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Appendix I Innovation in the Russian Federation (2001) Elements of Innovation (in order of importance) Acquisition of equipment and machinery Industrial design Research and development Acquisition of software Personnel training Market research Acquisition of technology, including acquisition of rights for patents and licenses Sources of Information for Innovation in Industry (in order of importance) Exhibits, fairs, and other advertising events Consumers Internal sources of industry S&T literature Regulations and standards Suppliers of equipment, materials, components, and software Competitors Industry research institutions Conferences, workshop, and symposia Patent Office publications Academies and universities 131
132 APPENDIX I Factors Inhibiting Innovation (in order of importance) Economic factors Shortage of own funds Shortage of funds from government High expenditures Long payoff period Excessive perceived risks Low solvent demand for new products Production factors Low innovation potential Deficiencies in legislation Low consumer demand Lack of skilled personnel Underdeveloped innovation infrastructure Underdeveloped technology market Lack of information on market Lack of information on technology Uncertainty in timing of innovation Resistance to innovation Legal Framework for Promoting Innovation State Support for Small Enterprises in Russia (Law no. 88-F3, June 14, 1995) Budget Code of Russia (Law no. 145-F3, July 31, 1998) Tax Code of Russia (Law no. 146-F3, July 31, 1998) Status of Science Cities of Russia (Law no. 70-F3, April 7, 1999) Science and State Science-Technology Policy (Law no. 127-F3, August 23, 1996) Protection of the Environment (Law no. 7-F3, January 10, 2002) Source: Centre for Science Research and Statistics (2003) and, for legal framework, Martyushov (2003).