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Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults (2005)

Chapter: Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data." National Research Council. 2005. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11267.
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Appendix C July 2004 Bookmark Standard-Setting Session with the 1992 NALS Data A s described in the body of the report, the Committee on Perfor- mance Levels for Adult Literacy convened two bookmark standard-setting sessions in 2004, one in July to gather panelists’ judgments about cut scores for the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and another in September to collect judgments about cut scores for the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). This appendix details how the bookmark procedure was implemented and reports results for the July session, and Appendix D presents similar information for the September session. Following the text are the background materials, which include the agenda, participant questionnaires, tables, and figures for the July session. The appendix concludes with technical details about the data files that the committee used for the standard settings; this information is provided to assist the U.S. Department of Education and its contractors with any follow-up analyses that need to be conducted with respect to the cut scores for the performance levels. BOOKMARK STANDARD SETTING WITH THE 1992 NALS DATA The July 2004 session was held to obtain panelists’ judgments about cut scores for the 1992 NALS and to collect their feedback about the performance-level descriptions. Several consultants assisted the committee with the standard setting, including Richard Patz, one of the original devel- opers of the bookmark procedure. A total of 42 panelists participated in the standard setting. Background information on the panelists was collected by means of a questionnaire (a 221

222 APPENDIX C blank questionnaire is included in Background Materials at the end of this appendix). A majority (85 percent, n = 28) had managerial responsibilities for adult education in their states or regional areas, although many panel- ists were instructors as well as program coordinators or directors. Most panelists worked in adult basic education (66 percent, n = 22), general educational development or GED (54 percent, n = 18), or English language instruction (51 percent, n = 17) settings. Almost half (45 percent, n = 15) reported they were very familiar with NALS prior to participating in the standard-setting activities; 42 percent (n = 14) reported that they were somewhat familiar with NALS. Only four participants (12 percent) who completed the questionnaire said they were unfamiliar with NALS prior to the standard setting. Panelists were assigned to tables using a quasi-stratified-random proce- dure intended to produce groups with comparable mixtures of perspectives and experience. To accomplish this, panelists were assigned to one of nine tables after being sorted on the following criteria: (1) their primary profes- sional responsibilities (instructor, coordinator or director, researcher), (2) the primary population of adults they worked with as indicated on their resumes, and (3) the areas in which they worked as indicated on their resumes. The sorting revealed that panelists brought the following perspec- tives to the standard-setting exercise: adult basic education (ABE) instruc- tor, English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) instructor, GED in- structor, program coordinator or director, or researcher. Panelists in each classification were then randomly assigned to one of the nine tables so that each group included at least one person from each of the classifications. Each table consisted of four or five panelists and had a mixture of perspec- tives: instructor, director, researcher, ESOL, GED, and ABE. Once panelists were assigned to tables, each table was then randomly assigned to two of the three literacy areas (prose, document, or quantita- tive). The sequence in which they worked on the different literacy scales was alternated in an attempt to balance any potential order effects (see Table C-1). Three tables worked with the prose items first (referred to as Occasion 1 bookmark placements) and the document items second (re- ferred to as Occasion 2 bookmark placements); three tables worked with the document items first (Occasion 1) and the quantitative items second (Occasion 2); and three tables worked with the quantitative items first (Occasion 1) and the prose items second (Occasion 2). Ordered Item Booklets For each literacy area, an ordered item booklet was prepared that rank- ordered the test questions from least to most difficult according to the responses of NALS examinees. The ordered item booklets consisted of all

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 223 the available NALS tasks for a given literacy area, even though with the balanced incomplete block spiraling design used for the assessment, no individual actually responded to all test questions. The tasks were arranged in the ordered item booklets so that the question appeared first (one ques- tion per page) followed by the stimulus materials (e.g., a newspaper article, a bus schedule, a graph) and the scoring rubric. Accompanying each or- dered item booklet was an item map that listed each item number and a brief description of the item. The number of items in each NALS ordered item booklet was 39 for prose literacy, 71 for document literacy, and 42 for quantitative literacy. Training Procedures Two training sessions were held, one just for the table leaders, the individuals assigned to be discussion facilitators for the tables of panelists, and one for all panelists. The role of the table leader was to serve as a discussion facilitator but not to dominate the discussion or to try to bring the tablemates to consensus about cut scores. Table leaders also distributed standard-setting materials to each table member, guided the discussions of the content and context characteristics that differentiated NALS test items from each other, led the discussion of the impact data for the final round of bookmark placements, and ensured that security procedures were followed. Table leader training was held the day before the standard setting to famil- iarize the table leaders with their roles, the NALS materials, and the agenda of activities for the standard-setting weekend. (The agenda for the July session is included in Background Materials at the end of this appendix.) Panelist training was held the morning of the standard setting. Richard Patz facilitated both training sessions and used the same training materials for both sessions. This helped ensure that the table leaders were well acquainted with the bookmark process. The training began with an overview of NALS (skills assessed by the tasks in the three literacy areas, administrative procedures, etc.), followed by background about the committee’s charge and the timing of its work. Panelists were told that the cut scores that resulted from the bookmark procedure would be the group’s recommendations to the committee but that it would ultimately be up to the committee to determine the final cut scores to recommend to the Department of Education. Panelists then re- ceived instruction in the elements and procedures of the bookmark method. Conducting the Standard Setting Once the training session was completed, the bookmark process began by having each panelist respond to all the questions in the NALS test

224 APPENDIX C booklet for their assigned literacy scale. For this task, the test booklets contained the full complement of NALS items for each literacy scale, ar- ranged in the order that test takers would see them but not ranked-ordered as in the ordered item booklets. Afterward, the table leader facilitated discussion of differences among items with respect to knowledge, skills, and competencies required and familiarized panelists with the scoring rubrics. Panelists were expected to take notes during the discussion, which would be used in making their judgments. Panelists then received the ordered item booklets. They discussed each item and noted characteristics they thought made one item more difficult than another. The table leader distributed the performance-level descrip- tions.1 Each table member then individually reviewed the performance- level descriptions, the items in the ordered item booklet, the scoring rubrics, and their notes about each item and proceeded to independently place bookmarks to represent cut points for basic, intermediate, and advanced literacy; this first bookmark placement constituted Round 1. On the second day of standard setting, each table received a summary of the Round 1 bookmark placements made by each table member and were provided the medians of the bookmark placements (calculated for each table). Table leaders facilitated discussion among table members about their respective bookmark placements, moving from basic to intermediate to advanced literacy, without asking for consensus. Panelists were given just under two hours to deliberate about differences in their bookmark placements before independently making judgments for Round 2. Through- out the standard setting, staff members, consultants, assistants, and four committee members observed the interactions among the panelists as they discussed the characteristics of the items and their reasons for selecting their bookmark placements. For Round 3, each table again received a summary of the Round 2 bookmark placements made by each table member as well as the medians for the table. In addition, each table received impact data, that is, the proportion of the 1992 population who would have been categorized at the below basic, basic, intermediate, or advanced literacy level based on the table’s median cut points. After discussion of the variability of Round 2 judgments and the impact of their proposed cut points on the percentages of adults who would be placed into each of the four literacy groups, each panelist made his or her final judgments about bookmark placements for the basic, intermediate, and advanced literacy levels. This final set of judg- ments concluded Round 3. After Round 3, panelists were asked to provide feedback about the 1The performance-level descriptions used in July are presented in Table 5-2 of the report.

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 225 performance-level descriptions by reviewing the items that fell between each of their bookmarks and editing the descriptions accordingly. That is, the items in the booklet up to, but not including, the first bookmark de- scribed the basic literacy level. Panelists reviewed these items and revised the descriptions to better fit the items that fell within this level. They were asked to do the same for the intermediate and advanced performance-level descriptions. On the afternoon of the second day, the processes described above were repeated for the second literacy area. Round 1 was completed on the second day; Rounds 2 and 3 were completed on the third day. The standard setting concluded with a group session to obtain feedback from the panelists. Using Different Response Probability Instructions In conjunction with the July standard setting, the committee collected information about the impact of varying the instructions given to panelists with regard to the criteria used to judge the probability that an examinee would answer a question correctly (the response probability). The NALS results were reported in 1992 using a response probability of 80 percent, a level commonly associated with mastery tests. Some researchers have ques- tioned the need for such a strict criterion for an assessment like NALS, for which there are no individual results, and recommend instead using a more moderate response probability level of 67 percent (e.g., Kolstad, 2001). The authors of the bookmark method also recommend a 67 percent response probability level (Mitzel et al., 2001). Because the issue of response prob- ability had received so much attention in relation to NALS results, the committee arranged to collect data from panelists about the impact of using different (50, 67, or 80 percent) response probability values. Specifically, we were interested in evaluating (1) the extent to which panelists under- stand and can make sense of the concept of response probability level when making judgments about cut scores and (2) the extent to which panelists make different choices when faced with different response probability lev- els. Panelists were told that they would be given different instructions to use in making their judgments and that they should not discuss the instructions with each other. As described earlier, the panelists were grouped into nine tables of four or five panelists each. Each group was given different instructions and worked with different ordered item booklets. Three tables (approximately 15 panelists) worked with booklets in which the items were ordered with a response probability of 80 percent and received instructions to use 80 percent as the likelihood that the examinee would answer an item correctly. Similarly, three tables used ordered item booklets and instructions consis- tent with a response probability of 67 percent, and three tables used or-

226 APPENDIX C dered item booklets and instructions consistent with a response probability of 50 percent. Panelists received training in small groups about their assigned re- sponse probability instructions. The additional training session gave de- tailed instructions to panelists on one of three difficulty levels (50, 67, or 80 percent). These specialized instructions are summarized in Background Ma- terials at the end of this appendix. Each table of panelists used the same response probability level for the second content area as they did for the first. Refining the Performance-Level Descriptions The performance-level descriptions used at the July standard setting consisted of overall and subject-specific descriptors for the top four perfor- mance levels. In accord with typical bookmark procedures, concrete ex- amples of stimulus materials (e.g., newspaper articles, almanac) or types of tasks (e.g., read a bus schedule, fill out an employment application form) had been intentionally omitted from the performance-level descriptions because including specific examples tends to overly influence panelists’ judgments about the bookmark placements. Omission of specific examples allows the panelists to rely on their own expertise in making judgments. Panelists’ written comments about and edits of the performance levels were reviewed. Many panelists commented about the lack of concrete ex- amples, saying that a few examples would have helped them. Some were concerned that NALS did not have enough items at the upper end of the spectrum for them to confidently make a distinction between intermediate and advanced categories. They also suggested edits, such as adding the modifier “consistently” to the levels higher than below basic, asked for clarification of adjectives such as “dense” versus “commonplace” text and “routine” versus “complex” arithmetic operations. In addition, the panel- ists raised questions about the scope of the NALS quantitative assessment and the extent to which it was intended to evaluate arithmetic skills versus functional quantitative reasoning. They also pointed out inconsistencies in the wording of the descriptions, moving from one level to the next. The committee used this feedback to rethink and reword the level descriptions in ways that better addressed the prose, document, and quantitative literacy demands suggested by the assessment items. Revised descriptions were used for the September standard-setting ses- sion. The following types of changes were made. The introduction to the descriptions was rewritten to include the phrase, “An individual who scores at this level, independently, and in English . . . ,” reflecting the nature of the NALS and NAAL as tests of literacy in English in which examinees com- plete the test items with minimal or no help from the interviewer or other

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 227 family members or individuals. In addition, the subject-area descriptions were revised to better reflect the range of literacy skills needed for the NALS items without specifying the types of NALS items or stimuli used. Four panelists who had participated in the July standard-setting session were invited to review the revised performance-level descriptions prior to the September standard setting, and their feedback was used to further refine the descriptions.2 Panelists’ Evaluation of the Standard Setting At the end of the July standard-setting session, panelists were asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire (a blank questionnaire is included in Background Materials at the end of this appendix). Almost all of the par- ticipants reported that they were either very satisfied (59 percent, n = 20) or satisfied (35 percent, n = 12) with the standard-setting training, while only two participants reported that they were not satisfied with the training they received. Almost three-quarters of the participants (74 percent, n = 25) reported being very satisfied with their table interactions and discussions; roughly a quarter (26 percent, n = 9) reported that they were satisfied with the logistical arrangements. The contributions and guidance of the table leaders were perceived as mainly very satisfactory (53 percent, n = 18) or satisfactory (32 percent, n = 11). Only two participants (6 percent) indi- cated that their table leaders were not satisfactory. Both of these individuals wrote on their evaluations that their table leaders were overly talkative and did not facilitate discussions among the table members. The majority of comments indicated that participants thought their table leaders were well organized, adept at facilitating discussion, and kept the table members focused on the standard setting tasks. The organization of the standard-setting session was well received: over half of the participants (68 percent, n = 23) were very satisfied and 32 percent (n = 11) reported satisfaction with the session. Participants also reported being satisfied with their work during the standard setting—94 percent of the participants reported that they were either very satisfied (44 percent, n = 15) or satisfied (50 percent, n = 17) with the cut scores decided by their table, indicating a high level of participant confidence in both the process and the product of the standard-setting session. In addition, 85 percent (n = 29) and 12 percent (n = 4) reported that participation in the standard-setting session was very valuable or valuable to them, respectively. 2The performance-level descriptions used in September are presented in Table 5-3 of the report.

228 APPENDIX C Besides giving feedback on the standard-setting session, panelists were also very helpful in suggesting ways in which the September standard- setting session would benefit from the perspective of those who had just completed the process. For example, the participants reflected a range of adult education areas, such as ABE, GED, and ESL. While the experiences and perspectives of these individuals were useful and appropriate for the standard-setting task, the July participants asked that the committee con- sider broadening the array of perspectives for the September gathering by including middle school or high school language arts teachers and profes- sionals familiar with human relations, employment testing, or skills profil- ing. The July participants commented that the table discussions needed these additional perspectives to better conceptualize the range of literacy skills within the performance levels. In addition, the panelists commented that they would have liked to have seen a broader representation of com- munity types (e.g., rural, suburban, urban) reflected in the table discussions because the needs of adult learners and their environments play a factor in program availability and access to various literacy materials represented in NALS. The committee agreed and solicited participation from members of these professional and geographic areas for the September standard setting. RESULTS OF STANDARD SETTING WITH 1992 DATA In an effort to provide results that can be fully understood and repli- cated, this section provides complete results from the July standard setting reported separately by literacy area. Prose Literacy A complete listing of all judgments made by each panelist who re- viewed the prose literacy scale at the July standard-setting session is pre- sented in Tables C-2A, C-2B, and C-2C respectively, for Basic, Intermedi- ate, and Advanced. The information included in the table consists of each participant’s bookmark placement for each round, as well as the corre- sponding scale score.3 The table number and response probability (rp) level used by each panelist are provided, as well as an indication of whether a 3The item parameters used for the July standard setting were those available in the public data file. The transformation constants used to convert theta estimates to scaled scores fol- low—prose: 54.973831 and 284.808948; document: 55.018198 and 279.632461; quantita- tive: 58.82459 and 284.991949.

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 229 given literacy scale was reviewed by the panelist first (i.e., Occasion 1) or second (i.e., Occasion 2). Figure C-1 illustrates the bookmark placement results on the scale score metric by round and table. The top three graphs present the results for Occasion 1 (Tables 1, 4, and 7), and the bottom three graphs show the results for Occasion 2 (Tables 2, 5, and 8). The lines are differentiated by performance level to indicate panelists’ cut score recommendations: the upward-facing triangles (∆) indicate the cut score each panelist recom- mended for the basic literacy performance standard, the asterisks (*) repre- sent the intermediate literacy performance standard, and the downward- facing triangles (∇) indicate the advanced literacy performance standard. The median Round 3 placement for the table for each cut score is indicated by a standalone symbol (∆, *, or ∇) on the right-hand side of each graph. The numbers below each graph represent the scale scores corresponding to the median basic, intermediate, and advanced literacy values for the given table. The graphs in Figure C-1 reflect panelist behavior similar to other, published, bookmark standard-setting sessions (Lewis et al., 1998). That is, as the rounds progress, the variability in bookmark placements tends to decrease, resulting in a relative convergence of bookmark location by the end of the third round. As Figure C-1 illustrates, however, convergence did not always happen, given that bookmark placement reflects individual deci- sions and biases. Panelists at Tables 1 and 2 used an 80 percent response probability level (rp80); Tables 4 and 5 were assigned an rp level of 67 percent (rp67); and Tables 7 and 8 were instructed to use a 50 percent response probability level (rp50). Across Tables 1, 4, and 7, there was generally more agreement among panelists in the basic and intermediate cut scores at the conclusion of the Round 3, but the final placements of the advanced cut score varied considerably. A somewhat different pattern is seen across Tables 2, 5, and 8. Panelists at Tables 5 and 8 appeared to reach consensus regarding the cut scores for the basic performance level, Table 2 participants achieved con- sensus on the cut scores for the intermediate level; and Table 5 achieved consensus on the cut score for the advanced level. Round 3 data from the two occasions were combined and descriptive statistics calculated. This information is reported by rp level for the prose literacy scale in Table C-3. Across performance levels and rp levels, the standard errors were lowest with the 67 percent response probability level. Document Literacy Panelists at six of the nine tables reviewed NALS items from the docu- ment literacy scale. A complete listing of all judgments made by each pan-

230 APPENDIX C elist who reviewed the document literacy scale at the July standard-setting session is presented in Tables C-4A, C-4B, and C-4C. Figure C-2 shows the bookmark placement results on the scale score metric for each of the three Occasion 1 (top three graphs) and Occasion 2 (bottom three graphs) cut scores by round and table. Panelists at Tables 3 and 1 used rp80, panelists at Tables 6 and 4 used rp67, and panelists at Tables 9 and 7 used rp50. Final bookmark placements for Table 9 are taken from Round 2, due to a data processing in the Round 3 results for that table. As with prose literacy, the variability of bookmark placements de- creased as the rounds progressed. At all of the tables, there appeared to be more agreement with regard to the cut scores for the basic and intermediate performance levels than for the advanced level. Although some convergence in the advanced cut scores was observed as the rounds progressed, the Round 3 bookmark placements are quite disparate. Summary statistics for the Occasion 1 and Occasion 2 combined data are presented in Table C-5. Unlike the data for prose literacy, the standard error of the mean for document literacy across rp levels and performance levels was lowest for rp50 and highest for rp80. Quantitative Literacy Panelists at six of the nine tables reviewed NALS items from the quan- titative literacy scale. A complete listing of all judgments made by each panelist who reviewed the quantitative literacy scale at the July standard- setting session is presented in Tables C-6A, C-6B, and C-6C. The Occasion 1 (top three graphs) and Occasion 2 (bottom three graphs) bookmark locations and corresponding scale scores reported by each panelist by round and rp level are given in Figure C-3. Panelists at Table 2 and 3 used rp80, panelists at Table 5 and 6 used rp67, and panelists at Tables 8 and 9 used rp50. Overall, panelists tended to approach consensus on the cut scores for the basic and intermediate performance levels, although this was not true for Tables 3 or 5. Considerable disparity was evident in the cut scores for the advanced level, and this variability was maintained across all three rounds. Summary statistics on the combined Occasion 1 and Occasion 2 data are given in Table C-7. The standard error was highest in the basic and advanced performance levels for rp67 and in the intermediate performance level for rp80.

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 231 Results from Comparison of Different Response Probability Levels The purpose of using the different response probability instructions was to evaluate the extent to which the different response probability crite- ria influenced panelists’ judgments about bookmark placements. It would be expected that panelists using the lower probability criteria would place their bookmarks later in the ordered item booklets, and, as the probability criteria increase, the bookmarks would be placed earlier in the booklet. Bookmark placements are converted to scaled scores in two steps. First the item response theory (IRT) model (here, the two-parameter logistic model, or 2PL) is used to calculate the theta value at which an individual would be expected to answer the item correctly at the specified probability level (see equation 3-1 in the technical note to Chapter 3). Then the theta value is transformed to a scale score value using a linear transformation equation. Typically, the IRT model equation estimates the value of theta associ- ated with a 50 percent probability of correctly answering an item. As described in the technical note to Chapter 3, the equation can be solved for different probabilities of a correct response. Thus, when the response prob- ability value is 67, the theta estimate is the value at which one would have 67 percent chance of answering the item correctly. Likewise, when the response probability is 80, the theta estimates the value at which one would have an 80 percent chance of answering the item correctly. For a given item, the theta values will increase as the response probability moves from 50 to 67 to 80; the scaled scores will similarly increase. If panelists apply the different response probabilities correctly, they should shift their bookmark placements in such a way that they compensate exactly for the differences in the way the bookmark placements are trans- lated into thetas and to cut scores. That is, ideally, panelists should com- pensate for the different response criteria by placing their bookmarks ear- lier or later in the ordered item booklet. If they are compensating exactly for the different instructions, the theta (and scale score) associated with the bookmark placement should be identical under the three different response probability instructions, even though the bookmark locations would differ. Given these expectations for panelists’ implementation of the response prob- ability criteria, we further examined both the bookmark placements and the resulting scaled cut scores. In the body of the report, we presented the median results for the Round 3 judgments, as it is these judgments that are typically used in determining the final cut scores. Here we examine the Round 1 judgments, as these would be expected to be more independent than those made after group discussions. In addition, we look at the results separately by occasion. That is, as

232 APPENDIX C shown in the design for the standard setting (see Table C-1), the order in which the literacy areas were assigned to tables of panelists was alternated so that each literacy area was worked on during Occasion 1 by one table and Occasion 2 by another. The panelists worked with the different areas on different days of the standard setting, with time for interaction with other panelists during the evening. We decided that there might be differ- ences in the way the panelists interpreted and implemented the rp instruc- tions on the first occasion, before there was time for conversation with others (despite the instructions that they should not compare their instruc- tions with each other). We therefore examined results for the first occasion and for the two occasions combined. Examination of Bookmark Placements To examine the extent to which panelists adjusted their judgments based on the different response probability instructions, we first examined the bookmark placements. Tables C-8, C-9, and C-10 present the Round 1 median bookmark placements for the different rp values, separated by Occasion 1 and for the two occasions combined. The median bookmark placements for intermediate and advanced on Table C-8 (prose) demon- strate the expected pattern; that is, the median bookmark placements in- creased as the rp criteria decreased. Regression analyses were run to evaluate whether the response prob- ability criteria had a statistically significant effect on bookmark placement. To increase statistical power for detecting differences, the analyses were conducted by combining all of the judgments into a single data set, which resulted in a total of 252 judgments. Because panelists each made multiple judgments, robust standard errors were calculated with clusters at the pan- elist level for evaluating statistical significance. A series of dummy codes were created to represent each combination of literacy area and perfor- mance level. The rp values were maintained in their original numeric form (50, 67, and 80). This regression resulted in an R2 of .91 (p < .001) and a negative coefficient (–.07) for the rp variable, which approached statistical signifi- cance (p = .075). This result suggests a tendency for a negative relationship between rp criteria and bookmark placement. That is, as rp criteria in- creased, bookmark placement tended to decrease (i.e., bookmarks were placed earlier in the ordered item book). On average, over the different literacy areas and performance levels, a coefficient of –.07 for the rp vari- able means that panelists using the rp80 instructions placed their book- marks roughly two items earlier than did the panelists using the rp50 instructions. This is the general pattern that one would expect if panelists were implementing the rp instructions as intended, although the next

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 233 section shows that the size of the difference is smaller than the ideal adjustment. Follow-up analyses were run to examine the effect of the rp criteria separately for each combination of literacy area and performance level, which resulted in nine individual regressions (3 literacy areas × 3 perfor- mance levels). For these analyses, dummy codes were created to represent the rp50 and rp80 conditions. The coefficients associated with the dummy codes provide an indication of the extent to which the panelists adjusted their judgments according to the response probability instructions. If panel- ists were appropriately adjusting their judgments, the coefficient associated with rp50 should be positive (bookmark placed later in the ordered item booklet than when rp67 instructions were used), and the coefficient associ- ated with rp80 should be negative (bookmark placed earlier in the ordered item booklet than when rp67 instructions were used). Tables C-11, C-12, and C-13 present the results for Occasion 1 judg- ments (first column) and for Occasion 1 and 2 judgments (second column), respectively, for prose, document, and quantitative literacy. For Occasion 1, seven of the nine rp50 coefficients are positive, and five of the nine coefficients for rp80 are negative, although very few of the coefficients are statistically significant, even at the significance level of p <.10. Similar results are evident for Occasion 1 and 2 combined: seven of the nine rp50 coefficients are positive, and four of the nine rp80 coefficients are negative. Overall, these results show a statistically weak trend in the direction of the correct adjustment to the different rp conditions.4 Examination of Scaled Cut Scores Regressions were run in a similar fashion when the dependent variable was the scaled cut score. The resulting coefficient for the rp criteria was 1.33, which was statistically significant (p < .001). The value of this coeffi- cient suggests a positive relationship between the rp criteria and scaled cut scores; that is, as rp value increases, so do the cut scores. If it were the case that the panelists were insensitive to the rp instructions—making the same bookmark placements on average in all three rp conditions—a positive relationship between the rp condition and the scaled cut scores would result 4In addition, a follow-up questionnaire asked panelists what adjustments they would have made to their bookmark placements had they been instructed to use different rp criteria. For each of the three rp criteria, panelists were asked if they would have placed their bookmarks earlier or later in the ordered item booklet if they had been assigned to use a different rp instruction. Of the 37 panelists, 27 (73 percent) indicated adjustments that reflected a correct understanding of the rp instructions.

234 APPENDIX C simply from the effect of the rp condition on the equations used to trans- form the bookmark placements into the corresponding scale scores. The preceding section shows that the panelists were not insensitive to the rp conditions, however, making adjustments that tended in the correct direc- tion with borderline statistical significance. Given the strong relationship between the rp condition and the scaled cut scores, however, it is clear that the size of the adjustment made by the panelists falls short of the ideal. As before, a series of follow-up regressions were run, one for each combination of literacy area and performance levels. Dummy codes were again created to represent rp50 and rp80 conditions. If panelists were appropriately adjusting their judgments to compensate for the different response probability instructions, the scale score associated with the book- mark placements should, ideally, be identical under the three conditions. For these analyses, the focus is on the statistical significance of the coeffi- cients; that is, ideally, the coefficients associated with the two rp conditions should not be statistically significant. Tables C-14, C-15, and C-16 present the results for Occasion 1 judg- ments (first column) and for Occasion 1 and 2 judgments (second column), respectively, for prose, document, and quantitative literacy. For Occasion 1, four of the nine rp50 coefficients are statistically significant, and five of the nine rp80 coefficients are statistically significant. For Occasions 1 and 2 combined, four of the nine rp50 coefficients are statistically significant, and six of the nine rp80 coefficients are statistically significant. These results suggest a strong relationship between the rp condition and the scaled cut scores. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee wishes to acknowledge the assistance and contributions of individuals who served as panelists for the bookmark standard setting and provided valuable input on the performance-level descriptions. The complete list of participants appears at the end of Appendix D.

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 235 BACKGROUND MATERIALS July Standard-Setting Session Item Page Agenda 237 Professional and Personal Information Questionnaire 240 Specialized Response Probability Instructions 242 Satisfaction Questionnaire 246 Tables C-1 Design of the Bookmark Standard Setting with NALS Data, July 2004 249 C-2 Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Scale Scores for Prose Literacy, July 2004 250 C-3 Summary Statistics for the Round 3 Judgments for Prose by Response Probability (RP) Level, July 2004 256 C-4 Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Document Literacy, July 2004 258 C-5 Summary Statistics for the Round 3 Judgments for Document Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level, July 2004 264 C-6 Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 266 C-7 Summary Statistics for the Round 3 Judgments for Quantitative Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level, July 2004 272 C-8 Summary of Round 1 Bookmark Placements and Cut Scores for Prose Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level and Occasion, July 2004 273 C-9 Summary of Round 1 Bookmark Placements and Cut Scores for Document Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level and Occasion, July 2004 274 C-10 Summary of Round 1 Bookmark Placements and Cut Scores for Quantitative Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level and Occasion, July 2004 275 C-11 Regression Results for Bookmark Placements for Prose Literacy, July 2004 276 C-12 Regression Results for Bookmark Placements for Document Literacy, July 2004 277

236 APPENDIX C C-13 Regression Results for Bookmark Placements for Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 278 C-14 Regression Results for Cut Scores for Prose Literacy, July 2004 279 C-15 Regression Results for Cut Scores for Document Literacy, July 2004 280 C-16 Regression Results for Cut Scores for Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 281 Figures C-1 Prose literacy cut scores by round for participants at each table, July 2004 282 C-2 Document literacy cut scores by round for participants at each table, July 2004 283 C-3 Quantitative literacy cut scores by round for participants at each table, July 2004 284

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 237 Agenda Bookmark Standard-Setting Session for the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) National Research Council, Washington, DC July 16-19, 2004 Friday, July 16, 2004—The Day Before the Standard-Setting 1:00–2:30 PM Welcome, Introductions Stuart Elliott, Judy Koenig, NRC Rich Patz, Consultant to NRC Training for Table Leaders 2:30–2:45 PM Break 2:45–5:00 PM Training for Table Leaders continued Saturday, July 17, 2004—Day 1 of Standard-Setting 8:00–8:30 AM Participant registration Continental breakfast 8:30–9:00 AM Welcome, Introductions Stuart Elliott, Judy Koenig, NRC Rich Patz, Consultant to NRC 9:00–10:20 AM Training 10:20–10:30 AM Break 10:30 AM–Noon Training continued Noon–1:00 PM Lunch 1:00–2:00 PM Round 1 (1st subject area) Participants review all items of NALS (1st subject area) individually 2:00–4:00 PM Participants at each table, as a group, study and discuss items in the ordered item booklets

238 APPENDIX C 3:30–4:15 PM Additional training for bookmark procedure 3:30 – 3:40 PM – Tables 7, 8, 9 3:45 – 3:55 PM – Tables 4, 5, 6 4:05 – 4:15 PM – Tables 1, 2, 3 4:00–5:00 PM Bookmark placement directions given and Round 1 judgments made (judgments are made individually) 5:00 PM First day adjourned Sunday, July 18, 2004— Day 2 of Standard-Setting 7:30–8:00 AM Continental breakfast 8:00–9:45 AM Round 2 (1st subject area) Tables receive data from their Round 1 judgments Bookmark directions given for Round 2 As a group, discussion about Round 1 data Round 2 judgments made individually 9:45–10:30 AM Break 10:30 AM–Noon Round 3 (2nd subject area) Tables receive impact data from their Round 2 judgments Bookmark directions given for Round 3 As a group, discussion about Round 2 data Round 3 judgments made individually Individually, each panelist suggests edits to performance-level descriptions 1:30–2:30 PM Round 1 (2nd subject area) Participants review all items of NALS (2nd subject area) individually 2:30–4:30 PM Participants at each table, as a group, study and discuss items in the ordered item booklets

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 239 4:30–5:30 PM Bookmark placement directions given and Round 1 judgments made (judgments are made individually) 5:30 PM Second day adjourned Monday, July 19, 2004—Day 3 of Standard-Setting 7:30–8:00 AM Breakfast on one’s own; please save receipts 8:00–9:45 AM Round 2 (2nd subject area) Tables receive data from their Round 1 judgments Bookmark directions given for Round 2 bookmark placement As a group, discussion about Round 1 data Round 2 judgments made individually 9:45–10:30 AM Break 10:30 AM–Noon Round 3 (2nd subject area) Tables receive impact data from their Round 2 judgments placement As a group, discussion about Round 2 data Round 3 judgments made individually Individually, each panelist suggests edits to performance-level descriptions Noon–1:00 PM Group discussion 1:00 PM Standard setting meeting adjourned 1:00–1:30 PM Box lunch 1:30–2:30 PM Large-group discussion on NALS performance-level descriptions

240 APPENDIX C Professional and Personal Information Questionnaire Bookmark Standard-Setting Session for NALS July 17-19, 2004 National Research Council, Washington, DC Please answer the following questions in order for us to better understand the characteristics of our group of standard-setting participants. 1. Do your professional responsibilities include direct or managerial responsibilities for the education of adults? _____ No. Please characterize your professional responsibilities: _____ Yes. For how many years have you had such responsibilities? If you answered ‘yes’ to question 1, please answer the following questions: 2. I am involved in adult education in the following roles (please check all that apply): _____ I am directly involved as an instructor _____ I am involved in a managerial capacity 3. How would you characterize the educational setting for these adults (check all that apply): _____ Traditional high school _____ English language instruction _____ Vocational high school _____ Community college _____ Alternative high school _____ 4-year college or university _____ Adult basic education _____ Graduate or professional program school _____ GED program _____ Other. Please describe: __________________________________

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 241 4. How familiar were you with the National Adult Literacy Survey (a.k.a. NALS) before your participation in the standard-setting activities? _____ Unfamiliar _____ Somewhat familiar _____ Very familiar Please tell us about yourself (optional): Gender: _____ Male _____ Female Age: _____ 20-29 _____ 30-39 _____ 40-49 _____ 50-59 _____ 60-69 _____ 70+ Race/Ethnicity: _____________

242 APPENDIX C Specialized Response Probability Instructions Used for the July Standard- Setting Session Instructions for RP50 Items in your booklet are ordered from easiest to most difficult. The easiest items can be answered correctly with a probability of .50 (i.e., 50 percent of the time) by the most people. The most difficult items can be answered correctly with a probability of .50 by the least number of people. In careful consideration of each performance-level description and each item’s diffi- culty, your task is to identify those skills (represented by items) that you expect persons in each literacy performance level to answer correctly with a probability of at least .50. First, to establish your Basic Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Basic Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 50 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be an- swered correctly at least 50 percent of the time by adults in your Basic Literacy performance level. Items coming after your bookmark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 50 percent of the time by some adults in your Basic Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Basic Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your bookmark with probability just at or above .50 (50 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probability just below .50. Next, to establish your Intermediate Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Intermediate Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 50 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be answered correctly at least 50 percent of the time by adults in your Intermediate Literacy performance level. Items coming after your book- mark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 50 percent of the time by some adults in your Intermediate Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Intermediate Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your book- mark with probability just at or above .50 (50 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probabil- ity just below .50.

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 243 Finally, to establish your Advanced Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Advanced Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 50 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be answered correctly at least 50 percent of the time by adults in your Advanced Literacy performance level. Items coming after your book- mark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 50 percent of the time by some adults in your Advanced Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Advanced Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your book- mark with probability just at or above .50 (50 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probabil- ity just below .50. Instructions for RP67 Items in your booklet are ordered from easiest to most difficult. The easiest items can be answered correctly with a probability of .67 (i.e., 67 percent of the time) by the most people. The most difficult items can be answered correctly with a probability of .67 by the least number of people. In careful consideration of each performance-level description and each item’s diffi- culty, your task is to identify those skills (represented by items) that you expect persons in each literacy performance level to answer correctly with probability of at least .67. First, to establish your Basic Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Basic Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 67 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be an- swered correctly at least 67 percent of the time by adults in your Basic Literacy performance level. Items coming after your bookmark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 67 percent of the time by some adults in your Basic Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Basic Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your bookmark with probability just at or above .67 (67 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probability just below .67. Next, to establish your Intermediate Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults

244 APPENDIX C with Intermediate Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 67 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be answered correctly at least 67 percent of the time by adults in your Intermediate Literacy performance level. Items coming after your book- mark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 67 percent of the time by some adults in your Intermediate Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Intermediate Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your book- mark with probability just at or above .67 (67 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probabil- ity just below .67. Finally, to establish your Advanced Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Advanced Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 67 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be answered correctly at least 67 percent of the time by adults in your Advanced Literacy performance level. Items coming after your book- mark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 67 percent of the time by some adults in your Advanced Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Advanced Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your book- mark with probability just at or above .67 (67 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probabil- ity just below .67. Instructions for RP80 Items in your booklet are ordered from easiest to most difficult. The easiest items can be answered correctly with a probability of .80 (i.e., 80 percent of the time) by the most people. The most difficult items can be answered correctly with a probability of .80 by the least number of people. In careful consideration of each performance-level description and each item’s diffi- culty, your task is to identify those skills (represented by items) that you expect persons in each literacy performance level to answer correctly with probability at least .80. First, to establish your Basic Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Basic Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 80 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be an-

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 245 swered correctly at least 80 percent of the time by adults in your Basic Literacy performance level. Items coming after your bookmark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 80 percent of the time by some adults in your Basic Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Basic Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your bookmark with probability just at or above .80 (80 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probability just below .80. Next, to establish your Intermediate Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Intermediate Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 80 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be answered correctly at least 80 percent of the time by adults in your Intermediate Literacy performance level. Items coming after your book- mark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 80 percent of the time by some adults in your Intermediate Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Intermediate Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your book- mark with probability just at or above .80 (80 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probabil- ity just below .80. Finally, to establish your Advanced Literacy performance level: Place your bookmark to identify those items which you believe adults with Advanced Literacy skills should be able to answer correctly at least 80 percent of the time. Items coming before your bookmark will be answered correctly at least 80 percent of the time by adults in your Advanced Literacy performance level. Items coming after your book- mark may be answered correctly, but they will be answered correctly less than 80 percent of the time by some adults in your Advanced Literacy performance level. The least literate adult who meets your Advanced Literacy standard will be able to answer the items just before your book- mark with probability just at or above .80 (80 percent). This same adult will be able to answer the items just after your bookmark with probabil- ity just below .80.

246 APPENDIX C Satisfaction Questionnaire Bookmark Standard-Setting Session for the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) National Research Council, Washington, DC July 17-19, 2004 Thank you for participating in the standard-setting meeting for the Na- tional Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). In order to help improve future stan- dard-setting meetings, please complete the following questionnaire about your experiences this weekend. 1. How satisfied were you with the advance information given to you about the standard-setting meeting (e.g., memos with information about the hotel, location of the meeting)? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: 2. How satisfied were you with the food provided during the meeting? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: 3. How satisfied were you with your hotel accommodations? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: 4. How satisfied were you with the training you received on Saturday morning? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 247 Please explain: 5. How satisfied were you with the room assignments and table discussions? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: 6. How satisfied were you with the contributions and guidance of the table leaders? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: 7. How satisfied were you with the organization of the standard- setting meeting? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: 8. How satisfied were you with the cut scores decided by your table? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: 9. How valuable do you feel your contribution was to the outcomes of the standard-setting meeting? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain:

248 APPENDIX C 10. How valuable was your participation in the standard-setting meet- ing to you? Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied Please explain: Please feel free to add additional suggestions or comments about the standard-setting meeting. Thank you!

TABLE C-1 Design of the Bookmark Standard Setting with NALS Data, July 2004 RP 80 RP 67 RP 50 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 First Literacy Area: Prose Quant. Doc. Prose Quant. Doc. Prose Quant. Doc. Second Literacy Area: Doc. Prose Quant. Doc. Prose Quant. Doc. Prose Quant. 249

250 TABLE C-2A Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Basic, Prose Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 1.1 1 0.80 1 11 262 11 262 6 226 1.2 1 0.80 1 14 276 11 262 10 256 1.3 1 0.80 1 6 226 6 226 6 226 1.4 1 0.80 1 8 250 8 250 6 226 2.1 2 0.80 2 6 226 6 226 6 226 2.2 2 0.80 2 11 262 11 262 12 263 2.3 2 0.80 2 8 250 8 250 8 250 2.4 2 0.80 2 6 226 6 226 6 226 2.5 2 0.80 2 3 208 5 224 6 226 4.1 4 0.67 1 5 197 6 211 5 197 4.2 4 0.67 1 5 197 6 211 5 197 4.3 4 0.67 1 7 225 7 225 6 211 4.4 4 0.67 1 10 241 7 225 5 197 4.5 4 0.67 1 11 242 7 225 5 197 5.1 5 0.67 2 5 197 6 211 6 211

5.2 5 0.67 2 7 225 6 211 6 211 5.3 5 0.67 2 5 197 6 211 6 211 5.4 5 0.67 2 7 225 6 211 6 211 5.5 5 0.67 2 7 225 6 211 6 211 7.1 7 0.50 1 5 171 10 217 10 217 7.2 7 0.50 1 10 217 10 217 10 217 7.3 7 0.50 1 10 217 10 217 10 217 7.4 7 0.50 1 12 230 12 230 12 230 8.1 8 0.50 2 6 194 6 194 6 194 8.2 8 0.50 2 6 194 6 194 6 194 8.3 8 0.50 2 7 195 6 194 6 194 8.4 8 0.50 2 5 171 8.5 8 0.50 2 6 194 6 194 6 194 Missing data: Participant 8.4 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. aThe first participant at each table (i.e. 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark placements). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 251

252 TABLE C-2B Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Intermediate, Prose Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 1.1 1 0.80 1 20 289 23 316 23 316 1.2 1 0.80 1 23 316 23 316 22 314 1.3 1 0.80 1 23 316 23 316 23 316 1.4 1 0.80 1 18 287 23 316 24 317 2.1 2 0.80 2 20 289 20 289 20 289 2.2 2 0.80 2 20 289 20 289 20 289 2.3 2 0.80 2 22 314 20 289 20 289 2.4 2 0.80 2 20 289 20 289 20 289 2.5 2 0.80 2 15 277 15 277 20 289 4.1 4 0.67 1 20 270 24 300 20 270 4.2 4 0.67 1 24 300 24 300 24 300 4.3 4 0.67 1 20 270 24 300 20 270 4.4 4 0.67 1 24 300 24 300 20 270 4.5 4 0.67 1 23 297 24 300 20 270

5.1 5 0.67 2 15 260 16 263 16 263 5.2 5 0.67 2 29 325 29 325 16 263 5.3 5 0.67 2 7 225 16 263 16 263 5.4 5 0.67 2 20 270 16 263 16 263 5.5 5 0.67 2 24 300 24 300 24 300 7.1 7 0.50 1 20 251 23 276 23 276 7.2 7 0.50 1 24 278 24 278 24 278 7.3 7 0.50 1 23 276 23 276 23 276 7.4 7 0.50 1 29 294 25 281 25 281 8.1 8 0.50 2 20 251 20 251 20 251 8.2 8 0.50 2 15 233 15 233 15 233 8.3 8 0.50 2 31 301 26 285 26 285 8.4 8 0.50 2 23 276 8.5 8 0.50 2 23 276 26 285 26 285 Missing data: Participant 8.4 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. a The first participant at each table (i.e. 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark placements). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 253

254 TABLE C-2C Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Advanced, Prose Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 1.1 1 0.80 1 34 371 34 371 30 349 1.2 1 0.80 1 33 363 33 363 32 362 1.3 1 0.80 1 39 433 39 433 39 433 1.4 1 0.80 1 26 329 34 371 32 362 2.1 2 0.80 2 24 317 24 317 27 333 2.2 2 0.80 2 32 362 30 349 32 362 2.3 2 0.80 2 37 410 32 362 32 362 2.4 2 0.80 2 25 324 24 317 27 333 2.5 2 0.80 2 25 324 24 317 24 317 4.1 4 0.67 1 38 401 39 407 34 343 4.2 4 0.67 1 34 343 38 401 34 343 4.3 4 0.67 1 30 329 38 401 24 300 4.4 4 0.67 1 40 424 40 424 37 391 4.5 4 0.67 1 36 359 37 391 36 359

5.1 5 0.67 2 33 336 33 336 33 336 5.2 5 0.67 2 40 424 40 424 33 336 5.3 5 0.67 2 20 270 33 336 33 336 5.4 5 0.67 2 37 391 40 424 33 336 5.5 5 0.67 2 31 333 33 336 33 336 7.1 7 0.50 1 37 370 37 370 37 370 7.2 7 0.50 1 39 378 40 380 40 380 7.3 7 0.50 1 40 380 40 380 40 380 7.4 7 0.50 1 36 333 36 333 36 333 8.1 8 0.50 2 31 301 31 301 31 301 8.2 8 0.50 2 30 300 30 300 30 300 8.3 8 0.50 2 36 333 36 333 36 333 8.4 8 0.50 2 32 305 8.5 8 0.50 2 38 378 37 370 37 370 Missing data: Participant 8.4 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. a The first participant at each table (i.e. 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark placements). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 255

256 TABLE C-3 Summary Statistics for the Round 3 Judgments for Prose by Response Probability (RP) Level, July 2004 Basic Intermediate Advanced RP level 0.50 0.67 0.80 0.50 0.67 0.80 0.50 0.67 0.80 Bookmark: Median 8.00 6.00 6.00 23.50 20.00 20.00 36.50 33.00 32.00 Mean 8.25 5.60 7.33 22.75 19.20 21.33 35.88 33.00 30.56 Std. Dev. 2.49 0.52 2.24 3.69 3.16 1.66 3.68 3.46 4.30 Cut Score: Median 205.61 210.58 226.09 277.1 269.52 289.34 351.6 336.25 362.36 Mean 207.21 205.25 236.24 270.88 273.01 301.03 345.76 341.59 357.25 Std. Dev. 14.33 6.88 15.53 18.70 14.28 13.89 33.73 22.66 32.98 Std. Error 5.07 2.18 5.18 6.61 4.52 4.63 11.93 7.17 10.99 N 8 10 9 8 10 9 8 10 9

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 257 TABLE C-4 FOLLOWS

258 TABLE C-4A Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Basic, Document Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 1.1 1 0.80 2 12 211 12 211 12 211 1.2 1 0.80 2 15 217 14 215 14 215 1.3 1 0.80 2 12 211 12 211 12 211 1.4 1 0.80 2 10 202 10 202 10 202 3.1 3 0.80 1 21 233 18 224 18 224 3.2 3 0.80 1 18 224 18 224 18 224 3.3 3 0.80 1 12 211 12 211 12 211 3.4 3 0.80 1 12 211 18 224 18 224 4.1 4 0.67 2 10 185 10 185 10 185 4.2 4 0.67 2 10 185 10 185 10 185 4.3 4 0.67 2 13 190 10 185 10 185 4.4 4 0.67 2 10 185 10 185 10 185 4.5 4 0.67 2 10 185 10 185 10 185

6.1 6 0.67 1 15 193 17 202 17 202 6.2 6 0.67 1 17 202 17 202 17 202 6.3 6 0.67 1 11 187 15 193 15 193 6.4 6 0.67 1 24 215 19 206 19 206 6.5 6 0.67 1 14 191 15 193 15 193 7.1 7 0.50 2 11 159 22 191 22 191 7.2 7 0.50 2 23 184 22 191 22 191 7.3 7 0.50 2 18 176 7.4 7 0.50 2 18 176 22 191 22 191 9.1 9 0.50 1 23 184 23 184 9.2 9 0.50 1 15 173 20 182 9.3 9 0.50 1 23 184 23 184 9.4 9 0.50 1 8 157 23 184 9.5 9 0.50 1 20 182 23 184 Missing data: Participant 7.3 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. Table 9 Round 3 data are missing due to a processing error. aThe first participant of each table (i.e. 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark placements). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 259

260 TABLE C-4B Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Intermediate, Document Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 1.1 1 0.80 2 40 257 40 257 40 257 1.2 1 0.80 2 27 240 30 244 30 244 1.3 1 0.80 2 40 257 40 257 40 257 1.4 1 0.80 2 42 260 42 260 42 260 3.1 3 0.80 1 48 276 48 276 48 276 3.2 3 0.80 1 43 261 47 275 45 267 3.3 3 0.80 1 48 276 48 276 48 276 3.4 3 0.80 1 48 276 48 276 48 276 4.1 4 0.67 2 47 247 47 247 47 247 4.2 4 0.67 2 56 271 49 253 49 253 4.3 4 0.67 2 34 226 51 255 51 255 4.4 4 0.67 2 34 226 47 247 47 247

4.5 4 0.67 2 38 233 47 247 47 247 6.1 6 0.67 1 48 252 56 271 56 271 6.2 6 0.67 1 56 271 56 271 56 271 6.3 6 0.67 1 38 233 51 255 51 255 6.4 6 0.67 1 58 284 56 271 56 271 6.5 6 0.67 1 44 242 44 242 51 255 7.1 7 0.50 2 46 222 53 226 53 226 7.2 7 0.50 2 44 216 44 216 44 216 7.3 7 0.50 2 53 226 7.4 7 0.50 2 42 221 46 222 46 222 9.1 9 0.50 1 55 211 55 211 9.2 9 0.50 1 42 221 53 226 9.3 9 0.50 1 46 222 55 211 9.4 9 0.50 1 32 199 55 211 9.5 9 0.50 1 47 227 55 211 Missing data: Participant 7.3 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. Table 9 Round 3 data are missing due to a processing error. aThe first participant of each table (i.e. 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark placements). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 261

262 TABLE C-4C Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Advanced, Document Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 1.1 1 0.80 2 58 310 58 310 58 310 1.2 1 0.80 2 41 259 48 276 48 276 1.3 1 0.80 2 58 310 58 310 58 310 1.4 1 0.80 2 64 330 64 330 64 330 3.1 3 0.80 1 68 378 70 386 70 386 3.2 3 0.80 1 64 330 64 330 64 330 3.3 3 0.80 1 71 388 69 380 69 380 3.4 3 0.80 1 66 343 66 343 66 343 4.1 4 0.67 2 65 296 65 296 69 324 4.2 4 0.67 2 69 324 69 324 69 324 4.3 4 0.67 2 57 279 69 324 69 324 4.4 4 0.67 2 65 296 65 296 65 296 4.5 4 0.67 2 58 284 69 324 69 324

6.1 6 0.67 1 73 378 73 378 73 378 6.2 6 0.67 1 73 378 73 378 73 378 6.3 6 0.67 1 71 359 72 363 72 363 6.4 6 0.67 1 72 363 72 363 72 363 6.5 6 0.67 1 73 378 73 378 73 378 7.1 7 0.50 2 65 279 67 286 67 286 7.2 7 0.50 2 69 327 68 305 68 305 7.3 7 0.50 2 72 358 7.4 7 0.50 2 67 286 65 279 65 279 9.1 9 0.50 1 70 339 70 339 9.2 9 0.50 1 65 279 68 305 9.3 9 0.50 1 72 358 70 339 9.4 9 0.50 1 55 211 68 305 9.5 9 0.50 1 65 279 68 305 Missing data: Participant 7.3 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. Table 9 Round 3 data are missing due to a processing error. aThe first participant of each table (i.e. 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark placements). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 263

264 TABLE C-5 Summary Statistics for the Round 3 Judgments for Document Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level, July 2004 Basic Intermediate Advanced RP Level 0.50 0.67 0.80 0.50 0.67 0.80 0.50 0.67 0.8 0 Bookmark: Median 8.00 6.00 6.00 23.50 20.00 20.00 36.50 33.00 32.00 Mean 22.25 13.30 14.25 52.00 51.10 42.63 68.00 70.40 62.13 Std. Dev. 1.04 3.65 3.28 4.44 3.75 6.16 1.60 2.63 7.22 Cut Score: Median 190.17 188.96 213.00 232.80 254.96 263.50 304.89 343.38 330.00 Mean 189.49 192.28 215.25 230.16 257.30 264.14 306.68 345.05 333.13 Std. Dev. 2.55 8.54 8.10 5.10 10.27 11.68 21.30 29.70 36.73 Std. Error 0.90 2.70 2.86 1.80 3.25 4.13 7.53 9.39 12.99 N 8 10 8 8 10 8 8 10 8

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 265 TABLE C-6 FOLLOWS

266 TABLE C-6A Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Basic, Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 2.1 2 0.80 1 14 283 18 300 16 287 2.2 2 0.80 1 18 300 18 300 16 287 2.3 2 0.80 1 13 282 15 284 15 284 2.4 2 0.80 1 16 287 18 300 16 287 2.5 2 0.80 1 17 295 14 283 14 283 3.1 3 0.80 2 8 277 14 283 8 277 3.2 3 0.80 2 14 283 14 283 6 251 3.3 3 0.80 2 6 251 8 277 8 277 3.4 3 0.80 2 8 277 8 277 8 277 5.1 5 0.67 1 5 216 5 216 5 216 5.2 5 0.67 1 6 217 6 217 6 217 5.3 5 0.67 1 5 216 5 216 5 216 5.4 5 0.67 1 1 5 216 5 216 5.5 5 0.67 1 4 211 4 211 4 211 6.1 6 0.67 2 16 272 16 272 16 272

6.2 6 0.67 2 15 271 15 271 15 271 6.3 6 0.67 2 15 271 15 271 15 271 6.4 6 0.67 2 15 271 15 271 15 271 6.5 6 0.67 2 15 271 15 271 15 271 8.1 8 0.50 1 7 222 11 235 11 235 8.2 8 0.50 1 11 235 11 235 8 225 8.3 8 0.50 1 15 258 11 235 11 235 8.4 8 0.50 1 7 222 8 225 8 225 8.5 8 0.50 1 14 250 11 235 11 235 9.1 9 0.50 2 11 235 15 258 15 258 9.2 9 0.50 2 11 235 9.3 9 0.50 2 15 258 15 258 15 258 9.4 9 0.50 2 6 185 14 250 14 250 9.5 9 0.50 2 14 250 14 250 14 250 Missing data: Scale score cutpoint is undefined for bookmark placed on the first item (Participant 5.4, Round 1); Participant 9.2 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. aThe first participant of each table (i.e., 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark placements). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 267

268 TABLE C-6B Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Intermediate, Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 2.1 2 0.80 1 30 349 36 369 30 349 2.2 2 0.80 1 36 369 36 369 32 355 2.3 2 0.80 1 27 342 30 349 30 349 2.4 2 0.80 1 21 322 36 369 30 349 2.5 2 0.80 1 32 355 27 342 27 342 3.1 3 0.80 2 22 326 29 346 22 326 3.2 3 0.80 2 26 334 29 346 20 309 3.3 3 0.80 2 30 349 30 349 30 349 3.4 3 0.80 2 16 287 22 326 16 287 5.1 5 0.67 1 25 307 18 276 18 276 5.2 5 0.67 1 14 271 25 307 25 307 5.3 5 0.67 1 14 271 17 272 17 272 5.4 5 0.67 1 14 271 18 276 18 276 5.5 5 0.67 1 18 276 18 276 18 276 6.1 6 0.67 2 25 307 25 307 25 307 6.2 6 0.67 2 37 347 27 311 27 311

6.3 6 0.67 2 25 307 25 307 25 307 6.4 6 0.67 2 27 311 26 309 27 311 6.5 6 0.67 2 34 338 26 309 26 309 8.1 8 0.50 1 21 263 30 299 30 299 8.2 8 0.50 1 26 284 30 299 26 284 8.3 8 0.50 1 34 310 30 299 30 299 8.4 8 0.50 1 27 288 30 299 29 298 8.5 8 0.50 1 29 298 29 298 29 298 9.1 9 0.50 2 28 289 25 282 25 282 9.2 9 0.50 2 25 282 9.3 9 0.50 2 34 310 25 282 25 282 9.4 9 0.50 2 25 282 25 282 25 282 9.5 9 0.50 2 25 282 25 282 25 282 Missing data: Participant 9.2 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. aThe first participant of each table (i.e., 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark place- ments). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 269

270 TABLE C-6C Participants’ Bookmark Placements and Associated Cut Scores for Advanced, Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 Response Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Participanta Table Probability Occasion BKb SSc BK SS BK SS 2.1 2 0.80 1 39 389 39 389 39 389 2.2 2 0.80 1 41 421 41 421 41 421 2.3 2 0.80 1 43 436 41 421 41 421 2.4 2 0.80 1 39 389 39 389 39 389 2.5 2 0.80 1 42 433 38 382 38 382 3.1 3 0.80 2 39 389 38 382 35 366 3.2 3 0.80 2 35 366 35 366 30 349 3.3 3 0.80 2 42 433 39 389 39 389 3.4 3 0.80 2 31 351 39 389 31 351 5.1 5 0.67 1 41 387 37 347 37 347 5.2 5 0.67 1 37 347 37 347 37 347 5.3 5 0.67 1 25 307 25 307 25 307 5.4 5 0.67 1 30 324 37 347 37 347 5.5 5 0.67 1 32 329 32 329 32 329 6.1 6 0.67 2 43 410 43 410 43 410

6.2 6 0.67 2 43 410 43 410 43 410 6.3 6 0.67 2 39 356 39 356 39 356 6.4 6 0.67 2 43 410 43 410 43 410 6.5 6 0.67 2 43 410 43 410 43 410 8.1 8 0.50 1 39 323 40 351 40 351 8.2 8 0.50 1 40 351 40 351 37 321 8.3 8 0.50 1 43 384 43 384 43 384 8.4 8 0.50 1 35 316 41 359 37 321 8.5 8 0.50 1 41 359 41 359 41 359 9.1 9 0.50 2 39 323 39 323 39 323 9.2 9 0.50 2 37 321 9.3 9 0.50 2 42 360 40 351 40 351 9.4 9 0.50 2 38 322 39 323 39 323 9.5 9 0.50 2 39 323 39 323 39 323 Missing data: Participant 9.2 left after Round 1 of Occasion 2 due to a schedule conflict. aThe first participant of each table (i.e., 1.1, 2.1, …, 9.1) is the table leader. bDenotes the item number in the ordered item booklet on which the bookmark was placed (see pg. 112 for explanation of bookmark place- ments). cDenotes the cut score associated with the bookmark placement. It is the RP location for the last item before the bookmark placement, converted to a scale score. 271

272 TABLE C-7 Summary Statistics for the Round 3 Judgments for Quantitative Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level, July 2004 Basic Intermediate Advanced RP level 0.50 0.67 0.80 0.50 0.67 0.80 0.50 0.67 0.8 0 Bookmark: Median 11.00 10.50 14.00 26.00 25.00 30.00 39.00 38.00 39.00 Mean 11.89 10.10 11.89 27.11 22.60 26.33 39.44 37.90 37.00 Std. Dev. 2.76 5.40 4.26 2.32 4.25 5.61 1.88 5.86 4.09 Cut Score: Median 235.05 244.34 283.36 283.52 307.18 348.64 323.45 351.40 389.15 Mean 241.14 243.59 279.13 289.43 295.22 334.9 339.92 367.46 384.23 Std. Dev. 12.85 29.51 11.45 8.66 17.64 23.10 22.51 39.28 26.33 Std. Error 4.28 9.33 3.82 2.89 5.58 7.70 7.50 12.42 8.78 N 9 10 9 9 10 9 9 10 9

TABLE C-8 Summary of Round 1 Bookmark Placements and Cut Scores for Prose Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level and Occasion, July 2004 Basic Intermediate Advanced RP Level 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.80 0.67 0.50 Occasion 1 Median bookmark placement 9.5 7.0 10.0 21.5 23.0 23.5 33.5 36.0 38.0 Median cut score 256.0 225.0 217.0 302.5 297.0 277.0 367.0 359.0 374.0 N 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 Occasions 1 and 2 Median bookmark placement 8.0 7.0 6.0 20.0 21.5 23.0 32.0 35.0 36.0 Median cut score 250.0 225.0 194.0 289.0 283.0 276.0 362.0 351.0 333.0 N 9 10 9 9 10 9 9 10 9 273

274 TABLE C-9 Summary of Round 1 Bookmark Placements and Cut Scores for Document Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level and Occasion, July 2004 Basic Intermediate Advanced RP Level 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.80 0.67 0.50 Occasion 1 Median bookmark placement 15.0 15.0 20.0 48.0 48.0 46.0 67.0 73.0 65.0 Median cut score 217.5 193.0 182.0 276.0 252.0 221.0 360.5 378.0 279.0 N 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 Occasions 1 and 2 Median bookmark placement 12.0 12.0 18.0 42.5 45.5 46.0 64.0 70.0 67.0 Median cut score 211.0 188.5 176.0 260.5 244.5 221.0 330.0 341.5 286.0 N 8 10 9 8 10 9 8 10 9

TABLE C-10 Summary of Round 1 Bookmark Placements and Cut Scores for Quantitative Literacy by Response Probability (RP) Level and Occasion, July 2004 Basic Intermediate Advanced RP Level 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.80 0.67 0.50 0.80 0.67 0.50 Occasion 1 Median bookmark placement 19.0 5.0 11.0 30.0 14.0 27.0 41.0 32.0 40.0 Median cut score 287.0 216.0 235.0 349.0 271.0 288.0 421.0 329.0 351.0 N 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Occasions 1 and 2 Median bookmark placement 14.0 10.5 11.0 27.0 25.0 26.5 39.0 40.0 39.0 Median cut score 283.0 271.0 235.0 342.0 307.0 286.0 389.0 371.5 323.0 N 9 9 10 9 10 10 9 10 10 275

276 APPENDIX C TABLE C-11 Regression Results for Bookmark Placements for Prose Literacy, July 2004 Occasion 1 Occasions 1 and 2 Number of Panelists 13 28 Basic RP50 1.65a (2.06)b 0.54 (1.25) RP80 2.15 (2.06) 1.21 (1.25) Constant 7.60 (1.37) 6.90 (0.86) R2 0.11 0.04 Intermediate RP50 1.80 (1.86) 2.51 (2.18) RP80 –1.20 (1.86) –0.49 (2.18) Constant 22.2 (1.24) 20.60 (1.50) R2 0.19 0.07 Advanced RP50 2.40 (2.64) 1.54 (2.41) RP80 –2.6 (2.64) –3.34 (2.41) Constant 35.6 (1.76) 33.9 (1.66) R2 0.24 0.14 aRegression coefficient. bStandard error.

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 277 TABLE C-12 Regression Results for Bookmark Placements for Document Literacy, July 2004 Occasion 1 Occasions 1 and 2 Number of Panelists 13 27 Basic RP50 1.60a (3.40)b 4.27* (2.13) RP80 –0.45 (3.61) 0.60 (2.20) Constant 16.20 (2.41) 13.40 (1.46) R2 0.03 0.16 Intermediate RP50 –4.40 (4.58) –0.08 (3.59) RP80 –2.05 (4.86) –3.30 (3.70) Constant 48.8 (3.23) 45.3 (2.47) R2 0.08 0.04 Advanced RP50 –7.0* (2.72) –0.93 (3.20) RP80 –5.15 (2.89) –6.35* (3.31) Constant 72.4 (1.92) 67.6 (2.20) R2 0.39 0.15 aRegression coefficient. bStandard error. *p < .10.

278 APPENDIX C TABLE C-13 Regression Results for Bookmark Placements for Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 Occasion 1 Occasions 1 and 2 Number of Panelists 14 29 Basic RP50 6.60a** (2.10) b 1.40 (1.72) RP80 11.40** (2.16) 2.97 (1.72) Constant 4.20 (1.49) 9.70 (1.22) R2 0.79 0.07 Intermediate RP50 10.40* (2.87) 4.1 (3.20) RP80 12.20** (2.95) 3.37 (3.20) Constant 17.00 (2.03) 23.3 (2.27) R2 0.58 0.08 Advanced RP50 6.60* (2.05) 1.70 (2.59) RP80 7.80* (2.11) 1.40 (2.59) Constant 33.00 (1.45) 37.6 (1.83) R2 0.46 0.03 aRegression coefficient bStandard error *p < .10 **p < .01

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 279 TABLE C-14 Regression Results for Cut Scores for Prose Literacy, July 2004 Occasion 1 Occasions 1 and 2 Number of Panelists 13 28 Basic RP50 –11.65a (16.37) b –18.99* (8.91) RP80 33.10* (14.62) 25.70* (9.46) Constant 220.40 (10.22) 217.10 (5.85) R2 0.45 0.47 Intermediate RP50 –12.65 (11.39) –11.03 (11.54) RP80 14.60 (10.80) 14.52 (10.25) Constant 287.40 (7.27) 281.70 (8.99) R2 0.35 0.18 Advanced RP50 –5.95 (21.21) –19.00 (19.39) RP80 2.80 (28.12) –1.78 (20.62) Constant 371.20 (18.24) 361.00 (15.51) R2 0.01 0.04 aRegression coefficient. bStandard error. *p < .10.

280 APPENDIX C TABLE C-15 Regression Results for Cut Scores for Document Literacy, July 2004 Occasion 1 Occasions 1 and 2 Number of Panelists 14 28 Basic RP50 –21.60a* (7.25)b –16.80** (4.67) RP80 22.15** (7.28) 23.20** (4.57) Constant 197.60 (5.04) 191.80 (3.10) R2 0.76 0.74 Intermediate RP50 –40.40** (10.69) –30.17** (7.17) RP80 15.85 (10.12) 14.38* (7.92) Constant 256.40 (9.44) 248.50 (6.56) R2 0.76 0.61 Advanced RP50 –78.00* (26.52) –31.72 (20.81) RP80 –11.45 (14.17) –2.50 (19.56) Constant 371.20 (4.25) 333.50 (13.33) R2 0.52 0.11 aRegression coefficient. bStandard error. *p < .10. **p < .01.

STANDARD-SETTING SESSION WITH 1992 NALS DATA 281 TABLE C-16 Regression Results for Cut Scores for Quantitative Literacy, July 2004 Occasion 1 Occasions 1 and 2 Number of Panelists 14 29 Basic RP50 22.20a** (7.37)b –8.20 (11.67) RP80 74.20** (3.66) 38.47** (10.42) Constant 215.20 (1.07) 243.20 (9.36) R2 0.92 0.46 Intermediate RP50 9.40 (10.51) –11.80 (9.92) RP80 68.20** (10.45) 36.40* (11.85) Constant 279.20 (7.02) 300.60 (8.85) R2 0.80 0.47 Advanced RP50 7.80 (18.41) –30.80* (14.97) RP80 74.80** (17.12) 31.78* (16.64) Constant 338.80 (13.63) 369.00 (13.01) R2 0.65 0.40 aRegression coefficient. bStandard error. *p < .10. **p < .01.

Table 1 RP-80 Table 4 RP-67 Table 7 RP-50 282 425 425 425 375 375 375 325 325 325 275 275 275 Scale Score 225 225 225 175 175 175 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Round Round Round Table 2 RP-80 Table 5 RP-67 Table 8 RP-50 425 425 425 375 375 375 325 325 325 275 275 275 Scale Score 225 225 225 175 175 175 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Round Round Round FIGURE C-1 Prose literacy cut scores by round for participants at each table, July 2004. Symbols indicate basic (∆), intermediate (*), and advanced (∇) cut-score judgments. Round 3 medians are depicted by standalone symbols.

Table 3 RP-80 Table 6 RP-67 Table 9 RP-50 425 425 425 375 375 375 325 325 325 275 275 275 Scale Score 225 225 225 175 175 175 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Round Round Round Table 1 RP-80 Table 4 RP-67 Table 7 RP-50 425 425 425 375 375 375 325 325 325 275 275 275 Scale Score 225 225 225 175 175 175 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Round Round Round FIGURE C-2 Document literacy cut scores by round for participants at each table, July 2004. Symbols indicate basic (∆), intermedi- ate (*), and advanced (∇) cut-score judgments. Round 3 medians are depicted by standalone symbols. 283

Table 2 RP-80 Table 5 RP-67 Table 8 RP-50 284 425 425 425 375 375 375 325 325 325 275 275 275 Scale Score 225 225 225 175 175 175 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Round Round Round Table 3 RP-80 Table 6 RP-67 Table 9 RP-50 425 425 425 375 375 375 325 325 325 275 275 275 Scale Score 1 2 3 225 225 225 175 175 175 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Round Round Round FIGURE C-3 Quantitative literacy cut scores by round for participants at each table, July 2004. Symbols indicate basic (∆), intermediate (*), and advanced (∇) cut-score judgments. Round 3 medians are depicted by standalone symbols.

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Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults Get This Book
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The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) is a household survey conducted periodically by the Department of Education that evaluates the literacy skills of a sample of adults in the United Stages ages 16 and older. NAAL results are used to characterize adults' literacy skills and to inform policy and programmatic decisions. The Committee on Performance Levels for Adult Literacy was convened at the Department's request for assistance in determining a means for booking assessment results that would be useful and understandable for NAAL'S many varied audiences. Through a process detailed in the book, the committee determined that five performance level categories should be used to characterize adults' literacy skills: nonliterate in English, below basic literacy, basic literacy, intermediate literacy, and advanced literacy. This book documents the process the committee used to determine these performance categories, estimates the percentages of adults whose literacy skills fall into each category, recommends ways to communicate about adults' literacy skills based on NAAL, and makes suggestions for ways to improve future assessments of adult literacy.

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