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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Index

A

Abalone, 28, 112

Accessory gland proteins, 112

Accommodation, 76.

See also Genetic accommodation

Acoustic adaptations, 103, 219-220

Adaptive allelic replacement, 25-26, 35-36

African firefinch, 106

Agriculture, 61, 63-64, 338

Allocentrotus, 146

fragilis, 151

Allochronic speciation, 136, 212

Allopatric speciation, 41, 42.

See also Phylogeographic patterns

Anopheles, 64, 65

avian, 96, 97, 98, 101-102, 103-104, 145

cichlids, 197

fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 136

genetic drift, 25

inter-locus antagonistic coevolution, 26, 27, 28

Mayr’s model, 9-10, 24, 143, 163, 177

neighbor species, 146, 147, 149, 150

process and pace of, 145

reproductive isolation, 5, 9-10, 11, 20, 24, 25, 27, 37-41, 97, 136, 163

Rhagoletis, 92, 165, 175, 178

sea urchins, 145, 146, 147, 148, 147-149, 152, 153, 154-155, 156, 157

Allopolyploidy, 49

Aluja, Martin, 162-181

Amebozoa, 333

Amino acid replacement, 5, 52, 157-158

Angiosperms, 49

Annelida, 336

Anopheles

adaptation to marginal conditions, 63-64

agriculture and, 61, 63-64

allopatric vs. sympatric species, 64, 65

ancestral species, 60, 63

anthropophilic and domestic, 60, 61, 63

arabiensis, 60, 61, 64, 65

bwambae, 61, 63

chromosomal speciation, 6, 51, 60-66

gambiae, 51, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65

geographic distribution, 60, 61, 63

hybrids, 65

introgression in collinear segments, 166

melas, 61, 62, 63

origins, 62

phylogeny, 62

quadriannulatus, 60-62, 63, 64

reproductive isolation, 60, 62, 63, 64-65

subpictus, 60

zoophilic and exophilic, 60, 61

Antbirds (Thamnophilidae), 104

Antisymmetry, 81

Ants, socially parasitic, 84

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Aphids, 84

Apple (Malus pumila), 165

Aquifex aeolicus, 233, 273

Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea, 136

Arabidopsis thaliana, 338, 341

Arbacia sp., 146, 147, 151-152

Archaea, 270, 271, 273

Archaeoglobus fulgidus, 271, 272, 273, 278

Arctic charr (Salvelinus), 78

Ardipithecus ramidus, 53

Arms-race evolution, 6

genetic, 20;

see also Inter-locus antagonistic coevolution

intersexual, 27-28, 29, 41

interspecific antagonistic coevolution, 25, 28

in reproductive proteins, 113

Artificial chromosome libraries, 113

Artificial selection, directional asymmetry, 81

Ascomycota, 337

Aspergillus nidulans, 337

Association mapping, 287, 288, 302

Assortative mating, 156, 311

Australian grassfinches. See Poephilia

Australian grasshoppers (Morabinae), 50

Australopithecus

afarensis, 53-54

ananmensis, 53

Autopolyploidy, 49

Avian speciation

allopatric, 96, 97, 98, 101-102, 103-104, 145

behavioral factors, 96, 102, 103, 106, 157

bottlenecks, 96

chicken genome project, 95, 97, 110, 111, 112, 113

coloration, 157

cryptic mate choice and, 102, 104, 106, 111-113

delimitation, 96, 97-101

developmental recombination, 75

diagnosability, 97-98, 99

divergence, 98, 99, 103

ecological selection, 96, 102, 103, 104

environmental factors, 83

fast-X evolution, 109-110

gene trees, 98-101

genealogical congruence, 99-101

genetic incompatibilities, 95, 96, 97, 107

habitat-dependent selection, 103, 104

Haldane’s rule, 105, 107-109, 110

hierarchy in, 157

hybridization, 102, 104, 105, 107-109, 110-111

internal factors, 96

intraspecific niche polymorphism, 103

large X(Z)-effect, 105, 109

learning, 96, 103, 104-105

mimicry, 105, 106

molecular research, 95, 96

morphological adaptations, 99, 101, 103, 104, 157

parapatric, 102

phylogeographic patterns, 101-103, 105, 113

plumage, 102, 103-104, 109, 111, 157

Poephilia finches, 98-99

reinforcement, 95, 96, 97, 110-111

reproductive character displacement, 103-104

and reproductive isolation, 84, 95, 97, 101-105, 106, 107, 110-111

reproductive proteins and, 111-113

sea urchins compared, 157

sex chromosomes and, 105-111

sexual conflict, 112-113

sexual imprinting, 96, 104-105, 106

sexual selection, 91, 95, 96, 102, 107-109, 111, 157

Solomon Islands, 96

song and, 101-105, 109, 111

species trees, 99-100

sperm competition, 111, 112-113

sympatric, 91, 96-97, 102, 103-105

Ayala, Francisco J., 6, 46-68

B

Baboons, 76

Bacillus halodurans, 273

Bacillus subtilis, 272, 273, 336, 342

Bacteria

artificial chromosome libraries, 113

barrier to gene exchange, 234-235

base composition analysis, 231-232

clonal evolution, 269, 270, 272

defining species, 236-238

determinants of gene exchange, 234-236

gene replacement, 234

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

genetic distances, 272

genome cohesion, 233-234, 235

genome size, 230

horizontal/lateral gene transfer, 201-202, 229-240, 270-273

ortholog phylogenies, 234, 277

phylogenetic disruption by gene transfer, 231-232, 233-234, 237, 238

speciation attributable to gene acquisition, 238-240

systematic classification, 230

tellurium resistance protein, 237

thermophilic, 271, 272

whole-genome analysis, 277-279

in zebrafish digestive tract, 82

Balakrishnan, Christopher N., 95-119

Balancer chromosomes, 29, 33, 35

Baldwin effect, 7

Basidiomycete, 337

Basidiomycota, 337

Bikonts, 333, 334-335

Bindin evolution, 143, 146-147, 149-152, 153-155, 156, 157-159

Base composition analysis, 231-232, 272

Biodiversity.

See also Species, diversity

global survey, 3

Internet access to collections, ix, 3

Madagascar, 204-205

Biological networks

coexpression, 341

interactions, 344

metabolic, 338-339, 340, 343-344

protein interaction, 340

proteome, 343

regulatory, 338-339, 342-343

scale-free, 340

“small-world” concept, 340

transcriptional, 340-342

Biological species concept, v, vii, 5, 9-10, 20, 47-49, 69, 85, 97, 163, 201, 204, 244-245, 246, 247, 251, 258-261

Biology, future of, 1-4.

See also Systems biology

Bipedalism, 76-77

Birds.

See also Avian speciation

fitness, 107

migrant, 84

parental behavior, 75

plumage color, 83

polyspermy, 113

Black-bellied firefinch, 106

Black-bellied seedcracker (Pyrenestes ostrinus), 103

Blastophaga, 124

Bock, Walter J., viii

Brain evolution, 56-57, 58

Buchnera, 233

Bush, Guy, 92, 163, 177

Buttercups, 84

Butterflies, 84

C

Caenorhabditis elegans, 336, 337, 341, 343

California mice (Peromyscus californicus), 75

Calkins, Jennifer D., 95-119

Catastrophic sexual transmutation hypothesis, 75

Ceratosolen, 123, 125, 126

Chalcid wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea).

See also Fig/fig-wasp mutualism

diversity, 123

phylogeny, 135-136

species generalization, 136-137

Charlesworth, Brian, 31

Chicken genome project, 95, 97, 110, 111, 112, 113

Chimpanzees, chromosomal speciation between humans and, 51-58

Chippindale, A., 33

Chitridiomycota, 337

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 338

Chlamydophila pneumoniae, 233, 235

Choanoflagellates, 336-337

Chromosomal speciation

Anopheles, 51, 60-66

avian, 105-111

colinear regions, 52-57, 59, 166

Drosophila, 58-60

humans and chimpanzees, 51-58

hybrid dysfunction models, 6, 46, 49, 50-51

models, 49-51

polyploidy and, 49-50

rearrangements, 52-57

suppressed-recombination model, 6, 46-47, 50, 51, 53, 54-57, 59-60, 63-65

Cichlid speciation

Lake Malawi. See Tropheops speciation

Lake Tanganyika, 182, 185, 187-189, 197

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Clonal evolution, 269, 270, 272

Clostridium acetobutylicum, 273

Cnidaria, 336

Cocladogenesis, 122, 124

Coevolution.

See also Fig/fig-wasp mutualism;

Inter-locus antagonistic coevolution

finer-scale, 126-129, 138

Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), 104, 110

Coluzzi, Mario, 6, 46-68

Complexity hypothesis, 270, 273-274

Conservation

of DNA sequences, 112, 294-296, 299-300, 301, 302, 342

of genes, 83

of host associations, 124

of protein interactions, 343

regulatory, 342

of variation, vii, 15

Crenarchaea, 267

Cross-sexual transfer, 74-75

Cryptic variation, 207, 214-216, 219

Cyanobacteria, 267, 270, 273

Cytochrome oxidase genes, 124, 127-129, 135, 146-153, 155

Cytogenetic cloning, 33-35

Cytonuclear conflict, 26

D

Dambroski, Hattie, 162-181

Darwin, Charles, v-vi, vii, 30, 41-42, 244, 250, 251, 268, 275

Darwin’s finches, 103, 104, 105

Daubin, Vincent, 201, 229-242

Delimitation, in avian speciation, 96, 97-101

de Queiroz, Kevin, 202, 243-263

Developmental plasticity

ancestral, 79

hypothesis, 78

and phenotypic variation, 69-87

Developmental recombination

avian, 75

bipedalism as, 76-77

cause and effect, 73

cross-sexual transfer, 74-75

gene expression consequences, 79-80

heterochrony hypothesis, 78

molecular level, 77

and parallel species pairs, 77-79, 83

plasticity hypothesis, 78

and properties of species, 83-85

reexpression of lost phenotypes, 78

reproductive isolation and, 83-85, 86

Developmental switches, 74, 76, 78

Diadema sp., 146, 148, 149-151, 156

Diagnosability, 97-98, 246, 252

Dihydro folate reductase, 333

Divergence.

See also Speciation

avian, 98, 99, 103

chimpanzees, 53-58

developmental-pathway, 83

Dobzhansky–Muller model, 5, 13

Drosophila, 15, 18, 300

genetic, 6, 14, 15, 17, 20, 24, 25, 28, 42-43, 73, 83-84, 152-155

intraspecific, 84

Malawi cichlid species, 182-197

parallel species pairs, 78

predictions, 152-155

process, 254-256

properties by stage of, 254-256

rapid, 24, 27

rates, 25, 26

recent, 91-93

reproductive isolation and, 70, 83-84, 85

sequence of events, 72-74

Directional asymmetry, 81

DNA, noncoding, 288-289, 293-294

Dobzhansky, Theodosius, vi, vii, 47-49, 85, 87, 163-164, 177, 247

Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibility, 5, 13

Dogs, bipedal, 76

Doolittle, W. Ford, 270, 275

Drosophila.

See also Mating behavior, of Drosophila

balanced polymorphisms, 297-298

bristle number trait, 290, 303

chromosomal speciation, 6, 58-60

conservation of DNA sequences, 294-296, 299-300

cytogenetic cloning, 33-35

directional asymmetry, 81

divergence, 15, 18, 300

Enhancer-of-split locus, 296, 299, 300, 312

Exelixis collection of mutations, 327

fSNP survey, 286-303

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Gene Disruption Project, 327

gene ontology categories, 318-323

genetic variation, 31, 35-41

genome sequencing, 289-298, 336

hemiclonal analysis, 6, 28-41

Hmr gene, 12, 14, 17

hybrids, 6, 13-17, 59, 107

interactomes, 343

introgression in collinear segments, 166

laboratory island population, 24-25, 27, 28, 30-42

mating behavior, 37-41, 266, 307-327

mauritana, 13-14, 18, 310

melanogaster, 13, 14, 15, 16, 28-43, 286, 287, 288-303, 337, 341, 343

neutral evolution patterns, 296

noncoding DNA, 288, 293-294

Notch signaling, 289-290, 293, 303

nuclear genome, 59

Nup96 gene, 12, 15, 16, 17

OdsH gene, 12, 14, 17

outgroup sequences, 292

peripheral nervous system development, 289-290, 293, 303

persimilis, 51, 58-60, 65, 310

phenotypic variation, 39, 286, 287, 315-317

population genetics analysis, 293

population structure, 298, 301

positive selection events, 296-297

pseudoobscura, 18-19, 51, 58-60, 65, 166, 287, 292, 293-294, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 310

quantitative trait loci, 310, 312, 323

regulatory networks, 342, 343

reproductive proteins, 112

reproductive isolation, 9, 11, 12, 13-19, 28-29, 31-32, 37-41, 59-60, 107, 311

sequence traces, 292

sexual isolation, see Sexual isolation in Drosophila

simulans, 13-14, 15, 16, 18, 286, 292, 293-294, 297, 298, 310

speciation genes, 13-17, 20, 59

suppressed-recombination model of speciation, 51

tmy gene, 18

Duplicate gene families, 17

Dwarf hamsters (Phodobus sp.), 75

E

East Pacific Barrier, 155-156

Echinometra sp., 146, 147, 149-151, 154, 156, 157, 158

Echinothrix, 156

Ecological selection

avian, 96, 102, 103, 104

phytophagous insects, 163

sea urchin, 159

Ecological speciation hypothesis, 85

Edwards, Scott V., 95-119

El Niño events, 104

Embryophyta, 338

ENCODE initiative, 344

Endosymbionts, 275-276, 280

Enterobacteriaceae, 233, 235

Environmentally induced change

avian speciation, 83

evolutionary potential, 81-83

persistence of traits, 83

Eretmodini, 185

Eretmodus cyanostictus, 185, 187, 189

Escherichia coli, 231-232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 270, 272, 273, 336, 341, 342, 343

Eubacteria, 267, 271, 272

Eucidaris sp., 146, 147, 147-149, 156

Eukaryotes

autogenous theories, 279, 280

chimeric theories, 271, 279, 280

collections, 3

compartmentalization, 268

consensus tree, 333, 334-335

diploid cells, 269

genome fusion theories, 265, 267, 268, 270-271, 273, 277-279, 280

genome sequencing, 333, 336-338, 342

horizontal gene transfer and, 268-269, 270-271, 273

nuclear pore complex, 15

nucleus, 268-269, 277

ring of life, 278, 279-281

Eulemur, 218, 219

Evolution.

See also Divergence;

Human evolution;

Speciation

arms-race, 6, 20, 25, 27-28, 29, 41

clonal, 269, 270, 272

Darwinian natural selection, v-vi, 14, 70

environmentally induced change, 81-83

extrapolation from laboratory to natural populations, 41-42

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

fast-X(Z), 109-110

faster-male, 107

fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 122, 135

of laboratory-adapted populations, 29-43

laboratory model systems, 24, 27, 30-42;

see also Hemiclonal analysis

long-tailed shrew tenrecs, 214-217

male-driven, 109

modern theory of, v, vi-vii, 96, 244

multidisciplinary nature of, v

neo-Darwinian Synthesis, vi, 5, 70-71

neutral patterns, 296, 300

parallel, 77-78, 83

population variation, vii

rapid, 5-6, 15, 26, 32, 42

of similarity, 77

transcriptional, 340-342

Evolutionary significant unit (ESU), 206

Exelixis collection of mutations, 327

F

Fast-X evolution, 109-110

Feder, Jeffrey L., 92, 162-181

Fibronectins, 77

Ficus (Moraceae).

See also Fig/fig-wasp mutualism

African, 126, 130

bullenei, 131, 132-136

C2E19 alleles, 132, 134

citrifolia, 132, 134

colubrinae, 131

diversity, 121

G3pdh gene, 127-129, 132, 135

glabrata, 131

Indo-Australian, 124, 126, 130

lutea, 130

maxima, 131

near-trigonata, 131, 132-136

neotropical (Panamanian), 127, 128, 130, 132-136

obtusifolia, 131

perforata, 131

Pharmacosycea, 123, 127, 131

pollinators associated with, 126, 128

popenoei, 131, 132-136

Tpi gene, 127-129, 132

Urostigma, 124, 126, 127, 131, 132-136

Fig/fig-wasp mutualism

allochronic model, 136

allopatric model, 136

cocladogenesis, 122, 124

coevolutionary history, 123-126, 137

conservation of host associations, 124

cytochrome oxidase data, 124, 127-129, 135

description of, 91-92, 121-122

evolutionary dynamics, 122, 135

finer-scale coevolution, 126-129, 138

fitness, 138

gene flows, 133, 135, 136, 138

host colonization, 122

host sharing, 129-131, 136-138

host switching, 124, 125, 131, 137

hybridization, 122, 123, 126, 129, 131, 132-137, 138

introgression in neotropical figs, 122-123, 126, 129, 131, 132-136, 137, 138

isolation models, 132-135

molecular phylogenetic studies, 124, 126-129, 130-131

morphological studies, 122, 123-124, 137

one-to-one rule, 129-130, 136, 137, 138

phylogenies, 122, 124-125, 128, 131, 137

population genetic studies, 132-136, 137

strict-sense cospeciation hypothesis, 120, 122, 123-124, 126-129, 131, 136, 138

sympatric model, 136

Filchak, Kenneth E., 162-181

Fish, migrant, 84

Fisher, R. A., vi, 85

Fitness.

See also Reproductive isolation

in birds, 107

defined, 70

in fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 138

genetic variation and, 33, 41

in hybrids, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13-17, 50, 51, 107

measuring variation in, 29, 32, 36

phenotypic variation and, 73

and rate of genetic divergence, 25

reproductive behavior and, 9, 11, 12, 13-17, 28-29, 31-32, 37-41

underdominance, 17, 50, 51

Flycatchers (Ficedula sp.), 104, 110

Forbes, Andrew, 162-181

Friberg, Urban, 24-45

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Functional SNPs (fSNPs) identification

association mapping, 287, 288, 302

balanced polymorphisms and, 297-298, 300, 301

conserved sequences and, 294-296, 299-300, 301, 302

in Drosophila, 286, 289-303

graphical sliding-window tests, 289, 293, 294, 300

in silico functional annotation, 301-302

neutral evolution patterns and, 296, 300

outgroup sequences, 292

and phenotypic variation, 286, 289

population structure and, 298, 301, 302

positive selection events and, 296-297, 300, 301-302

promoter-reporter assays, 302

G

Gamete recognition proteins, 111-112

Gammaproteobacteria, 236, 237, 278

Gene acquisition, 238-240

Gene duplication, 343

Gene expression

developmental recombination and, 79-80

divergence, 83-84

profiling, 341

regulation, 342, 343

Gene flows, 6, 164.

See also Horizontal/lateral gene transfer

cichlids, 182, 183, 191, 193, 197

fig/fig-wasp mutualism and, 133, 135, 136, 138

sea urchin speciation, 149, 156

Gene fusion, 333

Gene ontology categories, 318-323

Gene replacement, 234, 269

Gene transcription, 82

Gene transfer.

See also Horizontal/lateral gene transfer

Gene trees

avian, 98-101

horizontal gene transfer, 269, 275-277

nuclear vs. mitochondrial, 101, 135

Genealogical congruence, 99-100, 252

Genera, defined, 250

Genetic accommodation, 7, 69, 73, 75, 80-81, 83

Genetic assimilation, 80

Genetic clustering, 97, 147, 150, 151-152

Genetic distance, 11, 83, 152, 272

Genetic drift, 10, 20, 25, 50, 133

Genetic hitchhiking, 110

Genetic incompatibilities, 95, 96, 97, 107.

See also Reproductive isolation

Genetic studies, potential of, 85-87

Genetic variation

balancer chromosomes for measuring, 29, 33, 35

Drosophila, 31, 35-41

epistatic interactions, 19, 35, 36, 310, 311

hemiclone analysis of, 6, 24-25, 28, 29-30, 35-36, 37-41

intersexual arms race, 27-28, 29, 37-41

in mating behavior, 266, 309, 311-312, 323, 324-326

for net fitness, 33, 41

future of studies of, 85-87

laboratory model system, 24-25, 27, 28

responsiveness to, 73

Genome

ascomycete, 342

chicken genome project, 95, 97, 110, 111, 112, 113

choanoflagellate project, 336-337

cohesion in bacteria, 233-234, 235

comparative sequencing, 299, 303

Drosophila fSNPs, 289-303

eukaryote sequencing, 333, 336-338

functional annotation, 286, 289, 291, 299, 301-303, 340, 341-342, 344

fungi, 337

fusion theories, 265, 267, 268, 270-271, 273, 277-279, 280

human, 3, 287-289, 337, 344

innovation and evolution rates, 274-275

metazoa, 336-337

plantae, 338

prokaryote evolution, 269, 270, 274-275

protistan projects, 333

size, 230

whole-genome analysis, 270, 273-274, 276-279, 333

Genomic imprinting, 26

Genotyping, 287, 288

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Geographic speciation.

See also Allopatric speciation;

Phylogeographic patterns

Malagasy vertebrates, 212-217

Geospiza fortis, 104

Geospiza scandens, 104

Gibbons, 54

Gibson, J., 33

Gilbert, M. Thomas P., 91, 120-142

Glycophorins, 55

Goat, bipedal, 76

Goodman, Steven M., 203-228

Gorillas, 51

Green algae, 338

Greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides), 102

Ground finches (Geospiza), 104-105

Guppies, 32

Gymnosperms, 49

H

Habitat-dependent selection, 103, 104

Haldane, J. B. S., vi, 85

Haldane’s rule, 10, 17, 105, 107-109, 110

Haliotis, 28

Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, 278

Hanley, Carol, 203-228

Haplochromini, 185

HapMap project, 287

HapSTR loci, 93, 184-185, 186, 187, 196-197

Harshman, Larry, 31

Harvard University, viii, 3, 4

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), 165, 176

Heckman, Kellie L., 203-228

Heinsohn, Stefanie L., 307-331

Heliocidaris sp., 146, 147, 151-152, 158

Hemicentrotus, 146

Hemiclonal analysis

cytogenetic cloning to construct hemiclones, 33-35

Drosophila, 6, 28-41

of inter-locus antagonistic coevolution, 24, 28-29, 37-42

interpretation of results, 41-42

laboratory island population, 24, 30-32

measuring genetic variation, 6, 24-25, 28, 29-30, 35-36, 37-41

measuring net selection gradient on standing phenotypic variation, 6, 25, 29, 36

Herbold, Craig W., 267-285

Hermaphrodites, 49-50

Herre, Edward Allen, 91, 120-142

Heterochrony, 78

Hey, Jody, 92-93, 182-200

Hmr gene, 12, 14, 17

HNTW protein, 111

Homeobox genes, 14

Homo habilis, 57

Homoplasy, 83, 344

Hood, Leroy, 332

Horizontal/lateral gene transfer

in bacteria, 201-202, 229-240, 270-273

barrier to, 234-235

base composition analysis, 231-232, 272

complexity hypothesis, 270, 273-274

defining species based on, 236-238

determinants of, 234-236, 274

Drosophila, 6, 13-17, 59, 107

and eukaryote origins, 268-269, 270-271, 273

evidence of, 270-273

exchange-community boundaries, 274

frequency of, 273-274

gene replacement, 234, 269

genome cohesion and, 233-234, 235

incidence among single-copy genes, 238, 238

informational vs. operational genes, 270-272, 273-274, 277, 281

molecular mechanisms, 273

ortholog phylogenies, 234

phylogenetic disruption by, 231-232, 233-234, 237, 238

population size of exchange groups, 274-275

prokaryotic evolution and, 268, 269-275

and rate of genome innovation and evolution, 274-275

and tree-of-life reconstruction, 269, 275-277

speciation attributable to, 238-240

whole-genome analysis, 270, 273-274, 276-279, 333

Host colonization, 122

Host sharing, 129-131, 136-138

Host switching, 124, 125, 131, 137

House finch, 98

Hudson–Kreitman–Aguade tests, 12

Human evolution

bipedal locomotion, 76-77

brain, 56-57, 58

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

chimpanzee divergence, 53-58

chromosomal speciation, 51-58

nucleotide differentiation, 52, 54, 55-56

rearranged vs. colinear chromosomes, 52-57

Human genome, 3, 287-289, 337

Hybrids and hybridization

Anopheles, 65

avian, 102, 104, 105, 107-109, 110-111

backcrosses, 12-13, 14, 19, 59

chromosomal speciation, 6, 46, 49, 50-51

cichlids, 183

common boundaries, 52

in fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 122, 123, 126, 129, 131, 132-137, 138

fitness, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13-17, 50, 51, 107

4-sim hybrid sterility system, 15-16

Haldane’s rule, 10, 17, 105, 107-109, 110

introgression, 164

inviability, 5, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 59, 107

lethal genes, 12-13, 15

male courtship dysfunction, 59

male sterility, 5, 12, 13-20, 27, 49, 59, 107

sea urchins, 158

segregation distortion, 18-20

sex ratio distortion, 18, 19, 20

and species concepts, 246

I

Indigobirds (Vidua), 104-105

Informational genes, 270-272, 273-274, 277, 281

Insects.

See also Drosophila;

Rhagoletis

directional asymmetry, 81

preisolation phenotypic divergence, 84

virtual collections, 4

Inter-locus antagonistic coevolution

adaptive allelic replacement, 25-26

in allopatry, 26, 27, 28

defined, 25-26

divergence rate, 26

hemiclonal analysis, 24, 28-29, 37-41

intergenomic conflict, 26-28

intragenomic, 26

laboratory model system, 24-25, 27, 28

molecular studies, 24, 27-28

Interactomes, 343

Intergenomic conflict, 26-28

intersexual arms race, 27-28, 29, 37-41

Intragenomic events, 17, 26

Intraspecific niche polymorphisms, 103

Introgression

and adaptive divergence, 164

in collinear segments, 166

in hybrids, 164

in neotropical figs, 122-123, 126, 129, 131, 132-136, 137, 138

Island populations, 10, 24-25, 27, 28, 30-42, 83

Isolation-with-migration model, cichlid speciation, 182, 183-193

J

Japanese quail (Corturnix japonix), 112, 114

Jennings, W. Bryan, 95-119

K

Kalosyce, 124

Kangaroos, 76

Karanth, K. Praveen, 203-228

Kenyanthropus platyops, 53

Kingan, Sarah B., 95-119

Klebsiella pneumonia, 232

L

Laboratory island populations, 24-25, 27, 28, 30-42

Lake, James A., 265, 267-285

Lake whitefish (Coregonus), 78

Lampreys (Lampetra), 78

Large X(Z)-effect, 105, 109

Late Cretaceous period, 123

Lateral gene transfer. See Horizontal/lateral gene transfer

Learning, avian song, 96, 103, 104-105

Lepilemur, 218

Lerat, Emmanuelle, 201, 229-242

Lessios, H. A., 143-161

Lethal genes, 12-13, 15

Leung, Brian, 162-181

Lew, Timothy A., 24-45

Linder, Jodell E., 24-45

Linkage disequilibrium, 287

Linkage mapping, 288

Linnaeus, Carolus, 244, 258-259

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Little greenbul (Andropodus virens), 103

Long, Anthony D., 265, 286-306

Long-tailed finches (Poephila acuticauda/hecki), 98

Long-tailed shrew tenrecs (Microgale sp.), 214-217

Lycophytes, 338

Lyman, Richard F., 307-331

lysin gene, 28, 112

Lytechnius sp., 146, 147-149, 154-155

M

Macaques, 76

Macdonald, Stuart J., 265, 286-306

Machado, Carlos A., 91, 120-142

Mackay, Trudy F. C., 266, 307-331

Madagascar.

See also Malagasy vertebrates

biodiversity, 204-205

classification problems, 208

conservation priorities, 206

field inventory program, 207-208

Maize evolution, 75

Malagasy vertebrates

cryptic variation, 207, 214-216, 219

evolutionary patterns, 214-217

geographic patterns, 212-217

long-tailed shrew tenrecs, 214-217

mouse lemurs, 217-223

plated lizards, 209-211

rate of discovery, 205-206

reciprocal monophyly, 209, 211, 214, 218

species diversity, 207-223

study approach, 207-223

sympatry, 214, 216, 220

taxonomy, 209-211

temporal dimension of diversification, 212, 217-223

trident bats, 212-214

Malaria, 51.

See also Anopheles

Malignant melanoma, 12-13

Marginal conditions, adaptation to, 63-64

Mating behavior

assortative, 156, 311

avian cryptic mate choice, 102, 104, 106, 111-113

copulation latency, 311-327

courtship latency and intensity, 313

diurnal vs. nocturnal species, 219

of Drosophila, 37-41, 266, 307-327

and fitness, 9, 11, 12, 13-17, 28-29, 31-32, 37-41

genes affecting, 266, 309, 311-312, 323, 324-326

male courtship dysfunction, 59

microarray data analysis, 314-315

phenotypic response, 315-317

quantitative genetic analysis, 313

remating, 37-41

and reproductive isolation, 26-27, 38-42

and sexual isolation, 307-327

transcriptional profiling, 313, 317-323, 324-326

Mayr, Ernst

allopatric model, 9-10, 24, 143, 163, 177

background, viii

biological species concept, 9, 20, 69, 85, 163, 201, 204, 244-245, 246, 247, 251, 258-261

contributions, v, vi, vii-viii, 5, 9-10, 20-21, 24, 49, 87, 91, 96, 261

evolutionary animations, 144

framework for studying speciation, 163, 203-204, 205

sea urchin studies, 92, 143, 145, 155, 156-157, 159

publications, viii

on reproductive isolation in allopatry, 9-10

on sexual isolation, 308

McDonald–Kreitman test, 12, 17

Medina, Mónica, 332-349

Meiotic drive, 17-18, 26, 71

Mendel, Gregor, vii

Mendelian theory, vi

Metabolomes, 343-344

Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, 271

Methanococcus janaschii, 270-271, 273

Methanosarcina mazei Goe1, 278

Methanogens, 270, 271, 272

Microarray data analysis, 314-315, 340

Microhabitat partitioning, 220

Migration rates, cichlids, 190-193

Mimicry, 105, 106

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), 65, 98

cytochrome b gene, 209-211, 218

cytochrome oxidase I genes, 146-153, 155

cytochrome oxidase II genes, 218

gene trees, 99-101, 135

ND2 gene, 214

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, 244, 247, 250

Moehring, Amanda J., 307-331

Molecular phylogenies

applications, 144-145

combinatorial analysis, 279

concatenated gene sequences, 277

conditioned reconstruction, 265, 275-281

distance-based methods, 276

fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 122, 124-125, 126-129, 130-131, 135-136, 137

horizontal gene transfer and, 231-232, 233-234, 237, 238

metazoan, 336-337, 341

molecular clock calibrations, 144, 147

mouse lemurs, 218

ortholog sets, 234, 277, 342

parsimonious analysis, 276-277, 281

plated lizards (Zonosaurus sp.), 209-211

sea urchins, 92, 143, 144, 146, 147-156, 157, 159

whole-genome analysis, 270, 273-274, 276-277

Molecular research

avian speciation, 95, 96

inter-locus antagonistic coevolution, 24, 27-28

progress of, 144

Mollusca, 336

Monophyly, 98, 123, 135, 246, 248, 252, 253

Monstera, 74

Morgan, Theodore J., 307-331

Morphological evolution, 343

fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 122, 123-124, 137

songbirds, 99, 101, 103, 104

Morrow, Edward H., 24-45

Mosquitoes. See Anopheles

Mouse lemurs (Microcebus)

acoustic signaling, 219-220

berthae, 221, 222

hybridization, 220

mate choice mechanisms, 219-220

microhabitat partitioning, 220

molecular phylogeny, 218

morphometric distinctiveness, 221

murinus, 217, 220, 223

myoxinus, 221, 222

number of recognized species, 217-218, 220

olfactory and hormonal signals, 219

ravelobensis, 220, 221, 222, 223

rufus, 217, 218, 222

sympatry, 220

temporal origins, 218-219

torpor patterns, 220, 223-224

mRNA, 268, 343

Mus musculus (mouse), 337

Mutation rates, cichlids, 186-187, 189, 196-197

Mutualisms

environmental factors, 82

long-term stability, 121

plant–pollinator, 121;

see also Fig/fig-wasp mutualism

N

Natural selection.

See also Fitness

to abiotic factors, 17

to biotic factors, 17, 25

cichlids, 183, 197

defining, 70-72

in divergence of speciation genes, 14, 15, 17, 20, 28, 42-43

parallel evolution by, 77

phenotypic vs. genetic definition of, 71-72

phylogeographic breaks in mtDNA, 101

and species concept, 248

Neighbor species, 146, 147, 149, 150

Neurospora crassa, 337

New York Botanical Garden, 3

North Carolina II breeding design, 35

Notch signaling, 289-290, 293, 303

Np96 protein, 17

Nuclear DNA (nDNA), 98

Nuclear gene trees, 101, 135

Nuclear pore complex, 15

Nuclearid amoeba, 337

Nucleoporin genes, 12, 15

Nucleoporin proteins, 15

Nucleotide differentiation, 52, 54, 55-56

Nucleotide substitution, nonsynonymous/synonymous ratios, 14, 52, 54, 56, 65

Nup96 gene, 12, 15, 16, 17

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

O

Ochman, Howard, 201, 229-242, 265

OdsH gene, 12, 14, 17

Old World monkeys, 54

Olson, Link E., 203-228

Ontogeny, 74, 78, 86

Operational genes, 270-272, 273-274, 277, 281

Opisthokonta, 333, 337, 342

Orangutans, 51, 54, 57-58, 76

Oreosycea, 124

Orr, Allen, 5, 9-23

Orrorin tugenensis, 53

Ortholog phylogenies, 234

Oryza sativa, 338

P

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus), 78

Palumbi, Stephen R., 143-161

Parallel evolution, 77-78, 83.

See also Coevolution;

Mutualism

Parallel species pairs, 77-79, 83

Parapatric speciation, 102

Paraphyly, 99, 209, 218

Parental care, 74-75

Parthenogenesis, 50

Partridge, Linda, 31

Pegoscapus sp., 127

Periodical cicadas (Magicicada sp.), 78-79

Phenotypic variation.

See also Developmental recombination

accommodation, 76

adaptation as, 73-74

arms races and, 27

developmental plasticity and, 69-87

Drosophila, 39, 286, 287, 315-317

fitness effect, 73

fSNPs and, 286, 289

genetic component, 7, 69, 71, 73, 80-81

levels and net selection gradients, 29, 33, 36, 39-41

mating behavior and, 315-317

measuring, 6, 25, 29, 35, 36

and natural selection, 7, 71-72, 286, 289

net selection gradient on, 6, 25, 29, 36

origins of, 70, 289

and reproductive isolation, 83-85, 86

reproductive traits, 26, 27

SNPs, see Functional SNPs

Phytogenetic footprinting, 342

Phylogenetic species concept (PSC), 98, 99, 101

Phylogeographic patterns

Anopheles, 60, 61, 63

avian, 101-103, 105, 113

cichlids, 193

sea urchins, 143-159

shrew tenrecs, 214-215

Physcomitrella patens, 338

Pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), 104, 110

Placozoa, 336

Plants

cross-sexual transfer in, 75

genome sequencing, 338

polyploidy, 49

RNA phylogeny, 338

species diversity, 338

virtual collections, 3-4

Plasmodium sp., 51, 336

Plated lizards, 209-211

Platyfish, 12-13

Platyhelmintha, 336

Platyscapa, 124

Poephilia finches, 98-99

Polymorphisms

balanced, 297-298, 300, 301

and fSNPs, 297-298, 300, 301

Polyphyly, 99

Polyploidy, 49-50

Polyspermy, 28

Polytypic speciation, 144, 145, 147, 149, 152, 155

Population genetics, vii, 5

Drosophila, 293

fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 132-136, 137

Malawi cichlid species, 182-197

properties emphasized by, 246

Populus tricocarpa, 338

Porifera, 336

Primates, 76, 112, 341

Prokaryotes

alkaliphilic, 273

genome evolution, 269, 270, 274-275

genome projects, 333, 336

horizontal gene transfer, 268, 269-275

phylogenetic reconstruction, 267, 269, 273-274

population size, 274-275

tree of life, 275-275

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Prolactin, 75

Promoter-reporter assays, 302

Protamines, 55

Protein–protein interactions, 340, 342, 343

Proteins, developmental recombination, 77

Proteobacterium, 267, 279

Proteomes, 343

Pyrimidine synthesis pathway, 333

Pyrococcus sp., 272

Q

Quantitative trait loci, 310, 312, 323

R

Rain forests, slash-and-burn agriculture, 61, 63

Ranivo, Julie, 203-228

Raselimanana, Achille P., 203-228

Rasoloarison, Rodin, 203-228

Rattus norvegicus (rat), 337

Receptor tyrosine kinase genes, 12, 13

Reciprocal monophyly, 98, 99, 147, 209, 211, 214, 218

Regulatory networks, 338-339, 342-343

Reinforcement

in avian speciation, 95, 96, 97, 110-111

in sea urchin speciation, 158

Reproductive character displacement, 103-104

Reproductive genes, 111-113

Reproductive isolation.

See also Fitness;

Speciation

in allopatric populations, 5, 9-10, 11, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 37-41, 97, 136, 163

in Anopheles, 60, 62, 63, 64-65

in avian populations, 84, 95, 97, 101-105, 106, 107, 110-111

chromosomal rearrangements and, 51

developmental recombination and, 83-85, 86

and divergence, 70, 83-84, 85

in Drosophila, 9, 11, 12, 13-20, 28-29, 31-32, 37-41, 59-60, 107, 311

body size and, 84-85

ecological, 11

female resistance to male-induced harm, 27, 37-41

female survival, fecundity, and fertility, 37-41

fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 132-135

gamete reproductive proteins and, 92

genetic basis, 5, 9-21, 85-86;

see also Speciation genes

genetic distance and, 11

hybrid disfunction models, 13-20, 27, 46, 49, 50-51

intergenomic conflict, 26

inter-locus antagonistic coevolution and, 24-43

intersexual conflict, 27

intragenomic conflicts, 6, 17-20, 26

intrasexual conflict, 26, 28-29

inviability, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17

male sterility, 5, 12, 13-20

mating behavior and, 26-27, 38-42

meiotic drive theory of, 17-18, 20

and parallel species pairs, 77, 78

as pleiotropic product of genetic divergence, 24, 27

postzygotic, 10, 11, 12, 13-18, 20, 27, 107, 110

prezygotic, 12, 27, 50, 102, 103, 110, 111, 311

rate, 10, 11

sea urchins, 150-151, 156-157, 159

sex ratio distortion, 18, 19

and species concepts, 243, 245, 246, 252, 258, 259-260

in sympatry, 10, 11, 204

in Xiphophorus, 10, 12, 13

Reproductive proteins, 28, 111-113

arms-race evolution, 113

bindin evolution, 143, 146-147, 149-152, 153-155, 156, 157-159

Rhagoletis cingulata, 176

Rhagoletis electromorpha, 168-170, 175, 176

Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot fly) sibling species complex

allochronic isolation, 176

allopatric speciation, 92, 165, 175, 178

apple host, 165

biogeography, 162-179

chromosomal speciation, 162-163, 165, 166-167, 168-176

diapause traits, 162, 165, 166, 176

DNA sequencing, 165, 166-167, 169, 176

ecological adaptation, 164-165, 173, 177

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

gene duplication and deletion hypothesis, 175-176

gene flows, 92, 165, 166-167, 174, 175, 178

gene trees, 162-163, 165, 166-167, 168-176

hawthorn host, 165, 167

host discrimination, 178

host fruiting times, 92

host plant shifting, 162, 164-165, 177, 178

hybridization, 178-179

incomplete-lineage-sorting hypothesis, 174-175

introgression from Altiplano population, 162, 163, 165, 166, 172-174, 175

isolation and introgression, 84, 172-174

Mexican-U.S. haplotype divergence, 165-166, 170, 171, 174, 176

molecular clock, 170, 171

polytene chromosome spreads, 179

relative node depths, 167, 170, 171-173, 175

reproductive isolation, 165, 166, 177-178

secondary contact, 167, 172-174, 175, 177, 178

Sierra Oriental population bridge, 176

sympatric host race formation, 92, 162-179

Rhagoletis suavis, 176

Rhagoletis tabellaria, 169

Rhizobiaceae, 233

Rhizocladus, 124

Rice, William R., 6, 24-45

Ring of life, 278, 279-281

Rivera, Maria C., 267-285

Robbins, Nancy, 91, 120-142

Rollmann, Stephanie M., 307-331

Rose, Michael, 31

rRNA phylogenies, 269, 271, 275-276, 333, 334-335, 337, 338

Rull, Juan, 162-181

Russell, Amy L., 203-228

S

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 270, 278, 336, 337, 341, 342, 343

Sahelanthropus tchadensis, 53

Salmonella sp., 233, 272

enterica, 232, 237

typhimurium, 234, 236

Sandpipers, 75

Schizosaccharomyces pombe, 201-202, 229-240

Sea urchin speciation

allopatric (groups 1 and 2), 145, 146, 147-149, 152, 153, 154-155, 156, 157

assortative mating, 156

avian speciation compared, 157

bindin evolution, 143, 146-147, 149-152, 153-155, 156, 157-159

East Pacific Barrier, 155-156

ecological selection, 159

gene flows, 149, 156

genetic clusters, 147, 150, 151-152

genetic distance, 152

hybridization, 158

Mayr’s animation of, 92, 143, 145, 155, 156-157, 159

mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I genes, 146-153, 155

molecular phylogenies, 92, 143-159

nontropical species, 145

old clades (group 4), 145, 146, 147, 148, 151-152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157

polytypic species, 145, 147, 149, 152, 155

rate of, 143-144, 150, 152, 153-155, 157, 159

regulatory networks, 342

reproductive isolation, 150-151, 156-157, 159

reinforcement in, 158

sexual arms race, 158

sister species, 146, 147, 152, 155

sympatric overlap (group 3), 143, 145-159

taxonomy, 145

tests of Mayr’s predictions, 146, 152-155

Selaginella moellenforffii, 338

Selection. See Artificial selection;

Natural selection;

Sexual selection

Seminal fluid proteins, 112

Seminogellin II (SEM2), 112

Servin, Jacqueline A., 267-285

Sex chromosomes.

See also Chromosomal speciation

and avian speciation, 105-111

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

Sex ratio distortion, 18, 19, 20

Sexual conflict

avian, 111, 112-113

Drosophila, 309

sea urchins, 158

Sexual imprinting, 96, 104-105, 106

Sexual isolation in Drosophila

among species, 309-311

genetic basis, 307, 308-312

incipient, 311-312

mating behavior and, 307-327

quantitative trait loci, 310

Sexual selection

avian, 91, 95, 96, 102, 107-109, 111-113

Simonson, Anne B., 267-285

Simpson, George Gaylord, vi, 163, 247, 248, 249

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

avian autosomes and sex chromosomes, 95, 97, 110

functional noncoding, see Functional SNPs

human genome, 287

Sister species, 146, 147, 152, 155

Sivasundar, Arjun, 92-93, 182-200

Skophammer, Ryan G., 267-285

Slash-and-burn agriculture, 61, 63

Slijper, E. J., bipedal goat, 76

Smelt (Osmerus), 78

Soarimalala, Voahangy, 203-228

Song, and avian speciation, 101-105, 109, 111

Song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), 103

Sorenson, Michael D., 95-119

Speciation.

See also Allopatric speciation;

Avian speciation;

Chromosomal speciation;

Divergence;

Reproductive isolation;

Sympatric speciation

defined, 254

diagnosability, 97-98, 99

founder effect models, 10, 20

future of genetic studies, 85-87

gene acquisition and, 238-240

genetic drift in, 10, 20

horizontal gene transfer and, 238-240

island, 10

parapatric, 46, 51, 53, 57-58

problems in, 10

process, 254-255

reinforcement and, 10

stasipatric model, 50

temporal dimension, 217-223

Speciation genes

adaptive amino acid replacement, 5

avian, 111

complementation tests, 16, 17

deficiency mapping, 14-15, 16

defined, 11

Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibility, 5, 13

dominance, 14, 17

Drosophila, 13-17, 20, 59

identifying and characterizing, 9, 12, 13-17

intergenomic conflicts, 26, 27-28

intragenomic conflicts, 6, 17-20, 26

methodological dilemma, 11-13

positive Darwinian selection in divergence of, 14, 15, 17, 20, 28, 42-43

prezygotic, 12

postzygotic, 10, 11, 12

rapidly evolving, 5-6, 17, 20, 24, 28, 55

segregation distortion, 18

Species.

See also Species problem

defined, vii-viii

delimitation, 97-111

discovered and named, 3

diversity, 121, 123, 338

as fundamental category of biological organization, 250-253, 256, 257

as taxonomic rank, 244, 251, 253, 257, 260, 261

virtual collections, 3-4

Species problem, 10

asexual organisms, 236-238, 248

biological species concept, vii, 5, 20, 47-49, 243, 245, 246, 252, 258-260

cause of, 254-256

cell analogy, 251, 258

ecological species concept, 245, 246-247, 252-253

evolutionary concept, vii, 245, 248, 251, 252

genotypic cluster species definition, 252

horizontal gene transfer, 236-238

hybrids and, 246

incompatiblitiy of concepts, 245-247

Mayr’s “biological” term and, 244-245, 246, 251, 258-261

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

metapopulation lineage concept, 243, 247-250, 254-261

modern concept, 258-261

nominalistic species concept, 260

nondimensional species concept, 260

organism analogy, 251-252, 257, 258

phenetic concept, 245, 252

phylogenetic species concepts, 245, 246, 248, 252, 253

properties associated with concepts, 202, 243-244, 246-247, 249, 252-257, 258, 258-260

recognition species concept, 252

reproductive isolation and, 243, 245, 246, 252, 258, 259-260

solution to, 256-258

subspecies, 253

unified concept, 257-258

Sperm competition, 111, 112-113

Stebbins, G. Ledyard, vi

Staphylococcus aureus, 233, 278

Streptococcus, 233

Strongylocentrotus, 146, 147, 151-152, 154

droebachiensis, 151

franciscanus, 152

nudus, 152

pallidus, 151

purpuratus, 151

Sulfolobus tokodaii, 278

Sunflowers, 51, 166

Superspecies, 144

Swanson, Willie J., 95-119

Swordtail, 12-13

Sycidium, 124, 126

Sycomorus, 126

Symbiotic relationships, 280

Sympatric speciation, 10-11

Anopheles, 64, 65

avian, 91, 96-97, 102, 103-105

by ecological specialization, 164

fig/fig-wasp mutualism, 136

host race formation, 92, 162-179

Malagasy vertebrates, 214, 216, 220

mouse lemurs, 220

partly sympatric, 46

by reinforcement, 164

and reproductive isolation, 10, 11, 204

in Rhagoletis, 162-179

sea urchins, 143, 145-159

secondary, 156

Synechocystis PCC6803, 270, 273

Systematics

all-species program, 4

basic tasks of, 163, 203-204, 205, 223

Encyclopedia of Life, 4

and evolutionary biology, 244

and future of biology, 1-4

global initiatives, 4

Internet access to collections, ix, 3-4

Linnean classification, vii, 3, 47, 244

Mayr’s contributions, v, vi, vii-viii

species role in, 244

technology, 3

Tree of Life, 4

Systems biology.

See also Biological networks

comparative studies, 332-333, 336, 339-340, 341, 342, 343, 344

evolutionary, 244, 338-340

genome projects, 333, 336-338

historical perspective, 345

overview, 339

phylogenetically based inference in, 336

research goals, 333

Standing genetic variation, measuring heritable fitness-related traits, 29

Stewart, Andrew D., 24-45

T

Taxonomy, Malagasy plated lizards, 209-211

Tellurium resistance protein, 237

Testosterone, 75

Tetrapus, 123, 127

Thermophilic bacteria, 271, 272

Thermotoga maritima, 233

Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), 77-78, 86

Thymidine synthase, 333

tmy gene, 18

Tracheloptychus sp., 209

Transcription factor genes, 12, 14, 17

Transcriptional networks, 340-342

Transcriptional profiling, 313, 317-323, 324-326

Tree of life

Ecdysozoa vs. Coelomata hypothesis, 336

eukaryote, 333, 334-335, 336

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
×

horizontal gene transfer and, 275-277

reconstruction, 275-277

Trident bats (Trianenops sp.), 212-214

Tripneustes, 146, 147, 147-149, 156

depressus, 147

gratilla, 147, 149

ventricosus, 147, 149

Tropheops (Malawi cichlid) speciation

allopatric models, 197

amplified fragment-length polymorphism markers, 183

gene exchange, 93, 193, 196

gene flows, 182, 183, 191, 193, 197

HapSTR loci, 184-185, 186, 187, 196-197

hybridization, 183

isolation-with-migration model, 182, 183-193, 196-197

migration rates, 190-193, 194

mutation rates, 186-187, 189, 193, 196-197

natural selection, 183, 197

phylogenetic history, 193

population size, 182, 190-192

rate of, 195-196

reproductive age, 187

shared variation, 183

Tanganyika outgroup divergence, 182, 185, 187-189, 197

time of divergence, 190, 191, 193, 195

Trout (Salmo), 78

Trypanosoma brucei, 63

Tze-tze fly (Glossina), 64

U

Unikonts, 333, 334-335

University of Nebraska, 31

V

Van Valen, Leigh, 248

Variety, defined, 250

Velez, Sebastian, 162-181

verl gene, 28

Vertebrates, bipedal locomotion, 74-77

Voles (Microtus sp.), 75

W

Wallace, Alfred, 30

Wang, Yong, 92-93, 182-200

West-Eberhard, Mary Jane, 6, 69-89

Wiebesia, 123, 124, 125

Wilson, Edward O., ix, 1-4

Won, Yong-Jin, 92-93, 182-200

World Health Organization, 51

Wright, Sewall, vi, 85, 247

X

Xie, Xianfa, 162-181

Xiphophorus, 12-13

Xmrk-2 gene, 12, 13, 17

Xylella fastidiosa, 278

Y

Yoder, Anne D., 201, 203-228

Z

Zea mays, 136, 338

Zebra finches, 113-114

Zebrafish (Danio rerio), 82, 337

Zonosaurus sp., 209-211

ZP3 egg coat protein, 112

Zygomycota, 337

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2005. Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11310.
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In December 2004, the National Academy of Sciences sponsored a colloquium on “Systematics and the Origin of Species” to celebrate Ernst Mayr’s 100th anniversary and to explore current knowledge concerning the origin of species. In 1942, Ernst Mayr, one of the twentieth century’s greatest scientists, published Systematics and the Origin of Species, a seminal book of the modern theory of evolution, where he advanced the significance of population variation in the understanding of evolutionary process and the origin of new species. Mayr formulated the transition from Linnaeus’s static species concept to the dynamic species concept of the modern theory of evolution and emphasized the species as a community of populations, the role of reproductive isolation, and the ecological interactions between species.

In addition to a preceding essay by Edward O. Wilson, this book includes the 16 papers presented by distinguished evolutionists at the colloquium. The papers are organized into sections covering the origins of species barriers, the processes of species divergence, the nature of species, the meaning of “species,” and genomic approaches for understanding diversity and speciation.

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