assamensis

Southeast and South Tibet, South and Northwest Yunnan, South Guangxi

Rhesus macaque

Macaca mulatta

Most areas south of Yellow River

Pigtail macaque

Macaca nemestrina

Southwest and South Yunnan

Tibetan macaque

Macaca thibetana

Sichuan, Chongqing, and surrounding areas of Middle and South China

Hanuman langur

Presbytis entellus

South Tibet

Francois’s leaf monkey

Presbytis francoisi

Southwest and West Guangxi, Northeast and Southwest Guizhou, Southeast Yunnan

Phayre’s leaf monkey

Trachypithecus phayrei

South Yunnan

Capped leaf monkey

Trachypithecus pileatus

Northwest Yunnan

Black snub-nosed monkey

Pygathrix bieti

Northwest Yunnan, Southwest Tibet

Gray snub-nosed monkey

Pygathrix brelichi

Fanjing Mount. of Guizhou

Chinese snub-nosed

Pygathrix roxellana

South Sichuan, Gansu and monkey Shaanxi; West Hubei

Black gibbon

Hylobates concolor

South Yunnan, Southwest Guangxi, Hainan Island

Hoolock gibbon

Hylobates hoolock

West Yunnan

White-handed gibbon

Hylobates lar

South Yunnan

White-cheeked gibbon

Hylobates leucogenys

South Yunnan

aMa, S. and Y. Wang. 1988.

bWang, S., ed. 1998.

cE, endangered; V, vulnerable.

dEN, endangered; VU, vulnerable; LR/cd, lower risk/conservation dependent; LR/nt, lower risk/near threatened; DD, data deficient.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Estimated Number

Red Data Bookc

Protected Class

1980sa

1998sb

Chinac

IUCNd

China

CITES

1500-2000

 

E

 

I

II

 

500

E

 

I

II

300-500

rare

E

VU

I

II

70,000-90,000

70,000

V

VU

II

II

8000-10,000

8000

V

VU

I

II

260,000

200,000

V

LR/nt

II

II

900-1,000

900

E

VU

I

II

100,000 ?

10,000

V

LR/cd

II

II

?

1000

E

LR/nt

I

I

6400-7600

7000-8300

E

VU

I

II

11,000-17,000

11,500-17,000

E

DD

I

II

500-600

500-600

E

VU

I

I

800-1000

2000

E

EN

I

I

300-500

750

E

EN

I

I

10,000

25,000

E

VU

I

I

470-500

500

E

EN

I

I

250-400

200

E

DD

I

I

30-40

30

E

LR/nt

I

I

80-100

40

E

DD

I

I

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

tion Project, which includes 15 Rescuing Wildlife Programs (including primates and more than 100 endangered species), planning to establish 500 more new nature reserves and wetland conservation areas by 2010. Implementation of these projects should dramatically increase the ability to conserve wildlife resources and their habitats, and especially to maintain and even expand the populations of the most endangered wildlife. However, half of the primate species in China are critically endangered and have narrow ranges, and it will be difficult to restore and protect them.

There are five species of primates used in China for biomedical research. Two species, the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) are alien. The other three species, pigtail, stumptail, and rhesus macaques, are indigenous and had wild populations of 900, 70,000 and 200,000 individuals respectively, in the 1990s (Table 1). The common marmoset (≤95 individuals) is bred in captivity only at Tianjin Medical University and is used for biomedical research. The stumptail and pigtail macaques are not common as laboratorial animals and are currently used only for pharmaceutical tests on hair growth in China. These two species (total of 115 individuals) are raised only in Kunming Zoological Institutes and the Shared Animal Health & Technology (Beijing) Co. Ltd., where they are bred in captivity. The main threats to them are forest destruction and illegal hunting.

The main primate species used for biomedical research in China are the crab-eating and rhesus macaques. The former was introduced into China in the late 1980s, mainly from Vietnam (Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar) through border trading, and has been bred in captivity very successfully. China has now established several self-sustaining populations with more than 47,000 individuals. The rhesus macaque, the traditional species for biomedical research worldwide, also has been bred in captivity successfully since the 1950s. There are several self-sustained populations in China, with more than 20,000 individuals (Table 2).

The rhesus macaque is abundant in China in the wild and is estimated to total approximately 200,000 presently. It is reported that there are about 10,000 in Guangdong (including Hainan Island), 30,000 to 50,000 in Guangxi and Guizhou separately, 50,000 to 60,000 in Yunnan, and 30,000 to 40,000 in other provinces. Compared with the status in 1950s, its population has greatly declined, as much as 70 to 80%. The main threats are habitat loss and being hunted as pests (Liu 1998).

According to the authors’ investigation in 2002 (Table 2), the 23 primate captive breeding farms (PCBFs) for biomedical research in China are in (number in parentheses) Beijing (2), Shanghai (3), Yunnan (3), Guangxi (8), Guangdong (4), Jiangxi (1), Zhejiang (1), and Jiangsu (1), with 46,932 individuals of crab-eating and 19,888 rhesus macaques. The halves of

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

colonies are breeding groups. In 2001, 15,657 baby crab-eating macaques and 5312 baby rhesus macaques were born in captivity in 23 PCBFs, with birth ratios as high as 33.36 and 26.71%, respectively.

The rhesus macaque has been exported from China since 1984, and the crab-eating macaque since 1990. The main import countries are Japan, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States; and others include Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, South Africa, and Canada. China exported 6765 crab-eating macaques and 2363 rhesus macaques in 2001. Compared with 2000 and 1999, the export numbers increased 4.9 and 35.8% in crab-eating macaques, and 22.1 and 115.2% in rhesus macaques. In China, the export increase has brought about a great advance in PCBFs, which have successfully collaborated in management, exportation, and captive breeding. Eight PCBFs of Guangxi are managed as one group by the Guangxi Laboratorial Primate Research Center, with 4161 rhesus macaque individuals and 29,687 crab-eating macaques in captivity. The Shared Animal Health and Technology (Beijing) Co. Ltd., together with Kaiping Yuejing Rare Animal Farm in Guangdong and Ningbo Primate Farm in Zhejiang, owns 3494 rhesus macaques and 3978 crab-eating macaques. The Yunnan National Laboratorial Primate Center owns 3040 rhesus macaques and 7200 crab-eating macaques. Some of them not only breed primates for biomedical research and exportation but also establish laboratories for foreigners to come to China for primate biomedical research. These data indicate that China has great potential in the exportation of these two species. The data show export of 44.5 and 43.2% of rhesus macaques and crab-eating macaques individuals, with breeding populations as large as 10,871 and 23,704 individuals of the two species respectively, which have reproduced 5312 and 15,657 rhesus and crab-eating macaque babies in 2001, respectively.

Although crab-eating and rhesus macaques are available from PCBFs in China, it is difficult to apply for the permits for catching wild primates for biomedical research according to the Wildlife Protection Law. Some species, especially the first class protected species of primates, are never allowed to be caught from the wild. Permits to catch the second class protected species of primates from the wild must be issued by wildlife management authorities in the province, who often refuse because they are endangered in the provinces. In addition, because the price of monkeys from PCBFs is quite high for many Chinese researchers, some research institutes breed primates themselves to support their biomedical research.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

TABLE 2 The Captive Breeding and the Exportation of Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) and Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) for Biomedical Research in China in 2001a

Province and Captive Breeding Farm

Totalb

Total in China

19888/46932

Beijing

4463/2754

Shared Animal Health & Technology (Beijing) Co. Ltd.

2619/2418

Laboratorial Animal Center of Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences

1844/520

Shanghai

690/48

Shanghai Physiological Institute of Chinese Academy of Science

520/0

Shanghai Jinshan District Agricultural Sideline Company

170/0

Shanghai National Research Center for Safety Evaluation on New Medicines

0/48

Yunnan Province

4809/7346

Yunnan National Laboratorial Primate Center

3040/7200

Kunming Zoological Institute of Chinese Academy of Science

751/123

Primate Center of Biomedical Institute of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

1018/23

Guangxi Province

4161/29687

Guangxi Laboratorial Primate Research Center

492/2978

Pingnan Xiongsen Laboratorial Primate Breeding and Development Co. Ltd.

2860/8129

Yulin Hongfeng Laboratorial Animal Breeding Farm

0/3018

Fangchengang Primate Center

386/4538

Guangxi Yinglin Monkey Farm

0/5363

Beihai Monkey Farm

0/3692

Hezhou Wildlife Rescuing Center

423/ 1560

Longzhou Monkey Farm

0/409

Guangdong Province

2774/7097

Gunagzhou Tianhu Endangered Animal Institute

843/1531

South China Endangered Animal Institute

692/2056

Guangdong Shunde Labaratorial Animal Institute

1180/1950

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Breeding Group

Individuals Weighing 2-5 kg

 

Export Number (Year)

Male

Female

Annual Birthb

2001

2000

1999

2139/3794

8732/ 19910

7529/14948

5312/15657

2363/6765

1935/6451

1098/4980

273/165

1619/1003

1614/1050

1131/849

354/6

516/0

290/20

138/135

969/913

780/725

721/774

226/0

240/0

146/20

135/30

650/90

834/325

410/75

128/6

276/0

144/0

195/24

195/24

300/0

70/0

10/0

14/0

0/0

145/0

145/0

230/0

56/0

10/0

10/0

0/0

50/0

50/0

70/0

14/0

0/0

4/0

0/0

0/24

0/24

0/0

0/0

0/0

0/0

0/0

356/628

1828/2856

2390/3195

1121/2130

600/1872

760/2100

500/1750

211/607

1270/2809

1235/3140

750/2100

600/1872

760/2100

500/1750

68/12

257/43

287/35

168/26

0/0

0/0

0/0

77/9

301/4

868/20

203/4

0/0

0/0

0/0

313/1837

1876/12106

1157/8380

1208/10260

946/3530

248/3554

0/2352

43/129

250/863

67/1254

170/759

157/460

100/596

0/442

200/550

1213/3364

926/2107

764/2926

694/1100

148/1246

0/950

0/272

0/1620

0/423

0/1425

0/450

0/292

0/842

25/309

140/1613

137/1509

91/1322

65/200

0/192

0/0

0/330

0/2668

0/919

0/2301

0/900

0/850

0/0

0/130

0/1373

0/1268

0/1043

0/240

0/378

0/118

45/ 57

273/ 345

27/887

183/ 289

30/ 130

0/0

0/0

0/60

0/260

0/13

0/195

0/50

0/0

0/0

557/1140

1861/3921

1026/2323

930/2418

393/1357

397/797

308/858

120/200

723/1331

500/800

396/783

251/496

137/236

62/168

30/81

308/780

218/596

224/650

136/692

160/440

150/450

400/750

780/1200

250/400

280/500

6/169

100/121

96/240

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Province and Captive Breeding Farm

Totalb

Guangdong Kaiping Yuejing Rare Animal Farm

59/1560

Jiangxi Province

710/0

Rhesus Farm of Guanshan National Nature Reserves

710/0

Jiangsu Province

1465/0

Xishan Zhongke Laboratorial Animal Co. Ltd. of Suzhou

1465/0

Zhejiang Province

816/0

Ningbo Primate Breeding Farm

816/0

aDeadline for data collection was December 22, 2001.

bThe babies lower than 1000 g in weight and younger than 6 months old were not counted.

REFERENCES

Liu Z. 1998. Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), In China Red Data of Endangered Animals: Mammalia, Wang S., ed. Beijing, China: Science Press. p. 42-44.


Ma S. and Y. Wang. 1988. The recent distribution, status and conservation of primates in China. Acta Theriologica Sinica 8:250-260.


Wang S., ed. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Mammalia. Beijing, China: Science Press. p. 25-86.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Breeding Group

Individuals Weighing 2-5 kg

 

Export Number (Year)

Male

Female

Annual Birthb

2001

2000

1999

7/109

50/610

58/725

30/485

0/0

0/0

0/0

310/0

400/0

216/0

102/0

0/0

0/0

0/0

310/0

400/0

216/0

102/0

0/0

0/0

0/0

100/0

700/0

480/0

550/0

60/0

0/0

0/0

100/0

700/0

480/0

550/0

60/0

0/0

0/0

35/0

253/0

346/0

200/0

0/0

0/0

0/0

35/0

253/0

346/0

200/0

0/0

0/0

0/0

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

The Breeding of Naturally Occurring B Virus-free Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) on the Island of Mauritius

Mary Ann Stanley, BSc

Mauritius, a tiny island nation in the Indian Ocean, has long been known to international conservation bodies for its extinct and threatened native fauna and flora. In addition to the human, one of the great culprits of this destruction has been the cynomolgus monkey. Portuguese and Dutch sailors introduced cynos to Mauritius from Java around the early 17th century. They proliferated quickly because they had no natural predators apart from humans, and the wild population is now estimated to be between 40,000 and 60,000. Native forests in Mauritius have been greatly affected by the activities of the cynos. They predate seeds of native plants while propagating seeds of exotic weeds that, by growing much faster, slowly choke out the native forest. They are officially recognized by conservation bodies to have contributed to the near extinction of the Mauritian green parrot and pink pigeon due to direct nest predation. Sugarcane growers and fruit and vegetable planters have always treated the Mauritian cyno as a pest because hundreds of hectares of cultivation are lost yearly to this very destructive animal. Sugarcane plantation owners employed people specifically to patrol the perimeter of their estates that border wooded areas, to try and keep monkeys out.

In 1985, Bioculture Mauritius Ltd. (BCM) was established with the aim of using this feral cynomolgus resource to produce naturally occurring B virus-free feral as well as quality captive bred monkeys for export for biomedical research purposes. Virus-free Mauritian monkeys are believed

Bioculture (Mauritius) Ltd.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

to have originated from the ones introduced by the sailors as pets. They would have been collected as babies for ease of handling and taming and hence would have been free of sexually transmitted viruses. In addition, the long and difficult boat trip from Java at that time would have acted as a further screen because sick animals would have died en route.

Having established the value of Mauritian cynos, BCM set up breeding groups using feral animals that were removed from areas where they were causing major damage. With trapping areas a maximum of 1 hour’s drive from the farm, the animals caught in manually operated traps reached the site the same day with minimal stress. However, to manage trapping areas better, BCM subsequently set up Joint Ventures with Land Holders. BCM is an ISO certified company that, together with its Joint Ventures, has a workforce of more than 200 people including the following five categories: eight veterinary staff, 16 animal technicians, 25 animal handlers, 70 animal caretakers, and six technical staff. The regulatory bodies in Mauritius that control this industry are the

  • Ministry of Agriculture;

  • Government Veterinary Services;

  • National Parks and Conservation Unit (CITES); and

  • Ministry of Industry.

Breeding females are held in groups containing 40 to 45 females with two to three males. Environmental enrichment is accorded a very high priority, and BCM employs a full-time ethnologist to act as its Animal Welfare Officer. Through the officer’s observations, standard operating procedures are established so as to minimize stress and maximize welfare at all levels of production.

Weaned captive-bred animals are kept at a separate site where they are housed in the same peer group as in the breeding cages. This arrangement has contributed significantly to minimizing postweaning stress. All sites are capped at a maximum number of heads for ease of management, and new sites are constructed.

Feral monkeys coming from the wild are of course housed on separate quarantine sites again where they stay for a minimum of 3 months

TABLE 1 Breeding and Export Statistics

Total number of breeders

~5000

Captive bred production year 2001

3572

Number of feral animals exported yearly (all to the US)

2000

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

before being transferred to BCM’s quarantine site for export or for further testing before being placed in breeding colonies.

BCM’s company policy is to grow at a rate of between 5 and 10% yearly, with a percentage of this growth in F2 production. Mauritius, with its introduced population of cynos, is a special case regarding removal of wild-caught monkeys for breeding. Both conservationist and government authorities want this status to continue. BCM’s commitment to increase F2 production is linked solely to UK Home Office requirements.

As we face an increasing transport problem in this industry, BCM has amassed much experience together with our distributor Charles River in organizing charters. To date, we have sent six dedicated charters of monkeys from Mauritius to Houston.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Primates for 21st Century Biomedicine: The St. Kitts Vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops, SK)

Frank Ervin, MD, and Roberta Palmour

The emergent need for primate studies in all areas of biomedical development exceeds the current demand. The frequency with which therapeutic innovation progresses from mouse to human without primate testing sends chills to those of us old enough to remember the thalidomide catastrophe. A new generation of vaccines directed at “self” epitopes for the treatment of cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and so forth—but not tested in primates—provides a recipe for trouble. This exciting area of biotechnology is only one of many where adequate primate studies will soon be mandated by common sense, if not by government regulation. Let me list a few:

  1. Drug effects on children;

  2. Drug and biological effects on fetus;

  3. Phase Zero efficacy testing in primates before proceeding to human trials, ideally in appropriate disease models; and

  4. Rapid assessment of safety and immunogenicity of new vaccines.

That there is not the expected demand for such studies reflects several factors: Primate studies are perceived as being very expensive, and this is

Behavioral Sciences Foundation, St. Kitts, and McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

true for many sites. The very high costs quoted are the product of several factors, in addition to greed. These factors include:

  1. The wasteful use of many primates for terminal toxicological studies with no attempt to minimize numbers via rational pharmacogenomics;

  2. The use of Asian macaques with enzootic herpes virus B, which demands safety garb for personnel and insurance premiums that artificially inflate costs;

  3. The failure to select species appropriate to the question at hand or, within species, to select individuals with optimum sensitivity to the experimental intervention; and

  4. The failure to follow the dicta of the 1960s Primate Centers Program and the subsequent recommendations for the development of adequate laboratories in countries of origin so that supplies could match needs more precisely.

Looking at contemporary biomedicine, both academic and industrial, there would seem to be needs for the following kinds of primate subjects:

  1. Those with spontaneous models of a human disorder (e.g., M. arctoides’ patchy alopecia, to provide the hair growth industry with a fortuitous model). Colon cancer occurs in the cottontop marmoset and human, and rarely in other primates. Hypertension occurs in C. aethiops and lagothrix and rarely in other nonhuman primates. Atherosclerosis, rare in C. aethiops, is common in Papio.

  2. Those with inducible disease models (e.g., squirrels are very sensitive to vitamin C deprivation; M. nemestrina is more responsive to laboratory SIV infection than other primates tested; and hepatitis B sensitivity apparently remains restricted to the human and the chimpanzee).

  3. Those with some particular phenotypic advantage. Baboons are large enough for a variety of surgical interventions. They also have an immune response profile close to that of the human with respect to porcine xenotransplantation. They are therefore much preferred over the Asian macaques. C. aethiops, of course, is similar in this regard. Again, for studies on reproductive technology, the straight cervix of C. aethiops is much easier to work with than the tortuous cervix of most macaque species.

  4. Animals that can be handled and/or manipulated safely (e.g., for cognitive or behavioral testing). Those with enzootic virus B are awkward for such uses. The otherwise aberrant New World marmosets and squirrels may be excellent, due to their small size and temperamental malleability.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
  1. Primates that need no qualification other than to be as close to the human as possible in regard to immune mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, physiology, and so forth. For such use as nonspecific primates, examples of the criteria should be size, convenience, safety, price, and status of endangerment. The existence of relevant normative databases is also desirable.

These diverse needs are typically met by a single species the institution or investigator has chosen based usually on history, habit, chance availability, or housing space available, rather than on any of the rational criteria outlined above. The majority of animals used are the following: Asian macaques—mulatta, fascicularis, and nemestrina; African C. aethiops and Papio and New World Saimiri and Saguinus. I personally have worked with Saimiri, Saguinus, Cebus, Ateles, M. mulatta, M. arctoides, Papio, Pan, Chlorocebus (Cercopithecus), and Homo. My own favorite primate is M. arctoides, but for the past 33 years I have concentrated on C. aethiops, SK, which has several features that commend its use as a complement to the more extensively used macaca in biomedical research.

The Caribbean islands of St. Kitts and Nevis are, in effect, closed breeding colonies that house approximately 40,000 to 50,000 C. aethiops sabaeus in a tropical ecology with no natural predators. It is 300 generations beyond a founding stock of approximately 1000 West African immigrants. Biochemical and molecular analyses document the genetic diversity of the population. Census data suggest that at least 5000 individuals can be harvested per annum without affecting population viability or diversity in any manner. In addition, we maintain a breeding colony of about 1000 animals, primarily for our own scientific work and that of collaborators; but this number also provides a base for developing cross-species comparative data (e.g., on pharmacokinetics and reproductive endocrinology). In addition, our breeding program can selectively target the expansion of rare naturally occurring phenotypes and the development of disease-appropriate experimental phenotypes. With 30 years of experience in establishing practical husbandry and breeding programs for 1000 to 1500 animals in addition to an ongoing research and training program with emphasis on developmental biology, the establishment of normative databases, and quantitative measures of behavior change, we can complement the abundant supply of animals with professional screening selection and advice as to handling.

The St. Kitts vervet was removed from West Africa before 1700 by early French settlers to the New World. It thus escaped the major pathogens that infested contemporary African populations. In the Indies, it evolved in a predator-free environment to become the leading agricultural predator and threat to economic self-sufficiency.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

This specific pathogen-free, nonendangered, readily available Old World primate has numerous immediately attractive features. It is:

  1. B virus free. This macaque enzootic pathogen is instantly fatal to the vervet as it is to the human. It has been suggested that keeping a vervet in a laboratory colony of rhesus would serve as a “canary” to detect an outbreak of immunosuppression.

  2. Nonendangered. Nowhere in its range is it endangered. It is the weed monkey of Africa, flourishing in most econiches. In the Caribbean, it is a significant crop predator and general pest.

  3. Relatively small and temperamentally tractable, unlike rhesus (e.g., adult male maximum weight = 7 kg).

  4. Also free of other pathogens. For example, there is no evidence of filovirus, SIV, or STLV, nor evidence of yellow fever, malaria, tuberculosis, yaws, or schistosomiasis.

  5. Evolutionarily closer to the human, as is the baboon, than the Asian macaques. As a consequence, examples of methods in which most human reagents can be used in C. aethiops are PCR, SNP analysis, receptor binding, and cytokine measurement.

  6. Four hours’ flight from the United States and 6 hours’ flight from Europe.

  7. A candidate for on-site facilities for scientific preparation, quarantine, sampling, pretreatment, and so forth.

  8. Highly cost effective.

  9. A candidate for several spontaneous models of human disorder that have been identified to date and several others that have been readily induced (Table 1).

  10. Relatively easy to breed in captivity, providing opportunities for genetic control, production of mother-fetus pairs for behavioral teratology, and infants for developmental studies and testing (Table 2).

TABLE 1 Models of Human Conditiona

Spontaneous

Induced

• Hypertension

• Parkinson’s disease

• Metabolic syndrome (X)

• Multi-infarct dementia

• Polycystic ovarian disease

• Allotransplant GvH syndrome

• Alcohol abuse and fetal alcohol syndrome

• Xenotransplant GvH

• Anxiety disorders including panic disorder

• Estrogen-induced uterine CA

• Mother-fetus dyads (e.g., for vaccine teratology)

 

aSee also Palmour et al. 1997. Am J Hum Genet 61:481-488.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

TABLE 2 Reproductive Characteristics

Sexual maturity: female, age 3; male, age 5-6

Menses:

28-day cycles during breeding season (October-March) in natural habitat. Anestrus cycles March-October, if not pregnant. Male testis in apparent regression during this period

Pregnancy: 6 months. Weaning by age 6 months. Twins about 1:88 (like humans) Female fertility throughout life cycle but irregular pregnancy after age 20 Male fertility throughout life cycle

The Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis is an independent nation and a member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the British Commonwealth, and other regional and international bodies. It is signatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) agreement and other relevant international agreements pursuant to such concerns as animal health and transportation. The indigenous primate population is designated a national resource, and the export is controlled by the Ministry of Agriculture.

The Behavioral Sciences Foundation is a not-for-profit research foundation, incorporated in Delaware and also established under the laws of St. Kitts and Nevis in 1968. It maintains laboratory and breeding facilities at the Estridge Estate on St. Kitts and has an affiliated institutional review board established under the principles of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Other information about the St. Kitts vervet is available at our academic website at http://www.crcmgh.com/carib or by mail. Please contact fervin@caribsurf.com for further information.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

Session 1:
Panel Discussion

Participants:

Christian R. Abee—Session Chair, University of South Alabama, USA

Mario J. Baudoin—Ministry of Sustainable Development and Planning, Bolivia

Mukesh Kumar Chalise—Natural History Society of Nepal, Nepal

Frank Ervin—McGill University, Canada

Jason M. Mwenda—Institute of Primate Research, Kenya

A. Jagannaha Rao—Indian Institute of Science, India

Jurgen Seier—Medical Research Council, South Africa

Mary Ann Stanley—Bioculture Mauritius Ltd., Mauritius

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DR. ABEE (Christian R. Abee, University of South Alabama): Do you see a problem between conservation and providing animals for biomedical research? Is biomedical research likely to have an impact on indigenous populations worldwide?

DR. SEIER (Jurgen Seier, Medical Research Council): It is not a problem from a South African perspective, in terms of baboons and the vervet monkeys. I think the numbers are very stable and common in many areas. There are many more animals destroyed as agricultural pests.

DR. ABEE: Do you believe that each of your countries is sensitive to the issue of conservation with respect to primates?

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

DR. ERVIN (Frank Ervin, McGill University): Yes. We have, for example, set up sanctuaries, which are tourist attractions. Tourists love to look at monkeys; they are cute. We put the monkeys where the tourists are and took them away from where the agriculture is. We have made the monkey a stamp feature so there is a series of stamps on the St. Kitts vervet. There is a general array of procedures. We give lectures in the school system so there are ways of making this an important part of the culture. At the same time, it is one that has to be brought under control. On our island, they are like rats in Harlem. They really are not cute.

DR. BAUDOIN (Mario Baudoin, Ministry of Sustainable Development and Planning): There is also a positive relationship between use and conservation that is very often forgotten. If you can give value to an ecosystem by using some of its components, you contribute not only to the conservation of those components but also to those things that will never have economic value. One major difference is between the existences of a wild population versus the use of captive breeding, which I do not think are complementary. They are not mutually exclusive.

DR. VANDEBERG (John VandeBerg, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research): First, I would like to congratulate the panel on a superb job. You answered all of the questions that we asked you to answer, and I really appreciate the care that you invested in developing your presentations, which were all very clear and very concise.

Second, I want to ask the representatives of the countries that have banned the export of primates about the rationale of their governments. That is, clearly there is a need for monkeys from some of these countries today—the baboons and vervets—and there may well be the need for the introduction of more monkeys from Africa in the future. We have heard about the animals being poisoned and shot as pests, so I would like to understand why the governments are against the exportation of these animals for research.

DR. ABEE: Could I suggest that Dr. Rao speak first?

DR. RAO (A. Jagannadha Rao, India Institute of Science): I think one of the major problems is that all active export will probably not be restricted, which will contribute to their decline. In India, this situation started because there was no distinction in terms of animals being pests, being poisoned, or being killed. Actually, in fact, as I quoted in one of the presentations, there are now more of them than before. Still, they are very much revered and they are not harmed. Their export in large numbers caused their number to decline, caused the rhesus to be considered only in terms of conservation, and caused the export to be banned. Actually, the current numbers are quite large and they can be used differently, with very judicious use. However, now we have more regulatory problems rather than conservation problems.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

DR. MWENDA (Jason Mwenda, Institute of Primate Research, Kenya): To clarify, the Kenyan government banned the export of primates for reasons relating to the humane handling of the animals. Commercial handlers had been selling the primates under the lead of the experienced. There was an outcry of animal rights because the commercial exporters of primates were not handling the animals humanely. The second reason was to encourage research to be conducted in the country. The government believed that having research done in Kenya rather than exporting the primates would contribute more to technology transfer.

DR. BAUDOIN: I was involved with drafting the 1987 disposition that banned wildlife trade. The situation was totally different from what it is now. There was very, very heavy trading in cats, for example. We had never had very strong national law enforcement because it is a huge country; however, the situation has changed now. The ban authorizes use on a species-by-species basis if enough information exists to warrant a decision. It is possible to develop the studies and study densities and then to propose the use.

I think the problem now has moved to a different arena. The animal rights discussion has biologists scared to approve those studies that would say, “yes, go ahead and use.” So it has become a little more difficult, but I think it could be done.

DR. MCGREAL (Shirley McGreal, International Primate Protection League): I have a question for Dr. Rao and Dr. Chalise. As you know, India banned export of monkeys because of concern over the end use in military experimentation, such as radiation and bio-warfare, which is increasing in our country now but was against the Hindu tradition. Do you believe now, Dr. Chalise, that the Hindu tradition is not strong in Nepal and that Nepal would tolerate exports? My question for Dr. Rao is whether India still maintains a concern about end use in military experimentation on monkeys?

DR. CHALISE (Mukesh Kumar Chalise, Natural History Society of Nepal): Our concern is in the biomedical research, which the Natural Society has proposed and for which we are in the process of requesting approval. The proposal consists of four major points. Biomedical research is one of the components, which includes the conservation research and training program. We are specifically writing proposals that will not disturb the wild population, and we will use some of the animals to produce the offspring—only the offspring that we are utilizing. We have also assured the government that we will return the animals to the wild population. In addition, we will collect those required individuals only from the problematic areas.

As far as the Hindu concern, it depends on the committee. Nepalese comprise mostly Hindus; however, there are so many different groups

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

(we say “class systems”), and only very traditional Hindus believe such matters are religious. I think that if we are honest in our writing and our actions, there will be no problem with the people’s religious belief.

Furthermore, it will help the Nepalese people and export to develop conservation. I am hoping to collect monkeys from the problematic areas and put them in the hands of the Nepalese government school of the conservation. Currently, there is a conflict of ideas between the government, conservation enthusiasts, and the ideas and interests of the people regarding the perfect areas. People sometimes ask whether the government has a greater need for its wild animals or its people? We must think about the conservation issues because people become angry at the idea of conserving the monkey. It is very different from India.

DR. SEIER: I would like to comment on the question regarding transportation and government policies. In the case of South Africa, it was not at all a government policy. It was also not an animal welfare consideration. South African Airways is a government organization in a sense, but they do make their own business decisions. Essentially, they are autonomous from the government in business. Their most lucrative routes are to Europe, where they do not wish to be targeted by animal rights people, and political people, by transferring primates. I do know and have copies of communication from UK animal rights people to South African Airways in which they were asked to state whether they are in principle willing to or currently transporting primates for biomedical research. I believe those groups write to every airline. That is the main reason they are not going to sacrifice their most lucrative business by taking a stand on transporting primates for biomedical research. We are talking not about trading but about even transfers of small numbers to other research organizations that need vervet monkeys. We have addressed this issue occasionally from Europe and the United States, that they are needed because they are free of SIV and other pathogens. This reason, not so much a government decision, formed the basis.

DR. RAO: As for the question about the animal activists, if you can strike a dialogue with them, I do not think India will see a problem with the society in terms of using animals for biomedical research. Some of you might have seen recent newspaper accounts that the rhesus is very afraid of the langur. There is a need to see that the animals are removed from these areas and are repopulated elsewhere so they are not a menace. The major problem is to convince these agencies that they can relocate there and will be judiciously used.

Unfortunately, under our current situation, no dialogue is possible. Otherwise, it would be possible to use enough rhesus for biomedical research or to allow other agencies from other countries to obtain them for use in separate established laboratories so that eventually the restric

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

tion could be lifted and they could be exported. I would like you to be aware that we are attempting to handle this major problem in our available animals.

DR. ABEE: I was struck by Dr. Baudoin’s comment about creating a sense of value among the indigenous people. It seems to me that it is difficult to communicate the concept of conservation to people who are living day to day, trying to find enough food to survive. I believe this concept of creating value for the forest to conserve the fauna and flora is very important. I wonder if you have anything further you would like to say about that?

DR. BAUDOIN: I think the problem is very simple. If you have a person in front of a tree, he must make a decision without considering 100% of the biodiversity in the forest. However, it is certainly much better than total replacement of the ecosystem by a much simpler system. Unless we can give value (in the sense of economic value) to some of the components of the forest, the person does not have much of a choice.

PARTICIPANT: I understand there was a great amount of concern over the high price of certain kinds of tropical butterflies and that the Japanese and the Germans, in particular, who were collecting these butterflies, were suspected of depleting the national population of these butterflies. Some studies that were done to look at this found that the net effect of all this butterfly collection was actually extremely positive. It reduced the rate of deforestation. If you think about it, 9 months of hard agricultural/burn labor or a couple of weeks in the forest with a butterfly net yields the same net income for the people actually doing the catching. Obviously, insects reproduce much faster than monkeys; however, there was no detectable negative impact except in a couple of very localized areas on the populations of these animals. So I think that one way of approaching this concept of sustainable extract is that in fact, you are preserving the ecosystem by enhancing the value that exists to the people that live there.

MR. BAULU (Jean Baulu, Barbados Primate Research Center and Wildlife Reserve): I would like to comment on the problems Dr. Seier described with airline transportation and so forth. We in Barbados produce at least 800 monkeys a year on average and 80% of the world’s polio vaccine through the monkeys’ kidneys that we send or the monkeys themselves. We had a problem with Air Canada, which just decided arbitrarily to ban the shipping of monkeys. We took them to court and after 3 years, we won. So when you really care about what you are doing and you have a good reason, you take them to court—it is as simple as that. I know that everybody here has problems with airlines. I believe we need to form a coalition of some kind and bring them one by one to court—because we will win.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

DR. ROSENTHAL (Josh Rosenthal, NIH Fogarty Center): We have been working for several years to develop systems of sustainable use of biodiversity, in our case, plants and microorganisms for pharmaceuticals development and benefit sharing schemes to provide incentives for conservation. With success in some areas and less success in others, part of the key to those kinds of schemes is having mechanisms that relate relatively near term income to the people who are truly likely to be users of the resources. This task would be quite complicated, particularly with not very highly structured societies in a difficult regulatory environment; yet it is basically a good idea. One critical point that comes to my mind is that the situation with monkeys as an important pest in agricultural environments relates to a key information need. Very good documentation of those effects and an effort to get that message out to the public in a regular way would be one way of combating the very canalized interests of animal rights groups who then work against the airlines and other kinds of interests to promote use.

MR. GRIFFITHS (Owen L. Griffiths, Bioculture Ltd.): I would like to add something to this theme about biodiversity, primates, and conservation and to clarify Dr. Stanley’s allusion. In Mauritius, for every monkey that is exported, the government of Mauritius collects $50 US. As you can see from Dr. Stanley’s figures, about 5000 monkeys are exported by our group of companies, totaling a quarter of a million US dollars every year and going straight to the national parks conservation fund that runs conservation projects in Mauritius and includes weeding native forests, getting rid of exotics, and building predator fences to keep out (so far) pigs and deer. It is a fundamental part of the conservation program in Mauritius. It is always very frustrating for us that although animal rights people, specifically from the UK, claim to be conservationists and say, “ban the use of monkeys, ban the export of monkeys from Mauritius”; yet this quarter of a million dollars a year is simply fundamental to conservation in Mauritius. Clearly there is no other equivalent source of funds available.

DR. ERVIN: To reinforce Mr. Griffiths’ point, I think that nearly everyone who lives in this situation is aware of it, and it is similar on St. Kitts. For each exported monkey, a levy is paid into a special fund within the Department of Agriculture that goes to conservation, research, and education. Each farmer from whose farm a trapper collects monkeys not only has his crop protected but also receives a percentage of the trapper’s fee. So we now turn this country’s worse predator into a cash crop from which we are selling the weeds—and at a good price so that everyone at every level can understand and benefit: immediately in terms of cash, and abstractly in terms of knowing, because of work in the schools and the

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×

newspapers that this monkey is making possible our understanding of a major brain disease or hypertension.

DR. ABEE: And I think on the side of the biomedical research community, that the biomedical research community is very pleased to hear that this possibility will result from the money being generated from this.

DR. LYONS (Leslie A. Lyons, California National Primate Research Center): I think Dr. Mwenda made a very important point that some of the exportations have stopped because of a desire to keep research in the countries where the animals are. Does the panel think that perhaps if the NIH or the US government invested more in training for the countries, that we could open up exportations a little bit more as a give and take to help get animals back and forth?

DR. RAO: I think there is one step toward using the situation. There is a strong feeling by conservation biologists as well as animal activists that the animals are being used as a cash crop, proving that the best thing is to develop a system of centers with organizational help, such as what NCRR attempted in Bombay. Once people understand how useful they are, they will probably support the decisions, and exporting will be possible.

DR. LYONS: Additionally, perhaps while we are waiting for the possible change of exportation laws, we can change the thinking of our researchers. How would we propose to have more researchers think more about vervets than macaques?

DR. ERVIN: They need to be better educated.

DR. ABEE: Actually I thought Dr. Ervin did a very good job of that already. I would probably buy life insurance from him also.

I would like to thank all of our speakers for coming so far to share their thoughts with us. I think this session has been excellent. Thank you.

Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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Suggested Citation:"Session 1: Conservation and Supply, Part 1." National Research Council. 2003. International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10774.
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The future of nonhuman primate (NHP) resources is a concern of scientists, veterinarians, and funding authorities. An April 2002 workshop brought participants from all over the world to discuss various aspects of the issue such as current shortfalls and excesses in NHP breeding and exportation programs, the status of breeding and conservation programs internationally, the development of specific pathogen-free colonies, difficulties in transporting NHP, and challenges in the management of NHP colonies.

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