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Appendix A Highlights of Early U.S.-Soviet Scientific Relations (1725â1957) 1725â1775 â Mikhail Lomonosov, founder of Moscow State Univer- sity, and Benjamin Franklin gain recognition as the fathers of U.S.-Russian scientific relations. 1775â1800 â Literature is exchanged between Russian and American scientific societies. â Individual scientists begin to correspond. â American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia and Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg elect honorary foreign members. 1800â1860 â First scientific exchange visits are held. â American scientists travel to Russia to learn about explorations of Siberia and the Arctic Sea. â Russian mathematicians, naturalists, and linguists attract the attention of American scientists. â Systematic contacts develop as university networks and specialized scientific research centers emerge. â Astronomy school is founded in Russia, and Pulkovo Observatory attracts American physicists and astrono- mers to spend extended periods working in Russia. 1860â1870 â U.S.-Russian ties in astronomy grow. 1865 â U.S. optical firm, Alvin and Company, constructs a large telescope-refractor for the Pulkovo Observatory. 101
102 APPENDIX A 1860â1870 â American scientists conduct expeditions in northeastern Siberia and the Far East. 1872â1876 â Russian geographer A. Voevakova visits the United States to research its northern and southern parts. 1876 â D. I. Mendeleev, a chemist and founder of the periodic table, visits an industrial exhibit in Philadelphia. 1876â1900 â Frequent reciprocal visits are made by U.S. and Russian scientists. 1890s â International Geological Congresses stimulate increased ties between American and Russian geologists. Pre-1917 â The original school of physiological research of I. P. Pavlov resulted in many ties in the field of physiology. Many American followers of Pavlov emerge and make numerous visits to Russia. Post-1917 â Strained relations reduce regular contacts between Soviet and American scientists. â American scientists assist in recovery from the devastation during the October Revolution. 1922 â The National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution send scientific literature to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Early 1920s â Ties between American and Soviet societies and indi- vidual scientists are renewed, and normal prewar corre- spondence resumes. â Reciprocal visits are reactivated despite lack of diplomatic relations. â Soviet scientists I. P. Pavlov, V. I. Vernadsky, N. A. Maksimov, N. I. Vavilov, A. F. Ioffe, and P. S. Aleksandrov visit the United States. â American scientists become interested in Soviet develop- ments in the physiological and agrobiological sciences. 1928â1930 â American scientists conduct a zoological expedition in the Soviet Union. 1932â1933 â American scientists conduct archaeological excavations in the Soviet Union. 1930s â Herman J. Muller, an American geneticist, spends an extended period in the Soviet Union. PostâWWII â Substantive contacts come to a complete end. Late 1940s â Attempts are made to renew scientific contacts.
APPENDIX A 103 â Ideological conflicts cause cooperation to be short-lived. Early 1950s â Contacts begin to be restored. 1956 â Many American scientists take part in a conference on high-energy physics in the Soviet Union. 1957 â Turning point is reached in U.S.-Soviet scientific relations. 1956â1957 â Both countries receive about 50 scientists representing various fields. Source: Information originally provided by Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Adapted from NRC (1990b: 10).