Committee Member and Staff Biographies
Robert Sinclair, Chair, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University
Dr. Sinclair received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Cambridge University in materials science. After holding research positions at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne and the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the faculty of Stanford University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, in 1977. Dr. Sinclair has received a number of awards for his research, including the Robert Lansing Hardy Gold Medal of the Metallurgical Society of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, the Eli Franklin Burton Award of the Electron Microscopy Society of America, an Alfred P. Sloan fellowship, and the Marcus E. Grossman Award of the American Society for Metals. He has also received two awards for excellence in undergraduate teaching at Stanford. He is very active in several professional societies and in the organization of symposia and workshops on electron microscopy. He has published approximately 160 refereed technical articles and contributed chapters to six books. Dr. Sinclair’s research centers on the application of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), including in situ heating, to a wide range of materials problems. TEM provides imaging of materials at the atomic level, therefore providing microstructural information necessary for the understanding of structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of materials. Dr. Sinclair’s research has included
materials of interest both to microelectronics and to magnetic data storage. In December 2002, Dr. Sinclair became the founding director of Stanford’s new Nanocharacterization Laboratory as part of the university’s Advanced Materials Initiative, which seeks to provide a set of shared research facilities that will provide top-quality instrumentation to faculty in a variety of disciplines. He is currently chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
Ani Aprahamian, Professor of Physics, University of Notre Dame
Dr. Aprahamian earned her Ph.D. in nuclear physics from Clark University in 1986 and went on to positions at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a National Synchrotron Light Source Fellow and then Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She came to the Notre Dame Physics Department in 1989. She is presently the director of the Nuclear Structure Laboratory, one of only three U.S. low-energy nuclear physics laboratories supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Aprahamian has been involved in numerous workshops and conferences, both on and off campus, and has recently become chair of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Users Group. She is an elected fellow of the American Physical Society, a reviewer for the NSF, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the American Institute of Physics. The research effort of the Nuclear Structure Laboratory is built around three accelerators and a broad program in low-energy nuclear physics. Her research centers on nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics, covering topics such as weak interactions and fundamental symmetries using positron-neutrino scattering and nuclear structure studies involving collective mode resonances and characterizations of single-particle excited states.
Arthur I. Bienenstock, Vice Provost and Dean of Research and Graduate Policy, Stanford University, and Director Emeritus, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory
Dr. Bienenstock received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in applied physics in 1962. From 1997 to 2001, while on leave from Stanford, he served as associate director for science of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). At OSTP, he concentrated on policy and interagency coordination directly related to the health of U.S. basic science, as well as other policy matters that can be informed by basic science. For the 20 years prior to his going to OSTP, Dr. Bienenstock directed the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) at the Stanford Linear
Accelerator Center, leading SSRL’s transition from a scientific project to a major facility. He has been a faculty member in Stanford’s Departments of Applied Physics and Materials Science and Engineering since 1967. He was director of the Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials at Stanford from 2002 to 2003. He has published more than 100 scientific papers in the general areas of solid-state physics, amorphous materials, and synchrotron radiation. Dr. Bienenstock has been a member of many distinguished advisory committees, including seven National Research Council (NRC) panels concerning crystallography and materials science and, most recently, the NRC Committee on Physics of the Universe. He has been a member of the Council of the American Physical Society and is a fellow of both the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
John P. Bradley, Director, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Dr. Bradley earned a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1976 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Arizona State University in 1982. He then joined the University of Washington’s Department of Astronomy, where he developed an interest in interplanetary dust particles. Dr. Bradley became a senior research scientist with McCrone Associates in Chicago and performed microscopy studies of human-made materials and stratospheric dust. Dr. Bradley served as the executive director of MVA, Inc., in Atlanta, Georgia, a privately held company that specializes in materials science consulting and research for industry and the federal government. He was also an adjunct professor of materials science and engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Dr. Bradley helped lead the team that examined the Antarctic Mars meteorite and showed its microstructure to be consistent with that of naturally occurring processes. He moved to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in July 2001 as director of the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, where he is working on preparation for the return of the first sample from a comet. In addition to setting up sample handling and nanobeam analysis facilities, he is overseeing the construction of a new kind of transmission electron microscope. Dr. Bradley is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a fellow of the Meteoritical Society and the Microbeam Analysis Society.
David R. Clarke, Professor of Materials, University of California at Santa Barbara
Dr. Clarke was chair of the Materials Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara for 7 years, having received his Ph.D. in physics from Cambridge
University in 1974. Dr. Clarke has had broad research experience both in industrial laboratories, such as the Rockwell International Science Center and the IBM Research Division at Yorktown Heights, as well as in academia. His current research centers on two areas: the development of advanced ceramic materials and the development of techniques such as piezospectroscopy to measure stresses in electronic circuits, composites, and ceramic materials. He recently stepped down as a trustee of the American Ceramic Society, where he served on numerous committees, and he has served on scientific advisory committees for the Center for Material Sciences and Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy. Dr. Clarke has been on several evaluation committees for university departments and colleges and has served on numerous industrial task forces; he served as a member of the Solid State Sciences Committee of the NRC (his term ended in June 2003). Dr. Clarke is an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering.
James W. Davenport, Senior Physicist and Director, Center for Data Intensive Computing, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Dr. Davenport’s research interests include solid-state physics and chemistry, electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids, as well as first-principles calculations on metals and alloys. As the director of a user-oriented computing center, Dr. Davenport has significant experience from the computing facility world. He has been chair of the American Physical Society’s Division of Materials Physics. His professional affiliations include membership in the American Physical Society, American Chemical Society, Materials Research Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and New York Academy of Sciences.
Francis J. DiSalvo, John A. Newman Professor of Physical Science, Cornell University
Dr. DiSalvo is director of the Cornell Center for Materials Research, one of 29 such national centers supported by the National Science Foundation. He earned his Ph.D. in applied physics in 1971 from Stanford University. He then joined the research staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories (now Lucent Technologies), where he later headed several research departments. In 1986, Dr. DiSalvo moved to Cornell’s Chemistry Department. His research interests are in the synthesis and characterization of inorganic compounds, and he currently specializes in nitrides and intermetallic materials with
novel crystal structures. Dr. DiSalvo is a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has received the APS International New Materials Prize. He is also a member of the American Chemical Society, the Materials Research Society, and the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. DiSalvo is a past member of the NRC’s National Materials Advisory Board and served on the NRC’s Solid State Sciences Committee (his term ended in June 2004).
Charles A. Evans, Jr., President, Full Wafer Analysis, Inc.
Dr. Evans is president of Full Wafer Analysis, Inc., the company that he started recently after retiring from Charles Evans and Associates, which he founded in 1978. Charles Evans and Associates specializes in materials analysis using micro-analytical techniques such as secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Before starting his own company, Dr. Evans held other positions as an analytical chemist, including that of professor of chemistry. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Society of Mass Spectrometry, and the Microbeam Analytical Society. Dr. Evans earned both his B.A. (1964) and Ph.D. (1968) in chemistry at Cornell University.
Walter P. Lowe, Professor of Physics, Howard University
Dr. Lowe received his Ph.D. in condensed-matter physics from Stanford University in 1983. He became a professor of physics at Howard University and is now director of the Howard University Beltsville Research Laboratory and director of the joint Michigan-Howard-Lucent Technologies Collaborative Access Team (MHATT-CAT), a three-institution collaboration on one of the synchrotron beam lines at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories. His primary research interests are in the use of high-brightness synchrotron and x-ray sources to study novel materials. The MHATT-CAT group, under his direction, produced one of the first sequences of real-time images of structural changes taking place on the atomic scale.
Frances M. Ross, Manager, Nanoscale Materials Analysis Department, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
Dr. Ross received her B.A. in physics and Ph.D. in materials science from Cambridge University in 1985 and 1989, respectively. She joined AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1990 as a postdoctoral member of the technical staff, where she made
use of in situ electron microscopy techniques to study silicon oxidation and the properties of dislocations in SiGe devices. From 1992 to 1997, she worked as a staff scientist at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where she used in situ microscopy to observe anodic etching of silicon and the motion of domain walls in ferro-electrics, as well as coordinating users of the High Resolution and In Situ facilities. In 1997, Dr. Ross joined IBM as a research staff member and in 2000 became manager of the Nanoscale Materials Analysis Department. She is currently studying growth processes in semiconductors, and silicides and at liquid/solid interfaces using ultra-high-vacuum and liquid-cell microscopy. In 1999 she received the United Kingdom’s Institute of Physics (IOP) Charles Vernon Boys Medal for her contributions to real-time visualization of materials growth and processing, and in 2000 she was named Outstanding Young Investigator by the Materials Research Society. She is a fellow of the APS and the IOP, an author or co-author of more than 40 journal articles, and holds 3 patents.
David J. Smith, Regents’ Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University
Dr. Smith is currently director of the John M. Cowley Center for High Resolution Electron Microscopy at Arizona State University. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Melbourne, Australia, in 1978, and his D.Sc. from the same institution in 1988. He served as the director of the Cambridge University High Resolution Electron Microscope from 1980 to 1984 and director of the NSF National User Facility for High Resolution Electron Microscopy at Arizona State from 1991 to 1996. His long-term research interests have centered on the development and applications of atomic-resolution electron microscopy, with recent applications directed toward magnetic materials and semiconductors. Dr. Smith is the author or co-author of 15 book chapters and more than 400 refereed journal publications. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the U.K. Institute of Physics, and he has received several awards for teaching, including the Burlington Northern Faculty Achievement Award.
John M. Soures, Manager, National Laser Users’ Facility, University of Rochester
Dr. Soures received his Ph.D. in mechanical and aerospace sciences from the University of Rochester in 1970. He has served as a consultant for the
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Eastman Kodak Company and other national laboratories. He holds three patents on laser control systems. Dr. Soures has been a member of the DOE’s Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee and has worked with the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics as a budget advisory group member, a panelist on the science policy group, and as a coordinator for the external users group, before assuming his current role as the manager for the National Laser Users’ Facility in 1996. He has been a reviewer for both NSF and DOE and a referee for numerous scientific journals. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and received the 1993 Award for Excellence in Plasma Physics Research. Dr. Soures’s research interests are in inertial confinement fusion using high-power, well-focused lasers.
Leonard D. Spicer, University Distinguished Service Professor and Professor of Biochemistry and Radiology, Duke University
Dr. Spicer is founding director of the university-wide high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Center at Duke University. He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Yale University in 1968 and served as associate graduate school dean at the University of Utah for several years. He has been chair of Duke’s Academic Council, as well as serving on numerous university advisory boards, including the Committee on Resources and the Academic Priorities Committee. Dr. Spicer currently chairs the User’s Advisory Committee and serves on the Science Advisory Committee for the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of the Department of Energy. He has also served on a number of National Institutes of Health, NSF, and DOE review panels. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has received the Duke University Award for Merit. Dr. Spicer has published more than 100 research papers in the areas of physical chemistry, biochemistry, and biophysics. His research is focused on structural biology and molecular dynamics associated with biological function in protein assemblies and biomacromolecular machines.
Donald M. Tennant, Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff, New Jersey Nanotechnology Consortium and Lucent Technologies
Dr. Tennant is a 25-year veteran of the Research Division of Bell Laboratories. He is a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff and the acting technical manager for the Advanced Lithography Group of the New Jersey Nanotechnology Consortium (NJNC). The NJNC is a Lucent-owned LLC formed in 2002 after the spin-off of Lucent’s Microelectronics Business (now Agere Systems). The NJNC was formed
within the Bell Labs research division to engage commercial enterprises as well as universities, federal research agencies, and national laboratories in nanotechnology research and solutions. He has built and managed electron-beam lithography facilities at both the Holmdel and Murray Hill, New Jersey, locations. He has been chair of the Gordon Research Conference on Nanofabrication, was the 1996 conference chair of the International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication and is its permanent financial trustee. Dr. Tennant is widely recognized for his broad materials fabrication expertise. He was one of six selected U.S. representatives to the first U.S.-Korea joint Nanofabrication Workshop in 2002. He is the current chairman-elect of the Nanometer Science and Technology Division of the American Vacuum Society. He has served on several DOE review panels for nanoscale research centers. Dr. Tennant’s research expertise is in the area of materials fabrication, focusing on the use of electron-beam lithography in applications as diverse as molecular electronics, optoelectronics, nanotransistors, and microfocusing Fresnel optics for x-ray applications. He has authored or co-authored more than 190 articles in these fields and has been awarded 8 patents. He has had many years of experience dealing with the problems of operating a relatively expensive facility, getting sufficient support, and working with users.
Donald C. Shapero, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy
Dr. Shapero received a B.S. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1964 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1970. His thesis addressed the asymptotic behavior of relativistic quantum field theories. After receiving the Ph.D., he became a Thomas J. Watson Postdoctoral Fellow at IBM. He subsequently became an assistant professor at American University, later moving to Catholic University and then joining the staff of the National Research Council in 1975. Dr. Shapero took a leave of absence from the NRC in 1978 to serve as the first executive director of the Energy Research Advisory Board at the Department of Energy. He returned to the NRC in 1979 to serve as special assistant to the president of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1982, he started the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA). As BPA director, he has played a key role in many NRC studies, including the two most recent surveys of physics and the two most recent surveys of astronomy and astrophysics. He is a
member of the American Physical Society, the American Astronomical Society, and the International Astronomical Union. He has published research articles in refereed journals in high-energy physics, condensed-matter physics, and environmental science.
Timothy I. Meyer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy
Dr. Meyer is a program officer at the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. He received a Notable Achievement Award from the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences in 2003 and a Distinguished Service Award from the National Academies in 2004. Dr. Meyer joined the NRC staff in 2002 after earning his Ph.D. in experimental particle physics from Stanford University. His doctoral thesis concerned the time evolution of the B meson in the BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. His work also focused on radiation monitoring and protection of silicon-based particle detectors. During his time at Stanford, Dr. Meyer received both the Paul Kirkpatrick and the Centennial Teaching awards for his work as an instructor of undergraduates. He is a member of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Materials Research Society, and Phi Beta Kappa.