National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals

VOLUME 4

Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract Nos. DAMD17–89-C-9086 and DAMD17–99-C-9049 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-09147-0 (Book)

International Standard Book Number 0-309-53013-X (PDF)

Additional copies of this report are available from: The
National Academies Press
500 Fifth Street., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu

Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

SUBCOMMITTEE ON ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS

Members

DANIEL KREWSKI (Chair),

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

EDWARD C.BISHOP,

Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, CA

JAMES V.BRUCKNER,

University of Georgia, Athens

DAVID P.KELLY,

Dupont Company, Newark, DE

KANNAN KRISHNAN,

University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

STEPHEN U.LESTER,

Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA

JUDITH MACGREGOR,

Toxicology Consulting Services, Arnold, MD

PATRICIA MCGINNIS,

Syracuse Research Corporation, Ft. Washington, PA

FRANZ OESCH,

University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany

RICHARD B.SCHLESINGER,

Pace University, Pleasantville, NY

CALVIN C.WILLHITE,

Department of Toxic Substances, State of California, Berkeley

FREDERIK A.DE WOLFF,

Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

Staff

KULBIR S.BAKSHI, Program Director

KELLY CLARK, Editor

AIDA C.NEEL, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Members

BAILUS WALKER, JR. (Chair),

Howard University Medical Center and American Public Health Association, Washington, DC

MELVIN E.ANDERSEN,

CIIT-Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC

EDWARD C.BISHOP,

Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, CA

GARY P.CARLSON,

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

JANICE E.CHAMBERS,

Mississippi State University, Mississippi State

LEONARD CHIAZZE, JR.,

Georgetown University, Washington, DC

JUDITH A.GRAHAM,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA

SIDNEY GREEN,

Howard University, Washington, DC

MERYL KAROL,

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

STEPHEN U.LESTER,

Center for Health Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA

DAVID H.MOORE,

Battelle Memorial Institute, Bel Air, MD

CALVIN C.WILLHITE,

Department of Toxic Substances, State of California, Berkeley

GERALD WOGAN,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Staff

KULBIR S.BAKSHI, Program Director for Toxicology

ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis

SUSAN N.J.MARTEL, Senior Staff Officer

ELLEN K.MANTUS, Senior Staff Officer

KELLY CLARK, Assistant Editor

AIDA C.NEEL, Senior Project Assistant

TAMARA DAWSON, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1

Members

JONATHAN SAMET (Chair),

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

DAVID ALLEN,

University of Texas, Austin, Texas

THOMAS BURKE,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

JUDITH C.CHOW,

Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV

COSTEL D.DENSON,

University of Delaware, Newark

E.DONALD ELLIOTT,

Willkie, Farr & Gallagher, LLP, Washington, DC

CRISTOPHER B.FIELD,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, CA

WILLIAM H.GLAZE,

Oregon Health and Sciences University, Beaverton

SHERRI W.GOODMAN,

Center for Naval Analyses Corporation, Alexandria, VA

DANIEL S.GREENBAUM,

Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA

ROGENE HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

CAROL HENRY,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA

ROBERT HUGGETT,

Michigan State University, East Lansing

BARRY L.JOHNSON,

Emory University, Atlanta, GA

JAMES H.JOHNSON,

Howard University, Washington, DC

JUDITH L.MEYER,

University of Georgia, Athens

PATRICK V.O’BRIEN,

Chevron Research and Technology, Richmond, CA

DOROTHY E.PATTON,

International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC

STEWARD T.A.PICKETT,

Institute of Ecosystems Studies, Millbrook, NY

ARMISTEAD G.RUSSELL,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

LOUISE M.RYAN,

Harvard University, Boston, MA

KIRK SMITH,

University of California, Berkeley

LISA SPEER,

Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY

G.DAVID TILMAN,

University of Minnesota, St. Paul

CHRIS G.WHIPPLE,

Environ, Inc., Emeryville, CA

LAUREEN A.ZEISE,

California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland

Senior Staff

JAMES J.REISA, Director

DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director

RAYMOND A.WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for Toxicology

ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis

K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer

SUSAN N.J.MARTEL, Senior Staff Officer

SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Staff Officer

EILEEN N.ABT, Senior Staff Officer

ELLEN K.MANTUS, Senior Staff Officer

RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

1  

This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Air Quality Management in the United States (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin: Causes of Decline and Strategies for Recovery (2004)

Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003)

Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002)

Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002)

The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (4 volumes, 2000–2004)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (4 volumes, 1998–2003)

Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (5 volumes, 1989–1995)

Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 volumes, 1994–1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press

(800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants, Volume 1 (2004)

Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 (2003)

Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002)

Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline

Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001)

Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (2000), Volume 2 (2002), Volume 3 (2003), Volume 4 (2004)

Review of the US Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2000)

Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy’s Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000)

Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000)

Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000)

Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999)

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants, Volume 1 (1997), Volume 2 (1999), Volume 3 (1999)

Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998)

Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996)

Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996)

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994), Volume 2 (1996), Volume 3 (1996), Volume 4 (2000)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

Preface

Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs)1 can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. The people in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation’s railways and highways potentially are at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents.

As part of its efforts to develop acute exposure guideline levels for EHSs, EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in 1991 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) develop guidelines for establishing such levels. In response to that request, the NRC published Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances in 1993.

Using the 1993 NRC guidelines report, the National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances—consisting of members from EPA, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Transportation, other federal and state governments, the chemical industry, academe, and other

1  

As defined pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

organizations from the private sector—has developed acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for approximately 80 EHSs.

In 1998, EPA and DOD requested that the NRC independently review the AEGLs developed by NAC. In response to that request, the NRC organized within its Committee on Toxicology the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, which prepared this report. This report is the fourth volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals. It reviews the AEGLs for chlorine, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, toluene 2,4- and 2,6-diisocyanate, and uranium hexafluoride for scientific accuracy, completeness, and consistency with the NRC guideline reports.

This report was reviewed in draft by individuals selected for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David H.Moore of Battelle Memorial Institute; Sam Kacew of University of Ottawa; and Rakesh Dixit of Merck and Company, Inc.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Janice E.Chambers of Mississippi State University, appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The subcommittee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the following people: Ernest Falke and Paul Tobin, EPA; George Rusch, Honeywell, Inc.; Sylvia Talmage, Cheryl Bast, and Carol Wood, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Aida Neel, senior project assistant for the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. Kelly Clark edited the report. We are grateful to James J.Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, for his helpful comments. The subcommittee particularly acknowledges Kulbir Bakshi, project director for

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

the subcommittee, for bringing the report to completion. Finally, we would like to thank all members of the subcommittee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the development of this report.

Daniel Krewski, Chair

Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Bailus Walker, Chair

Committee on Toxicology

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×


Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals


Volume 4

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10902.
×
PageR18
Next: Introduction »
Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4 Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $75.00 Buy Ebook | $59.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The Bhopal Disaster of 1984 resulted in the death of around 2,000 residents living near chemical plants and irreversible injuries to more than 20,000 other residents. These numbers can be attributed to the community's lack of awareness concerning the chemicals' existence, dangers and effects, and/or how to react in case of emergency. The disaster emphasized the need for governments to identify hazardous substances and to aid local communities in developing plans for emergency exposures.

As a result, the United States government issued the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986; requiring the identification of extremely hazardous substances (EHSs) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA was also tasked with assisting Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) in conducting health-hazard assessments to develop emergency-response plans for sites where EHSs are produced, stored, transported, or used. The EPA identified nearly 400 EHSs in terms of their immediate danger to life and health (IDLH) as their first step in assisting these LEPCs.

In 1991 the EPA went on to request that the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Toxicology (COT) develop criteria and methods for developing emergency exposure levels for EHSs for the general population. The COT, who had published many reports on emergency exposure guidance levels at the time, designated the task to a subcommittee. The subcommittee focused on Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances. Four years later the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances (NAC) was created with a focus on identifying, reviewing, and interpreting relevant toxicologic and other scientific data and developing acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for high-priority, acutely toxic chemicals.

In Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals:Volume 4, the NAC outlines acute exposure guideline levels for chlorine, hydrogen chloride, toluene 2,4, hydrogen fluoride, 2,6-diisocyanate, and uranium hexafluoride.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!