National Academies Press: OpenBook

Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science (2005)

Chapter:Appendix D Bioterrorism Agents

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D Bioterrorism Agents." National Research Council. 2005. Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11366.
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Appendix D
Bioterrorism Agents

Bacterial and Viral Threat Agents Associated with Animals

Category A Diseases and Agents

Zoonotic

Foot-and-mouth disease (Picorna aphthovirus)

No

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Yes

Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)

No

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Yes

Smallpox (Variola major)

No

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Yes

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Machupo viruses)

No

Category B Diseases and Agents

Zoonotic

Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)

Yes

Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens

No

Food safety threats (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella)

Yes

Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)

Yes

Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)

Yes

Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

Yes

Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

Yes

Ricin toxin

No

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

No

Typhus fever (Rikettsia prowazekii)

No

Viral encephalitis (VEE, EEE, and WEE viruses)

Yes

Water threats (Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum)

Yes

SOURCE: NRC 2002a, 2003a.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D Bioterrorism Agents." National Research Council. 2005. Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11366.
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High-Consequence Livestock Pathogens and Toxins

USDA-Only Agents and Toxinsa

USDA-HHS Overlap Agents and Toxinsb

African horse sickness virus

Bacillus anthracis

African swine fever virus

Botulinum neurotoxin

Akabane virus

Botulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium

Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic)

Brucella abortus

Bluetongue virus (exotic)

Brucella melitensis

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent

Brucella suis

Camel pox virus

Burkholderia mallei

Classical swine fever virus

Burkolderia pseudonallei

Cowdria ruminantium (Heartwater)

Clostridium botulinum

Foot-and-mouth disease virus

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin

Goat pox virus

Coccidioides immitis

Japanese encephalitis virus

Coxiella burnetii

Lumpy skin disease virus

Eastern equine encephalitis virus

Malignant catarrhal fever virus (exotic)

Franscisella tulanrensis

Menangle virus

Hendra virus

Mycoplasma capricolum/M.38/

Nipah virus

M.mycoides capri (contagious caprine—pleuropneumonia)

 

Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia)

Rift Valley fever virus

Newcastle disease virus (VVND)

Shigatoxin

Peste des petits ruminants virus

Staphylococcus enterotoxins

Rinderpest virus

T-2 toxin

Sheep pox virus

Venezulan equine encephalitis virus

Swine vesicular disease virus

 

Vesicular stomatitis virus (exotic)

 

aSelect agents and toxins that are only the USDA list of high-consequence livestock pathogens and toxins.

bSelect agents and toxins that are on the USDA list of high-consequence livestock pathogens and toxins and on the HHS list of select agents and toxins.

SOURCE: USDA-APHIS

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D Bioterrorism Agents." National Research Council. 2005. Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11366.
×
Page191
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D Bioterrorism Agents." National Research Council. 2005. Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11366.
×
Page192
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Research in veterinary science is critical for the health and well-being of animals, including humans. Food safety, emerging infectious diseases, the development of new therapies, and the possibility of bioterrorism are examples of issues addressed by veterinary science that have an impact on both human and animal health. However, there is a lack of scientists engaged in veterinary research. Too few veterinarians pursue research careers, and there is a shortage of facilities and funding for conducting research. This report identifies questions and issues that veterinary research can help to address, and discusses the scientific expertise and infrastructure needed to meet the most critical research needs. The report finds that there is an urgent need to provide adequate resources for investigators, training programs, and facilities involved in veterinary research.

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