Biographical Sketches of Committee and Panel Members
Gordon G. Hammes, Ph.D. (Committee Chair), (NAS) is the University Distinguished Service Professor of Biochemistry at Duke University. He joined the faculty at Duke in 1991 and served as Vice Chancellor for Medical Center Academic Affairs from 1991 to 1998. He was a faculty member at MIT and Cornell University prior to his appointment at Duke University. Dr. Hammes’ awards and honors include an award in Biological Chemistry from the American Chemical Society (1967), Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1973), Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1974), National Institutes of Health Fogarty Scholar (1975–1976), and the 2002 William C. Rose award of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He has published more than 225 scientific publications, including two books on chemical kinetics, a book on enzyme catalysis and regulation, a book on thermodynamics and kinetics for the biological sciences, and a book on spectroscopy for the biological sciences. Dr. Hammes received his doctorate in 1959 from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and was a NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the Max Plank Institute, Göttingen, Germany, from 1959 to 1960. During his professional career, Dr. Hammes has been involved in various education and training programs, was president of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and served on NIH training grant and research panels.
Michael M. E. Johns, M.D. (Committee Vice-Chair), (IOM) is Executive Vice President for Health Affairs at Emory University, Director of the Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center and Professor in the Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine. He began his career in the Medical Corp of the U.S. Army as assistant chief of the Otolaryngology Service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1975 to 1977. He joined the Department of Otolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Virginia Medical Center in 1977 and moved to Johns Hopkins University as professor and chair of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery in 1984. He served 6 years as Dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Vice President for Medical Affairs at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Johns is recognized for his work as a cancer surgeon of head and neck tumors and his studies of treatment outcomes. He is the editor of the Archives of Otolaryngology and serves on the editorial board of the Journal of American Medical Association. He is fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, and currently sits on the Council of the Institute of Medicine. He is a member of the National Research Council Governing Board, Chairman of the Association of Academic Health Centers, and is immediate past president of the American Board of Otolaryngology. Dr. Johns obtained his M.D. with honors from the University of Michigan Medical School. During his career, he has been actively involved in the development of educational programs, and was instrumental in the revamping of the Johns Hopkins medical school curriculum to meet changing health care needs. He has expert knowledge in the areas of health care research and in the special issues of clinical research.
Richard Shiffrin, Ph.D., (Committee Vice-Chair), (NAS) is a Distinguished Professor, and the Luther Dana Waterman Professor of Psychology at Indiana University. He joined the faculty at Indiana University after earning his doctorate in Experimental and Mathematical Psychology from Stanford University in 1969. During his tenure at Indiana University he has held visiting professorships at Rockefeller University, University of Queenstown, Brisbane, Australia; and University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Dr. Shiffrin has exploited an adroit combination of experimental discovery and mathematical models to initiate major new developments. His theories of short-term memory, of automatic and controlled processes in attention, and of the processes of retrieval from long-term memory have profoundly influenced the course of cognitive psychology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences, and has served as officer of many professional societies. He is a Guggenheim Fellow, a Warren Medalist of the Society for Experimental Psychology, and has received the Rumelhart Prize for distinguished accomplishments in Cognitive Science. As a co-PI on an NIH NIMH training grant, he has the understanding and knowledge of NIH—NRSA training programs.
Larry Bumpass, Ph.D. (NAS) is Professor Emeritus of Sociology, and Co-Director of the National Survey of Families and Households. His research focuses on the social demography of the family, including cohabitation, marriage, the stability of unions, contraception and fertility, and the implications of these processes for children’s living arrangements and subsequent life-course development. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Bumpass holds a Ph.D. (1968) and an M.A. (1965) in Sociology from the University of Michigan. His knowledge of demographic methods and national databases contributed to the estimation of the current number of researchers in the three major areas, and in making projections about the future need for personnel.
Christine K. Cassel, M.D., MACP (IOM) is Dr. Cassel is President and CEO of the American Board of Internal Medicine and ABIM Foundation in Philadelphia. She is the former Dean of the School of Medicine and Vice President for Medical Affairs at Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Oregon. She is a leading expert in geriatric medicine, medical ethics and quality of care. Among her many professional leadership positions, Dr. Cassel is immediate past-Chair of the ABIM Foundation Board of Trustees, served as Chair of the Board of the Greenwall Foundation, which supports work in bioethics; immediate past-President of the American Federation for Aging Research; and was a member of the Advisory Committee to the Director at the National Institutes of Health. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine Governing Council and has served on previous IOM committees responsible for influential reports on quality of care and medical errors, chaired a recent report on end-of-life care, and co-chaired a report on public health.
William T. Greenough, Ph.D. (NAS) is Swanlund Chair and Center for Advanced Study Director and Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. His research focuses on neural mechanisms of learning and memory; neurobiology of fragile X syndrome; mechanisms of brain-behavioral development; neurobiology of the aging process; recovery from developmental brain damage, and plasticity of metabolic support components of the brain. Dr. Greenough’s awards and honors include AAAS fellow (1985), NIMH MERIT award (1989), member of the National Academy of Sciences (1992), Fragile X Foundation William Rosen Award for Outstanding Research (1998), University of Illinois Oakley-Kunde Award for Undergraduate Teaching (1998), American Psychological Society William James Fellow Research Award (1998) and the American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award (1999). He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1969. He brought to the committee his knowledge of the neuropsychology and learning processes, which is an important area of NIH research. He also has a broad knowledge of training and research issues through his research support from the National Institute of Aging, National Institute of Mental Health, and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and his directorship of a pre- and postdoctoral training grant from NICHHD.
James Jackson, Ph.D., (IOM) is the Daniel Katz Distinguished University Professor of Psychology and Director of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Dr. Jackson’s Research efforts include carrying out a number of national and surveys of black populations focusing on issues of racial and ethnic influences on life course development, attitude change, reciprocity, social support, and coping and health. He obtained his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from Wayne State University. Dr. Jackson is a recognized authority on African American life, and currently has major grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Aging to assess the physical, emotional, mental, and economic health of a nationally representative sample of more than 7,000 African American and Black Caribbean adults. He has expert knowledge of issues related to the underrepresentation of minority groups in biomedical, behavioral, and clinical research.
Lynn Landmesser, Ph.D., (NAS) is currently the Arline H. and Curtis F. Garvin Professors and chair of the Department of Neurosciences in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University. She joined the Case Western Reserve faculty in 1993 as a professor in the Department of Neurosciences. She has also been a served as a faculty member at the University of Connecticut and Yale University. Her professional activities include, service as president of the Society for Developmental Biology and secretary of the Society for Neuroscience, president-elect of the Neuroscience Section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, member of the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH), and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Her research, conducted over the past 30 years, has established basic principles of how nerve cells make accurate connections with other cells, such as muscles, skin or other neurons. She earned her Ph.D. in neurophysiology at the University of California in 1969 and received additional postdoctoral training in physiology at the University of Utah College of Medicine. She contributed valuable knowledge on research and training issues as the holder of two National Institutes of Health research awards and as the principal
investigator on an NIH Predoctoral Neurosciences Training Grant and co-principal investigator on an NIH Developmental Biology Training Grant.
William J. Lennarz, Ph.D., (NAS) is the Distinguished Professor and Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at Stony Brook University, State University of New York. Dr. Lennarz’ research focuses on the Biosynthesis of glycoproteins and the role of cell surface glycoproteins in fertilization and early development. Using the techniques of biochemistry, cell and developmental biology, and more recently, molecular biology, he has made contributions of great importance in biological science. These contributions have been in three principal areas: membrane structure and function; the structure, biosynthesis, and function of glycoproteins; and the role of cell surface proteins in fertilization and embryonic development. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and earned a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois. Dr. Lennarz is a department chair and researcher in a discipline in which a significant number of doctorates are training through the NRSA program.
Joseph B. Martin, M.D., Ph.D., (IOM) is Dean of the Harvard Faculty of Medicine. Prior to returning to the Harvard medical community in July of 1997, he served as Chancellor of the University of California, San Francisco for four years. Dr. Martin initially went to UCSF in 1989 as Dean of the School of Medicine. He began his academic career at McGill University where he became Chair of the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery. Following his tenure at McGill University he joined the faculty of the Harvard Medical School in 1978 as Bullard Professor of Neurology and Chief of Neurology service at Massachusetts General Hospital. His research has focused on hypothalamic regulation of pituitary hormone secretions and on application of neurochemical and molecular genetics to better understand the causes of neurological and neurodegenerative disease. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. He has served on the editorial boards of the New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Neurology, and Science. He received his premedical and medical education at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, receiving the M.D. degree in 1962. He completed a residency in neurology in 1966 and fellowship in neuropathology in 1967 at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and earned his Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Rochester in 1971. He has experience at UCSF and Harvard in the establishment of innovative programs of research and education and in investigating career options open to researchers in the biomedical, behavioral and clinical sciences.
Barbara J. Meyer, Ph.D., (NAS) is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Professor of Genetics and Development at the University of California at Berkeley. She received her Ph.D. training with Mark Ptashne at Harvard University and her postdoctoral training with Sydney Brenner at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, Prior to her current position, she was a tenured faculty member at MIT. Her research is directed toward understanding basic issues in development: how choices are made between alternative cell fates, how cells become restricted in developmental potential prior to differentiation, and how regulatory gene hierarchies control developmental decisions. She also investigates the control of X-chromosome-wide gene expression through the process of dosage compensation and its mechanistic link to higher-order chromatin structure and chromosome segregation during meiosis and mitosis. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She has experience in training issues as well as the perspective of a Howard Hughes Investigator in assessing the NRSA and other training programs at NIH.
Georgine Pion, Ph.D. is Research Associate Professor of Psychology and Human Development and Senior Fellow with the Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies at Vanderbilt University. She received her Ph.D. in social-environmental psychology from Claremont Graduate School in 1980 and did postdoctoral research training in the Division of Methodology and Evaluation Research at Northwestern University. She has served on committees involved in the evaluation of research and health professional training programs and gender differences in the career development of scientists for the National Research Council, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Mental Health. In addition to conducting an evaluation of the NRSA predoctoral training program, she has been involved in several studies related to graduate education and the employment of new doctorates. An Associate of the National Academy of Sciences, she also received a Merit award from the National Institutes of Health for her work on a large-scale survey of NIH applicants and was awarded an Outstanding Leadership Award from Peabody College at Vanderbilt University. Currently, she is involved in directing an evaluation of the neuroscience peer review process at the NIH, evaluating the outcomes of new instructional strategies in biomedical engineering education, and assessing the outcomes of postdoctoral research training programs sponsored by the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and other foundations.
Edward H. Shortliffe, M.D., Ph.D., (IOM) is Deputy Vice President for Information Technology at Columbia University Medical Center and Professor and Chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics at Columbia’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. During the early 1970s, Dr. Shortliffe was principal developer of the medical expert system MYCIN. He also spearheaded the formation of Stanford University’s graduate degree program in medical informatics. He served as Principal Investigator for Stanford’s SUMEX-AIM and CAMIS Computing Resources, which
shared research facilities that supported medical informatics research and training from the early 1970s until 1997. Dr. Shortliffe is a member of the Institute of Medicine, American Society for Clinical Investigation, American College of Medical Informatics, American College of Physicians (Master), Association of American Physicians, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (Fellow), American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, and the American Clinical and Climatological Association. He has a broad range of interests in biomedical informatics, especially decision-support systems, integrated workstations for clinicians, and web-based information dissemination. Education and training in the field are of particular concern. He received his M.D. from Stanford University School of Medicine in 1976, and in 1975 he earned his Ph.D. in Medical Information Sciences from Stanford University. His expertise was used in guiding the analysis of data for this study and in addressing education and training issues in the clinical sciences.
Robert J. Genco, D.D.S., Ph.D. (Panel Chair), (IOM), is a currently Distinguished Professor in the Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, and in the Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences University at Buffalo, State University of New York. He has served as Chair of the Department of Oral Biology and Provost at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York. He is currently Vice President for Research (Interim) and Director of the Office of Science, Technology Transfer, and Economic Outreach (STOR). He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Periodontology and Annals of Periodontology. He received his D.D.S., cum laude, from the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Dentistry, 1963. He also received a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, in Microbiology and Immunology in 1967, and he completed residency training in Periodontology at the University of Pennsylvania in 1967. Dr. Genco’s recognition includes: Basic Research in Oral Science Award (IADR), Deans Medal, George Thorn Award, Research in Periodontal Disease Award (IADR), and Gold Medal for Excellence in Research (American Dental Association). Dr. Genco has over 315 publications and has edited 11 books or Proceedings of Symposia, and has been awarded 9 patents. His current research areas include tissue engineering; developing regenerative procedures using growth factors and other materials for regeneration of osseous tissues; and a series of studies on the effects of infectious diseases and inflammatory mediators on atherosclerotic diseases, and diabetes and its complications. Dr. Genco has been a member of the Institute of Medicine since 1988.
Charles N. Bertolami, D.D.S., D.Med.Sc. is Dean of the School of Dentistry at the University of California, San Francisco where he has served in this capacity since 1995. He has served as president of the American Association for Dental Research (2003–03) and is a nationally recognized expert in the field of connective tissue repair and treatment disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Dr. Bertolami is a member of several editorial boards, including the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and he has more than 25 years of experience with and commitment to the oral health community. He is a diplomat of the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, a fellow of the American College of Dentists and a fellow of the International College of Dentists. He received his D.D.S. degree, summa cum laude, from Ohio State University in1974 and his Doctor of Medical Sciences degree from Harvard in 1979. He served as chief resident at the Massachusetts General Hospital where he did his residency training in oral and maxillofacial surgery. In national and oral health community service, Dr. Bertolami co-chaired the NIDCR Blue Ribbon Panel on Research Training and Career Development (2000) and the NIDCR Workshop on Biometrics, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials (1998). He served as a member of the dental panel for the Committee on Monitoring the Changing Needs for Biomedical Research Personnel of the National Research Council/The National Academies.
Chester Douglass, D.M.D., Ph.D. is Professor and Chair of the Department of Oral Health Policy and Epidemiology in the Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Professor of Epidemiology in the Harvard School of Public Health where he is Director of the Harvard University Oral Epidemiology Doctoral Training Program. Currently, Dr. Douglass is the principal investigator of an NIH study relating water fluoridation and topical fluoride use to the occurrence of osteosarcoma. This national collaborative study is coordinating data collection efforts in ten orthopedic surgery departments throughout the United States. Other major epidemiological studies in which this program is participating include the International Collaborative Study of Children’s Dental Caries. Dr. Douglass also presently serves as the Chief of Service for Dentistry and Oral Surgery in the Cambridge (Massachusetts) Health Alliance which includes 3 hospitals, 2 health departments, and 21 ambulatory care centers in Cambridge, Somerville, and Everett, Massachusetts. A major component of Professor Douglass’ research over the past decade has been the development of methods for combining epidemiological data, demographic trends and patient utilization behavior to document current movements and future expectations regarding the need and demand for dental services. Contrary to initial expectations during the early 1980s of reduced need, his analyses have instead demonstrated that the use of dental services increased during the 1980s and 1990s and that this trend should continue well into the 21st century. His application of behavioral, epidemiological and public health data to this problem was the first to demon-
strate the impact of the aging population on future dental caries and periodontal disease patterns.
Marjorie K. Jeffcoat, D.M.D., is Dean and Professor of Periodontics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Dr. Jeffcoat is the school’s first woman dean and the eleventh in its 125-year history. Prior to her appointment with Penn Dental in July 2003, Dr. Jeffcoat served as Assistant Dean of Research and Professor and Chair of the Department of Periodontics at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Dentistry. A 1976 graduate of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Dr. Jeffcoat also taught periodontology there for 10 years. Among her national committee posts, Dr. Jeffcoat is currently a member of the National Institutes of Health-NIDCR Advisory Committee for Research on Women’s Health, the National Institutes for Dental Research National Advisory Committee, and the American Academy of Periodontology Clinical Trials Committee, the Academy of Osseointegration Board of Directors, and the International Association for Dental Research Board of Directors. In addition, Dr. Jeffcoat is president of the Academy of Osseointegration and a past president of both the American Association for Dental Research and the International Association for Dental Research. Dr. Jeffcoat also serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Periodontology, the Current Opinion in Dentistry, and the Journal of Periodontal Research, and from 2001–2004, was editor of the Journal of the American Dental Association.
Ada Hinshaw Ph.D., (Panel Chair), (IOM), is a nationally recognized contributor to nursing research, and is Dean and Professor at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. Before coming to the University of Michigan, Dr. Hinshaw was the first permanent director of the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Hinshaw led the Institute in its support of valuable research and training in many areas of nursing science, such as disease prevention, health promotion, acute and chronic illness, and the environments that enhance nursing care patient outcomes. Her current research involves an anticipated turnover study for nursing staff and the validity of ratio scales for subjective nursing concepts. From 1975 to 1987, Dr. Hinshaw served as Director of Research and Professor at the University of Arizona College of Nursing in Tucson, and as Director of Nursing Research at the University Medical Center’s Department of Nursing. She has also held faculty positions at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Kansas. Dr. Hinshaw received her Ph.D. and M.A. in Sociology from the University of Arizona, an MSN from Yale University, and a B.S. from the University of Kansas. Her major fields of study included maternal-newborn health, clinical nursing and nursing administration, and instrument development and testing. She was Vice Chair of the Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment of Nurses IOM Committee on the Patient Safety Board on Health Care Services. Dr. Hinshaw currently serves on the 2003 Institute of Medicine Council and has been a member of the Institute of Medicine since 1989.
Sue Karen Donaldson, Ph.D., (IOM) is a Professor of Physiology at The John Hopkins University School of Medicine and is Dean and Professor of Nursing at the School of Nursing. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Washington and her MSN from Wayne State University. Her areas of scholarly expertise and interest are biophysics, physiology and muskuloskeletal diseases. Dr. Donaldson has been a member of the Institute of Medicine since 1993.
Margaret McLean Heitkemper, R.N., Ph.D., FAAN is Chairperson, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, School of Nursing, Corbally Professor in Public Service, and Adjunct Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, University of Washington. She is also Director of the NIH/NINR-funded Center for Women’s Health and Gender Research at the University of Washington and Director of an NCCAM supported Educational Program. Dr. Heitkemper received her BSN in 1973 from Seattle University, her MN in gerontological nursing from the University of Washington in 1975, and her Ph.D. in Physiology and Biophysics from the University of Illinois in 1981. Her research related to women’s health, stress, and gastrointestinal function has been continuously funded by NIH since 1983. She is the author of two nursing textbooks and approximately 100 data-based papers. In 2003, Dr. Heitkemper received the AGA/Janssen award for research in gastroenterology.
Marla Salmon, Ph.D., (IOM) is Dean and Professor of the Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, and Director of the Lillian Carter Center for International Nursing, at Emory University. She formerly served as Director of the Division of Nursing for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and as Chair of the Global Advisory Group on Nursing and Midwifery for the World Health Organization. Dr. Salmon’s research interests have included health policy, administration, and national and international health workforce development, with particular emphasis on the importance of nursing and public health. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, member of the Board of Trustees of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Board of Directors of the National Center for Healthcare Leadership and is both nationally and internationally recognized for her contributions to health policies influencing health care delivery systems. Dr. Salmon is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and has received numerous awards, including the Presidential Meritorious Executive Award and the U.S. Public Health Special Service Award.