ELIMINATING HEALTH DISPARITIES
MEASUREMENT AND DATA NEEDS
Michele Ver Ploeg and Edward Perrin, Editors
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington D.C. www.nap.edu
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. HHS-100-01-0022 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Eliminating health disparities : measurement and data needs / Panel on DHHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data ; Michele Ver Ploeg and Edward Perrin, editors.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-309-09231-0 (pbk.)
1. Social medicine—United States—Methodology. 2. Health status indicators—United States—Measurement. 3. Social indicators—United States—Measurement. 4. Economic indicators—United States—Measurement. 5. Medical care—United States—Evaluation—Statistical methods. 6. Health services accessibility—United States—Evaluation—Statistical methods. 7. Minorities—Health and hygiene—United States—Statistical methods. 8. Ethnic groups—Health and hygiene—United States—Statistical methods.
[DNLM: 1. Data Collection—United States. 2. Ethnic Groups—United States. 3. Evaluation Studies—United States. 4. Health Status Indicators—United States. 5. Socioeconomic Factors—United States. 6. Treatment Outcome—United States. WA 300 E424 2004] I. Ver Ploeg, Michele. II. Perrin, Edward. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on DHHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data.
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Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2004). Eliminating Health Disparities: Measurement and Data Needs. Panel on DHHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data, Michele Ver Ploeg and Edward Perrin, Editors. Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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PANEL ON DHHS COLLECTION OF RACE AND ETHNICITY DATA
EDWARD PERRIN (Chair),
Department of Health Services, University of Washington
School of Public Health, University of North Texas
Statistical Consultant, Temecula, CA
Scientist, University of California, Los Angeles
Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan
National Association of Health Data Organizations, Salt Lake City, UT
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ
Department of Health, Health Status Monitoring and State Registrar of Vital Statistics, Honolulu, HI
Welch Center for Prevention Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore
Department of Economics, Dartmouth College
L. CARL VOLPE,
Strategic Health Partnerships, WellPoint Health Networks, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA
Department of Sociology, University of Michigan
Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School
MICHELE VER PLOEG, Study Director
JAMIE CASEY, Research Assistant
TANYA M. LEE, Project Assistant
MARY GRACE KOVAR, Consultant
DANIEL MELNICK, Consultant
COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS 2003-2004
JOHN E. ROLPH (Chair),
Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California
JOSEPH G. ALTONJI,
Institute for Policy Research and Department of Economics, Northwestern University
AT&T Research Laboratories, Florham Park, NJ
LAWRENCE D. BROWN,
Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
ROBERT M. GROVES,
Survey Research Center, University of Michigan
Department of Economics, University of Maryland
Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ
JOEL L. HOROWITZ,
Department of Economics, Northwestern University
Survey Research Unit, Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
School of Public Policy and Social Research, University of California, Los Angeles
Department of Statistics, Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan
Google, New York, NY
Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY
NORA CATE SCHAEFFER,
Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison
CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Director
I would like to thank, on behalf of the Panel on DHHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data, all of the individuals involved in the production of this report. I first would like to thank our sponsors within DHHS, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the HIV/ AIDS Contigency Fund, the National Institutes of Health, the Office for Civil Rights, and the Office of Minority Health. We would like to especially thank James Scanlon and Dale Hitchcock of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) for their continual assistance as liaisons for the panel to DHHS. We would also like to thank the staff of the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Service and of the Social Security Administration who met with National Research Council’s Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) staff regarding racial and ethnic data collection for these agencies’ programs.
Many individuals gave presentations to the panel on various data related topics and should be thanked for taking time out of their busy schedules. Vickie Mays of the University of California Los Angeles briefed the panel on the data activities of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, Subcommittee on Special Populations. William Braithwaite, of PriceWaterhouseCoopers, provided information on the data collection requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. The panel is also indebted to those individuals who wrote background papers for this report and for the panel’s Workshop on Improving Racial and
Ethnic Data in Health. Gratefully we thank Patricia O’Campo, Jessica Burke, Allen Fremont, Nicole Lurie, Jeffrey Geppert, Sara Singer, Jay Buechner, Lorin Ranbom, Walter Suarez, Wu Xu, David Nerenz, Connie Currier, and Carmella Bocchino. The papers written by these individuals appear in the Appendixes to this report.
The panel is grateful for the excellent work of the staff of CNSTAT and the National Research Council for developing and organizing the workshop and for writing this report. Michele Ver Ploeg, study director for the panel and coeditor of the report, should be thanked for steering the panel throughout its activities. She drafted major sections of the report and guided the report through the review process. The panel would like thank to Jamie Casey, research assistant, for providing excellent service to the panel—diligently assembling background materials and tables and figures for the report. The panel is also thankful for the efforts of Tanya Lee, project assistant, in handling all administrative matters regarding the panel and in the production of this report. Earl Pollack, program officer, read through early drafts and made valuable contributions to the editing and polishing of the report. The panel was also ably aided by the services of two consultants. Mary Grace Kovar met with several Department of Health and Human Services staff members regarding the details of their data systems, and Daniel Melnick drafted the summary of the Workshop on Improving Racial and Ethnic Data in Health (released in 2003) and commented on early drafts of the panel’s final report. Kirsten Sampson Snyder and Chris McShane of the reports office of the Division of Behavioral and Social Science Education, and Cameron Fletcher, are thanked for guiding the workshop report through the review process and for professional editing of the report.
As chair of this panel, I thank my fellow panel members for giving their time and expertise so generously toward the completion of this report. Each of their contributions to the discussions in the development and to the drafting of this report is greatly appreciated.
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Olivia Carter-Pokras, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Sheldon Greenfield, Department of Medicine, University of Califor-
nia, Irvine; Judith R. Lave, Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh; Vickie M. Mays, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles; Dorothy P. Rice, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences Emeritus, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco; Robert Santos, Executive Office, NuStats, Austin, TX; Kenneth E. Thorpe, Department of Health Policy and Management, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University; and Clyde Tucker, Office of Survey Methods Research, Bureau of Labor Standards, Washington, DC.
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard A. Kulka, Social and Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Institute. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
Edward Perrin, Chair
Panel on DHHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data
Recommendations on the Use of Socioeconomic Position Indicators to Better Understand Racial Inequalities in Health
The Role of Racial and Ethnic Data Collection in Eliminating Disparities in Health Care
State Collection of Racial and Ethnic Data
Collection of Data on Race and Ethnicity by Private-Sector Organizations: Hospitals, Health Plans, and Medical Groups
Racial and Ethnic Data Collection by Health Plans